Coordinates: 22°54′40″S 43°12′20″W / 22.91111°S 43.20556°W / -22.91111; -43.20556

Kingdom of Ebenthal

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Kingdom of Ebenthal
Reino de Ebental (Portuguese)
Motto: Ubique Patriae Memor
"Anywhere, I have the fatherland in memory"
Anthem: Horizontes Distantes
"Far Horizons"
Location of Ebenthal in green.
Location of Ebenthal in green.
Capital
and largest city
Saxenfurt
22°54′40″S 43°12′20″W / 22.91111°S 43.20556°W / -22.91111; -43.20556
Official languages
Recognized regional languages
Ethnic groups
(2024)
Religion
(2024)
Demonym(s)Ebenthaler
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Arthur II
Bernardo Barcelos
LegislatureKonkrëse
House of Aristocrats
House of Councillors
Independence 
30 January 2014
• Declared
11 August 2014
28 January 2015
8 October 2015
27 September 2019
29 December 2019
7 April 2020
18 February 2024
Area
• Total
10.9 km2 (4.2 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0.84%
Population
• 2024 estimate
131 (inhabitants)
• Census
233 (citizens)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
𝕮11.762 million
• Per capita
𝕮50,482
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
𝕮8.520 million
• Per capita
𝕮36,566
Gini (2024)Negative increase 37.6
medium · 95th
HDI (2024) 0.915
very high · 25th
CurrencyConto (𝕮)a (EMC)
Time zoneUTC−3 (BRT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−2 (DST is not observed.)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+55
MicrocodeEB
IMSO 1 codeEBN
Internet TLD.eb
  1. The Conto is the country's domestic currency used in all official transactions within Ebenthal, but nevertheless the Brazilian Real is widely used.
  2. Official website

Ebenthal, officially the Kingdom of Ebenthal (Portuguese: Reino de Ebental; Portuguese pronunciation:ˈebenta͡ʊ), is a small self-declared microstate, commonly known as a micronation, in South America. The country is made up of several enclaves mostly surrounded by Brazil and also by Argentina. Additionally, the country borders the Atlantic ocean to the east. At 10.9 square kilometers (4.9 square miles), Ebenthal has 233 citizens, 131 of which are residents. Its territory is divided into 8 municipalities, 2 special autonomous regions and 1 condominium. The country's capital and most populated settlement is Saxenfurt. Portuguese is the national and one of the country's two official languages along with English. Hunsrik, Spanish and Arabic are regionally recognized languages, while Swedish is recognized as a minority language. The current Constitution of Ebenthal, adopted in 2024, defines the country as a unitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy. Ebenthal is multicultural country with an ethnically diverse society, in addition to being the country with the highest percentage population of spiritists in the world.

The territories that form Ebenthal were inhabited by tribal peoples for millennia prior the arrival of Portuguese settlers in 1500 who established the colonial State of Brazil. Following the independence of Brazil in 1822, Germans, Austrians and Swiss immigrated to the new country over the course of the century, establishing colonies in the mountainous region of the Province of Rio de Janeiro, which would later become the cultural and historical core of Ebenthal. In 2014 the Brazilian royalist and micronationalist Arthur van der Bruyn, supported by colleagues, proclaimed their families' estates as independent and united as a new state, the Kingdom of Roschfallen. However, due to political conflicts over the administrative structure of the new country, a group of breakaway aristocrats led by Arthur Beato proclaimed the independence of the northern region of Roschfallen and established the Kingdom of Ebenthal.[1] The House of Beato rule came to an end in 2019, following a constitutional crisis, and the brief interregnum that ensued culminated with the ascension of Arthur van der Bruyn, former King of Roschfallen, to the Ebenthaler throne, starting a reformist period and transforming Ebenthal into a democracy.

According to some international standarts, Ebenthal can be regarded as a developed country with a advanced economy by micronational standarts. The country's official currency is the Conto, a representative currency with a value backed by public debt bonds through the copper standard. However, the Brazilian real is also a legal tender and is the main currency used on a daily basis by the resident population. Ebenthal is great and a regional power both in South America and within the Brazilian sector, and can be described as a small to middle power in some global intermicronational affairs.[citation needed] The country is founding members of the Conference of Santiago,[2], Micronational Trade Organization and the Pact of Cobalt, in addition to being a member of the International Aerospace Community.[3] Formerly, Ebenthal was also a member of the Union Against Micronational War, Micronational Economic Group, Micronational Monarchies Organization, League of Professional Nations and the Konmalehth.[4] Citizenship can be acquired by application or by living in the country for at least a year, provided that you register with a proper government agency.

Etymology

The Constitution of Ebenthal defines the country's official name as 'Kingdom of Ebenthal' in Article 1.

Art. 1. The Kingdom of Ebenthal is the political association of all its citizens and their possessions. They form a free and independent nation which does not admit any bond that oppose its sovereignty.

— Royal Constitution of Ebenthal

The country's proper name was inspired by the homonymous town in Carinthia, Austria. More precisely it is named for the early renaissance castle from which the town took its name, where Prince Ludwig Gaston of Saxe-Coburg and Braganza, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, lived during his exile. Prince Ludwig Gaston's life inspired former King Arthur I after reading the book Dom Pedro II in Germany by the Prince's grand-nephew Prince Carlos Tasso of Saxe-Coburg and Braganza.[5]

The name Ebenthal comes from the Slovenian Žrelec, meaning "stallion horse".

History

Pre-Independence

Founding of Rio de Janeiro on 1 March 1565. Brauncastel, Ebenthal's capital, lies enclaved within the Brazilian municipality share most of its history.
Botafogo in 1869, seven years prior to King Arthur II's forefathers' acquisition of the property which would give birth to Roschfallen and become capital of Ebenthal.

The territory of what would become Ebenthal had been inhabited for at least 11,000 years. Its early inhabitants were organized into tribes and were divided mainly between the ethnicities of the linguistic trunks and Tupi, both characterized by semi-nomadism, subsisting on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture. The two groups were geographically distinct, with the Gê preferring to inhabit the fields and plateaus of modern-day central Brazil, while the Tupi spread along the coast. Slavery was common among both groups, but it had a different meaning than it had for Europeans, since it originated from a diverse socioeconomic organization in which asymmetries were translated into kinship relations. Native people in the Ebenthaler and Brazilian lands, unlike those in Mesoamerica and the Andean civilizations, did not keep written records or erect stone monuments, and the humid climate and acidic soil have destroyed almost all traces of their material culture, including wood and bones. Therefore, what is known about the region's history before 1500 has been inferred and reconstructed from small-scale archaeological evidence, such as ceramics and stone arrowheads. The most conspicuous remains of these societies are very large mounds of discarded shellfish (sambaquis) found in the coast which were continuously inhabited for over 5,000 years.

Following the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, the lands of Ebenthal were claimed for the Portuguese Empire on 22 April 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral at the South American far eastern coast.[6] Initially, the Ebenthaler lands were integrated into the captaincies of Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and São Tomé, three separate Portuguese colonies established in 1534 which, in 1549, merged along with others to form the colonial State of Brazil. By the end of the 17th century, the entire territory of modern-day Ebenthal had already been explored and its surroundings settled by the Portuguese. In the first two centuries of colonization, Indigenous and European groups lived in constant war, establishing opportunistic alliances in order to gain advantages against each other. The Tupi indians who inhabited the Ebenthaler Riviera were driven away to dense forest regions, while the Gê, who inhabited the Highlands, were enslaved at the beginning of the Brazilian Gold Rush.

In late 1807 Napoleonic forces threatened the security of continental Portugal, causing Prince Regent João, in the name of Queen Maria I, to move the royal court from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. With the end of the Peninsular War in 1814, the courts of Europe demanded that Queen Maria I and Prince Regent João return to Portugal, deeming it unfit for the head of an ancient European monarchy to reside in a colony. In 1815, to justify continuing to live in Brazil, where the royal court had thrived for seven years, the Crown established the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, thus creating a pluricontinental transatlantic monarchic state.[7] Tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians increased and the Portuguese Cortes, guided by the new political regime imposed by the Liberal Revolution, tried to re-establish Brazil as a colony.[8] The Brazilians refused to yield, and Prince Pedro decided to stand with them, declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.[9] A month later, Prince Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil as Dom Pedro I, resulting in the founding of the Empire of Brazil.[10]

The newly independent nation was vast, but its territory was sparsely inhabited, and its population was small. In order to change this paradigm, the Brazilian government encouraged European immigration to Brazil. Among the main groups of immigrants to the province of Rio de Janeiro, where Ebenthal's future lands were located, were the Portuguese, Spanish and German-speaking peoples. Under the patronage of the Empress Leopoldina of Brazil, a German colony was established in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro, eventually developing into the cities of Petrópolis, Teresópolis and Nova Friburgo. Simultaneously, coinciding with the decline of the Portuguese Empire, a large flow of Portuguese immigrants arrived in Rio de Janeiro, among them the merchant José Pedrosa who in 1876 bought a villa in the neighborhood of Botafogo which he called Villa do Triunpho.

Foundation

Prince Luís Gastão of Brazil, owner and resident of the Ebenthal Castle, which was the inspiration for the micronation.
The Schloss Ebenthal, in Austria, after which this country was named.

At the beginning of 2014, after learning about micronationalism, the Brazilian realist Arthur van der Bruyn, great-grandson of Portuguese immigrant José Pedrosa, proclaimed the independence of Villa do Triunpho, where a large part of his family still lived, and founded the Kingdom of Roschfallen. With no repercussions to the Brazilian state, Arthur moved to recruit members for the Roschfallenian government, recruiting, among others, his friend Arthur Beato, then Steward (head of government) of Harram. Beato was created 1st Duke of Gallar, and in turn, ceded sovereignty over his family's properties in Petrópolis to the Roschfallenian state, integrating them into the department of Gros Morne, of which he was appointed High Commissioner and which already included the family properties of Antônio Scherer-Arrais in Nova Friburgo.[11]

In the months past Roschfallen's founding, Arthur Beato, now Duke of Gallar, rose to become the chief advisor to King Arthur's Privy Council, primarily assisting in the state's transition from simulationism to properly micronational secessionism. However, despite surrounding himself with more experienced micronationalists, the Monarch maintained an autocratic stance and ignored both the advice of his Privy Council and the decisions of the parliament, formed exclusively by members of the nobility. On July 16, 2014, the King abolished the feudal rights of the nobility over their private fiefs, aiming to centralize the government. The Duke of Gallar, then Chairman of the Roschfallenian parliament, supported by several other nobles, intended to regain their rights to proprietary sovereignity in order to exert pressure on the Monarch and check his immense powers. In retaliation, the King dissolved parliament and dismissed the nobles involved from their positions.[12] As a countermeasure, the Duke of Gallar proclaimed the separation of his family holdings from Roschfallen and the creation of the Republic of Gallar. He was followed by Mark Paul, 1st Prince of Iriland, and Thiago Walker, 1st Duke of Grünewald, who then joined their own properties to Gallar's. The republic was reorganized into the Kingdom of Ebenthal and the Duke of Gallar was acclaimed as King Arthur I of Ebenthal.[13] Despite Ebenthaler independence, the participation of members of the extended Roschfallenian royal family in the movement and the annexation of territories of the Roschfallenian Monarch's relatives in Minas Gerais was the trigger for the beginning of the conflict that became known like Ebenthaler War of Independence.[1]

As soon as Ebenthal was established, a constituent assembly convened to create the country's first constitution, enacted a year later. Ebenthal was created as an aristocratic state in which only the nobility could hold political office. The new nation adopted the German-Brazilian culture local to the mountainous region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, where it emerged, for its imagery, in addition to having also been influenced by the Portuguese and British political cultures.[14] The College of Peers of the Realm, Ebenthal's first and unicameral parliament, was innaugurated in 21 November 2014 and Adriano Moreira, 1st Marquis of Jännerach, was appointed as the country's first Grand Vizier. In December 1st the Tribune of Truth, Ebenthal's supreme and only court, was innaugurated.

Consolidation

The Constitution of Ebenthal was officialy promulgated in 8 October 2015, consolidating the country's politics.
Promotional art commemorating the end of the 2016 Brazilian invasion of Ebenthal, celebrating the victory of the Principality of New Switzerland.

At the end of the so-called "construction period", from August to the end of 2014, the Ebenthaler government moved to secure its sovereignty through the establishment of diplomatic relations. On 2 January 2015 the Duchy of Axvalley became the first nation to recognize the independence of Ebenthal from Roschfallen, amid cyberwarfare campaigns between those two countries. The Duke of Axvalley, Rubens I, as a personal friend of the monarchs of both nations, successfully mediated a peace negotiation that culminated in the Treaty of Botafogo, by which Roschfallen recognized Ebenthal's independence. Immediately after the end of the conflict with Roschfallen, the Ministry of Information and Propaganda created Ebenthal's first website and forum. The period coincided with the end of Jännerach's mandate and the rise of the Conservative Power. However, the conservatives' foreign policy continued that of the previous government of the Worker's Party, seeking diplomacy abroad and alienating itself from the Lusophone sector.

Although the constitution was finally promulgated on 8 October 2015, it was not unanimously acclaimed, having been widely criticized by the Worker's Party for its centralizing and essentially anti-democratic character. Lucas Zaar, 1st Marquis of Lieuw, President of the Worker's Party, accused the monarchy and the government of having acted against the very constitution they approved, by having approved it without a supermajority, as it itself demands in constitutional matters. The Worker's plea, however, was interrupted by the 2016 Brazilian invasion of Ebenthal which then dominated the parliamentary debate. A deputation of Ebenthalers achieved diplomatic success against the invasion before the Brazilian courts. However, the conservative government of Igor Torres, 1st Count of Lusseff, was blamed for harming Ebenthaler's chances of victory by instituting an unofficial cyber persecution of Brazilian agents involved in the invasion. As a consequence his cabinet was replace, even though the Conservatives were able to remain in power.

Just under three months after the resolution of the conflict with Brazil, Ebenthal experienced a serious internal conflict when a coup d'état scheme was revealed by the Lord Speaker of parliament, Nilo Moreira, 1st Count of Versteckburg. The government began an investigation that culminated in Nilo being sentenced to banishment. However, Nile proclaimed himself King of Ebenthal, supported by a clique of conservative politicians, and established an alternative government, initiating a cyberwarfare in order to gain control of Ebenthal's government files and data, in which became the Ebenthaler Civil War. After failing to gain control over Ebenthal and exposing his association with Nazi elements of the Arabic Empire, the only state that recognized his proto-regime, Nilo was threatened with criminal prosecution in Brazilian justice and, isolated, abandoned his cause; The Tribune of Truth sentenced him and his allies in absentia to death.[15]

After the civil war, the Conservative government gave in to pressure and left power after two years, and a Moderate Party cabinet took over. The Moderate policy facilitated the citizenship application process, which resulted in a 157% increase in applications. Under the Moderates Ebenthal also finally integrated into the Lusophone sector by establishing diplomacy with São Guimarães and Escorvania. Nevertheless, his policies remained relatively isolationist and foreign-oriented.

Intermicronational rise

Portrait of King Arthur II, who was enthroned in 29 December 2019 following the September-December interregnum.
Flag of the Conference of Santiago of which Ebenthal is a founding member, and which has become the most influential intermicronational organization in South America.[16]

Despite the wide populational growth, Ebenthal's demography suffered a fall in 2018 as a consequence of the Brazilian economic crisis which forced many Ebenthaler residents to move due to rising rent prices, sparking the 2018 Ebenthaler exodus, on which the country's resident population decreased by 23.6% and political activity dropped significantly. In the following year, however, the population gradually began to recover due to the government's policy of recruiting citizens for political exercise. Taking advantage of the scenario, King Arthur I abruptly announced his abdication in order to dedicate himself to his studies. He was immediately succeeded by his brother as King Matthew I of Ebenthal on 24 June 2019.

Once he took the throne, Matthew's policies proved controversial. The new monarch immediately dismissed the Moderate cabinet and installed a Conservative under Vinicius Lahad, 1st Count of Lahad. The new government, under the aegis of the King, approved two legislative decrees promulgated by Matthew that granted him the power to legislate and effectively transformed parliament into an advisory body. Questioned by head of the judiciary and several parliamentarians, including members of the Conservative Party, King Mateus responded by abusing his powers and dismissing the members of the institutions that spoke against him. Such a move led more and more politicians and active citizens to abandon their positions in Ebenthal. In order to prevent a possible, if not imminent, dissolution or emptying of the nation, parliament, urged by the Tribune of Truth, achieved a small majority by adding opposition and dissenting Conservatives, and ruled for the immediate deposition and banishment of King Matthew, as well as the disbandment of his government, on 27 September 2019. This event, which became known as the Mateusian Crisis, ended the five-years reign of the House of Beato over Ebenthal and launched the country into a interregnum. A rgency was established under Raphael Sousa, as the government sought for a new monarch - as Raphael himself refused the offer to become the country's new king. The throne was offered to Arthur van der Bruyn, then King of Roschfallen, who had ruled over most of the then present Ebenthaler lands before its independence. Disenchanted with Roschfallen, the Monarch abdicated that country's throne and accepted the step into the Ebenthaler one, becoming King Arthur II of Ebenthal.[17]

Assuming the throne in 29 December 2019, Arthur II reshaped the nation to his image. He changed the country's symbols, adopting more Germanic features, further connecting the micronation to its geocultural origins.[14] He appointed the former Regent as his first Prime Minister, holding in place or elevating people of prominence in the Ebenthaler politics that preceded his rise to the throne. The new King had his family lands, which had been part of Roschfallen, annexed to Ebenthal according to his Nomadic Micronation Theory. Since his ascension to the throne, his political connections made possible fot Ebenthal to achieve higher marks regarding power and diplomacy.[18][19][20] New classification patterns were adopted and a new government database was created. In 23 March 2020 Ebenthal became a founding member of the Brazilian sector, adhering the joint political effort of the Treaty of Persenburg[21] and the Protocol of Goetha,[22] developed by Emperor Oscar I of Karnia-Ruthenia to create a secessionist micronationalist sector in Brazil as opposed to the largely simulationist Lusophone sector. To further advance the secessionist efforts, in April 2020 the Ebenthal became a founding member of the Conference of Santiago,[2] an intermicronational political union which became the continent's most prominent intermicronational organization, sparking the Santiago-Mansean Conflict. On 16 July 2020, the country joined the Konmalehth only to see it dissolved in two days.

Contemporary era

Propaganda piece about the return of Henri Sãens to premiership and the rise of the Swedish Party.
Reflecting Ebenthal's growing prestige, the Almanac of Vetrolin dedicated a page to the Ebenthaler Royal Family.

In 8 March 2021 Ebenthal's unicameral parliament was abolished, giving place to a new bicameral legislature, the Konkrëse. Concurrently, the exclusivity that allowed only aristocrats to take positions in the government was abolished, beginning a period of democratization. The government abandoned the CS Doubloon and instituted a new official currency, the Kupfermark[23] aiming to build a viable economy at the macronational level with a currency backed by an accessible commodity. Ebenthal's economic policy drew considerable attention, leading the government to establish diplomacy with more economically advanced micronations, such as Saint-Castin, and to found the Micronational Trade Organization.

In mid-to-late 2021 Ebenthal elected his first commoner Prime Minister, Henri Sãens. During his mandate of 1 year and 3 months, the longest for a PM in Ebenthal's history, Sãens approved the Provinces Act, transforming half of the country's principalities into provinces with elected governments,[24] and the Unitary Act, which transformed the country from a federation into a unitary state.[25] Additionally, the Unitary Act abolished the remaining principalities. However, the Principality of New Switzerland government did not comply with the Act of Parliament, generating a constitutional crisis. Despite the concessions offered by the government, New Switzerland threatened to secede, which prompted an intervention by King Arthur II, who used his Royal Prerogative to restore the neo-Swiss monarchy with special status. As a direct consequence of the crisis, Sãens' cabinet fell and was replaced by one formed by New Democrats, recently founded from a merger between the Moderate Party and the Worker's Party.

The New Democrats's government was headed by a new politician, Rupert Ruschel, 1st Baron of Sommerlath, of Swedish origin, and the second non-Brazilian to hold public office in Ebenthal. After a short term, Ruschel resigned from the premiership by founding the Swedish Party,[26] inadvertently giving rise to the Swedish crisis, in which there was public fear that the nation would be divided between the citizens of Brazilian origin and those of Swedish origin, who demanded greater political representation. Ruschel's resignation coincided with the reorganization of the Conservative Party into the big-tent National Party, which came to power with a parliamentary majority led by Henri Sãens. Henri's second tenure was short and his party lost its majority in the 2023 General Elections, bringing the New Democrats back into government with a reform agenda and prompting the Monarch to take advantage of the situation to put a definitive end to the Swedish Crisis, dissolving the Swedish Party and establishing a seat for the Swedish minority in parliament. Under the premiership of Bernardo Barcelos, on 17 September 2023 Ebenthal annexed Harram and December 2023 established a condominium in Argentina with the governments of its allied states in Pact of Cobalt, Karnia-Ruthenia and Quinta Velha.

In early 2024 Ebenthal and Marienbourg signed the Barcelos-Montenegro Monetary Pact, establishing the Conto as a common currency between the two countries that share the person of the monarch at personal union. On 5 February, however, the government was taken by a relative surprise with the granting of a new constitution by King Arthur II, greatly reforming the national structure. Although some politicians and even members of the government participated directly and indirectly in the development of the new constitutional charter, there was no vote for its approval, despite tacit approval.

Geography

Mantiqueira Mountains, where Lüttenhausen and New Switzerland are located, in the central region of Ebenthal.
Seasonal tropical moist forests are dominant in both the southern and northern regions of Ebenthal.

Ebenthal is located on the far eastern part of South America, through the Great Escarpment at the Mantiqueira Mountains, bordering the South Atlantic. The country is enclaved within the Brazilian municipalities Rio de Janeiro, Niterói, Nova Friburgo, Saquarema, Araruama, Miguel Pereira, Magé, Itatiaia, Belo Horizonte, Santa Luzia and Juiz de Fora, close to the Tropic of Capricorn. Ebenthal also co-manages a condominium enclaved in the Argentine municipality of Rawson, in Patagonia, and owns several river islets. The country's size and location makes of it geographically simple. Its flora is dominated by Atlantic Forests that is divided between rupestrian grasslands in high altitudes of subtropical climate and seasonal tropical moist forests at sea level.

With a total area of 10.9 square kilometres (4.2 square miles), Ebenthal spans only one time zone, the UTC−3. The summer time zone, UTC−2, is occasionally observed. The country's topography is diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 600 metres and 900 metres. The northern and central region of the country, respectively called the Ebenthaler Highlands and Northern Hills, are rugged, encompassing two mountain ranges with heights reaching almost 3000 metres, while its southern region, the Ebenthaler Riviera, is coastal. Ebenthal is supplied by two rivers, the Rio das Onças and the Rio dos Gatos, both tributaries of the Rio das Velhas, which in Ebenthal is locally called Altendamenach River, and is bathed by an immense lagoon of salt water and by the sea in Tussen.

Climate

The municipality of Lüttenhausen is the area with the most extreme climate in the country, with summers reaching 40ºC and winters with frost and, more rarely, snow.

The climate of Ebenthal experiences a variety of weather conditions across a scattered area and varied topography, but most of the country is subtropical, while the southern region has a tropical savanna climate. According to the Köppen system, Ebenthal hosts three major climatic subtypes: tropical, oceanic and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from tropical rainforests in the southern and central regions, subtropical vegetation, including temperate coniferous forests in the central and northern regions. Many regions have starkly different microclimates.

The country experiences hot, humid summers, and mild, wet winters. In inland areas of the capital municipality of Saxenfurt, temperatures above 40 °C (104 °F) are common during the summer, though rarely for long periods, while maximum temperatures above 27 °C (81 °F) can occur monthly. On the other hand, towns such as Erzfelsen have a much more temperate climate with an average of 28 °C in summer and close to 0 °C during winter. Along the coast, the breeze, blowing onshore and offshore, moderates the temperature. Because of its geographic situation, the country is often reached by cold fronts advancing from Antarctica, especially during autumn and winter, causing frequent weather changes. In summer there can be strong rains, which have on some occasions provoked catastrophic floods and landslides. The mountainous areas register greater rainfall since they constitute a barrier to the humid wind that comes from the Atlantic. Snow has occurred in the central region, although it is rare. Frost occurs normally during winters in both central and northern regions.

Biodiversity and environment

Puma sighted near Saxenfurt.

The small territory of Ebenthal is comprised of only one ecosystem, which is the Atlantic Forest that covers the middle coast of South America, penetrating little into inland. In the central region of the country, Araucaria pine forests grows under temperate conditions, while in the southern region the presence of coconut and almond trees is common under hot tropical climate. The wildlife is percentage and relatively large for such a small country due to the great biodiversity of the ecosystem and the rural properties, so close to nature, that dot the country's landscape. However, the most common animal species in Ebenthal is the domestic cat, including stray and feral cats that inhabit the national territory.

Although none of these animals are confirmed to inhabit the national territory, sightings of large carnivorous mammals such as pumas, jaguars and maned wolves, and herbivores such as anteaters, sloths, oppossums, armadillos and several monkey species. Despite being washed by rivers, there is little animal life in them due to currents and proximity to civilization. Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues which led to the creation of the Ministry of the Environment. Ebenthal has probably the most stringent legislation in the world regarding crimes against the environment, punishing crimes such as deforestation, trafficking in endangered species and deliberate water pollution with death by dissolution in acid. The country also actively combats air and soil pollution through awareness campaigns and punitive measures.

Government and politics

Façade of the Bubbington Palace, in Saxenfurt, the official residente of the King of Ebenthal and the Prince Consort.

The Kingdom of Ebenthal is a centralized unitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy[27]. The Monarch, the King of Ebenthal, is the country's sole head of state and co-head of government, and his position is hereditary through semi-salic law. The Monarch formally appoints the Archchancellor as co-head of government and de facto the executive head of the nation. The Archchancellor, in turn, appoints the members of the Executive Council, and their position depends on the confidence of parliament. Legislative power is exercised by the Konkrëse, the national bicameral legislature, formed by the elected House of Councillors and the appointed House of Aristocrats. Judicial authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively through the Tribune of Truth, the country's sole court of justice. Ebenthal is a significant micronation according to Dresner's Categoric-Gradial System of Classification.

The Ebenthaler state is constitutionally indissoluble and rests on the common unity and autonomy of the provinces, special administrative regions and the capital.[27] The national unity is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, autonomy, welfare and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system) are formally established by the Constitution. The executive is organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary and the legislative are organized only at the national sphere.

Ebenthaler politics works in the framework of a multi-party system with proportional representation. Members of the parliamentary upper house, the House of Aristocrats, are nobles required to be non-partisan appointed by the Monarch, while members of the lower house, the House of Councillors, are elected by universal suffrage, partisan and represent constituencies. Adjudicators and other Justice Officers are appointed by the Monarch after an interview pending parliamentary approval. The Chief Justice, the High Magistrate, however, is freely appointed by the Monarch from among his tribunal peers. Currently there are three active political parties; they are the New Democrats, the National Party and the Republican Party.

Law

Ebenthalian law is heavily inspired by the Napoleonic Code.

The law in Ebenthal is based on the Napoleonic-adapted Roman traditions and a hybrid legal system between customary law and civil law, in which civil law concepts prevail except in cases in which customary law is applicable in accordance with the interpretation of judicial authorities. Most of the Ebenthalian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and law cases.

The Tribune of Truth is the country's only court, serving constitutional, criminal and civil functions as the first and only instance in all judicial cases. The legal system is based on the Constitution of Ebenthal, which was promulgated on 8 October 2015, and is the fundamental law of Ebenthal. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules. The provinces and other administrative divisions are allowed have their own basic laws, which must not contradict the national constitution, as well as "organic laws", which function in a similar way to constitutions. Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters both judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms. Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entity, although in rare situations the Constitution allows the parliament to pass on legal judgments.

Military

In the absence of its own police and firefighters, the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State and the Military Firefighters Corps of Rio de Janeiro are primarily responsible for the internal security of most of the Ebenthaler territory.

The Royal Cybernautics is Ebenthal's only armed force. It is a volunteer military reserve force focused on cyberwarfare made up of civilians who perform active duty only when requested. Previously, from its founding until 2021, the country was served by a nominal armed forces divided into army, navy, air force and an ancillary gendarmerie. With the abolition of the standing military, Ebenthal began to be served by the Royal Reserve[28], a non-standing summonable force, until 2024, when it was replaced by the Royal Cybernautics.

Historically the military played a key role in maintaining state stability, such as acting in defense of the legal government during the Ebenthaler civil war and during the Mateusian crisis and averting potential coups d'état. Between 2016 and 2021, the Ebenthaler forces worked together with the private security companies Campseg and Segminas, which were responsible for the external defense of the rural area of Ebenthal.[b] Consistently, Ebenthal's former and present military forces serve primarily nominally, with the country experiencing little to no truly military action with the exception of rare mild cyberattacks against the national information systems. It was recognizing its main field of military activity within the cyberspace that the Royal Cybernautics was created to replace the Royal Reserve. The Royal Cybernautics has access to various offensive and defensive cyberwarfare resources.

Aside of the national forces, the municipalities and special administrative regions of Ebenthal have autonomy regarding their organization for defense; however, no administrative division has ever created its own paramilitary force. Acknowledging its limitations as well as diplomatic and geographical position in relation to Brazil, Ebenthal is served by the Brazilian state polices, as well as by the Brazilian Military Firefighters Corps, which are the main law enforcement institutions acting within the country.

Administrative divisions

Ebenthal is an unitary state composed of eight municipalities, two special autonomous regions,[27] and one condominium. The municipalities are governed through a assembly-independent executive-led devolved government headed by a Chief Executive appointed by the Sovereign according to each municipality's party representations in the House of Councillors. The special autonomous regions enjoy of greater autonomy than the municipalities and they are, therefore, free to decide their forms of government. Currently, the two existing autonomous regions are organized as hereditary absolute monarchies. The condominium, Süden-Süden, is administered by the central government jointly with the governments of Karnia-Ruthenia and Quinta Velha through an executive council. The entire territory of Ebenthal is made up of private properties of individuals who have agreed to cede sovereignty over their possessions to the Ebenthaler state through a sovereignty cession contract, following the precepts of Nomadic Micronation Theory. Some of these contracts provide that private properties remain under Ebenthal's sovereignty as long as their owners remain citizens of the country, while others provide for the granting of sovereignty in perpetuity - which does not necessarily guarantee factual control over the territory, but makes it legally, under the micronational perspective, an integral part of the country. It is estimated that three quarters of the national territory is made up of properties belonging to King Arthur II's paternal and maternal relatives, while the rest is in the possession of aristocratic families.

Flag Arms Region Code Population Area (m2) Official language(s) Government Leader
Municipalities
Saxenfurt SX 38 2.5 Portuguese, English Assembly-independent executive-led devolved administration Chief Executive
Armando v. der Bruyn
Grünhufe GH 6 0.2 Portuguese Assembly-independent executive-led devolved administration Chief Executive
Hugo Toledo
Aufenbauer AF 11 3 Portuguese, Spanish Assembly-independent executive-led devolved administration Chief Executive
Rafael M. de Oliveira
Tussen AM 5 0.5 Portuguese Assembly-independent executive-led devolved administration Chief Executive
Felipe Saint
Lüttenhausen LT 4 0.4 Portuguese Assembly-independent executive-led devolved administration Chief Executive
Fernando v. der Bruyn
Erzfelsen EZ 32 0.8 Portuguese Assembly-independent executive-led devolved administration Chief Executive
Pedro Carvalho
Lehen SN 18 1 Portuguese Assembly-independent executive-led devolved administration Chief Executive
Henri Sãens
Rotenberg RT 2 0.6 Portuguese Assembly-independent executive-led devolved administration Chief Executive
Nivea van der Bruyn
Special autonomous region
New Switzerland NS 16 0.8 Hunsrik Devolved hereditary absolute monarchy Prince
Antônio I
Harram HA 7 0.2 Portuguese, Arabic Devolved hereditary absolute monarchy Prince and Sultan
Hassan III
Condominium
Süden-Süden SU 7 0.9 Spanish Partially-devolved administration under tripartite condominium rule Ebenthaler Commissioner
TBD

Foreign policy

Generated impression of an Ebenthaler passport.

Ebenthal's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's position as a great power within the Brazilian sector, a micronational regional power in South and Latin America and a small to middle power within the global intermicronational community. The country follows a strict policy and resolution and strongly opposes simulationism, geofiction and all kinds of fictitious claims through its adherence to the Treaty of Persenburg and later to the Wrythe Convention.

Its international relations are mainly based on the principles of multilateralism and international cooperation, with the country regularly seeking to act in concert with its main allies in the Pact of Malmünd and member states of the Conference of Santiago. Even though Ebenthal adheres to peaceful settlement of conflicts, the country does not relinquish its rights to belligerence if diplomacy prove futile. Ebenthal is a founding member of the aforementioned Conference of Santiago (CS), which grew to be one of Americas' most prominents intermicronational organizations, with the country's monarch having served as the organisation's third Secretary-General. Ebenthal is also member state of the International Aerospace Community and the Micronational Trade Organization, and it was the very last member to join the once prominent Konmalehth.

However, due to Ebenthal's rise to prominence concomitantly with the schism that led to the creation of secessionist-Brazilian sector, Ebenthal has tacitly adopted a rather interventionist policy within that sector, specially when it comes to the micronations created through or aided by the CS Campaign of Incentive to Secessionist Micronationalism. In many cases, successive Ebenthal governments have lent agents to foreign governments, turning them into satellite or client states. Ebenthal's foreign relations are dealth with by the Ministry of External Relations, however according to the constitution, the King has ultimate authority over foreign policy and is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Ebenthaler foreign policy.[29]

Economy

Landscape of downtown Rio de Janeiro, where most Ebenthaler economic business are done.

Ebenthal has a micronationally advanced economy. The country's official currency is the Conto, which is a domestic currency and legal tender backed by bonds of public debt through the copper standard in a fixed exchange rate. The Conto is almost exclusively used by government officials and institutions in internal transactions. However, the Brazilian Real remains the currency most used on a daily basis by the resident population. The country also has an extensive relationship with the Conferential Doubloon,[27][30] previously an official currency and occasionally used in transactions with other member states of the Conference of Santiago.

The Bank of Ebenthal is country's central and single banking institution, responsible for setting Ebenthal's monetary policy through the Finances Board along with the Ministry of Economy. The bank also has the monopoly on the issuance of currency and control over the Treasury. In turn, the Ministry of Economy sets the country's economic policy and manages its macroeconomic aspects. Ebenthal's economic policy is broadly interventionist and is sometimes identified as state capitalism. The country is de jure a tax haven, incapable of enforcing tax collection, and the state is maintained by voluntary contributions and private investments in the public sector.

Ebenthal exists economically within the framework of a mixed economy. The amounts of contributions to the state and investments come mainly from the services, whosale, retail and information, which are the largest employers of the resident population. The national economy also encompasses export of raw materials and farming, which together make up the second largest layer of the Ebenthaler economy. Major exports, mainly for the Brazilian sales trade, include meat, wood and grains. The country's revenue is mainly channeled to public administration with little bureaucracy. Total expenditures total roughly 𝕮388,000 annually.[31]

Infrastructure

Bubbington Observatory's Newtonian Telescope, Saxenfurt.

Science and technology

Most scientific research in Ebenthal is carried out by the state through its official institutions, all under the care of the Ministry of Sciences. Independent scientific research is also present, mainly in the area of information. The country's most esteemed scientific institution is the Ebenthal and Territories National Lunar and Aerospace Program, responsible for the Ebenthaler space program, which consists of the study of cosmology and astrobiology. Owner of relative technological sophistication, albeit few, Ebenthal has two observatories equipped with two high-quality telescopes. The country has carried out three observation and astronomical calculation missions, and is currently seeking to develop a rocket capable of reaching the mesosphere (sub-orbit). Additionally, around a seventh of the energy consumed in the country comes from solar energy produced nationally by 52 solar panels in Erzfelsen and Aufenbauer.

In addition to PLANET, the Zweig Institute, the only educational institution in the country, is prestigious for its scientific research, mainly in the fields of history and psychology. The institue also provides courses of cosmology and collects data about the population's access to internet and communication devices. According to the institute, the entire population of Ebenthal has access to the internet and access to 4G technology.

Transport

The Dona Maria Road, in Saxenfurt (house on the left). Most of Ebenthal's paved roads are cobblestone and connect the country to Brazil.

Ebenthal has no railways, airport, heliport, or a developed port, and roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic through the country. All access roads to Ebenthal are properly paved and leave from Brazil, while the internal road network is mostly made up of dirt roads, with sections paved mainly with cobblestone. The municipality of Tussen stands out for being also accessible by river navigation, having a small port for small boats. Due to typical micronational limitations involving financial and geographic resources, Ebenthal does not have public transportation. Nonetheless, the resident population is served by public transport from adjacent Brazilian municipalities. Due to this, there is relatively easy access to the capital Setzenbrand and Erzfelsen via the metropolitan railway systems of Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, respectively. Furthermore, the other regions of the country benefit from bus transport from the Brazilian municipalities that surround them.

As transport in Ebenthal is primarily by road, the country has a vast fleet of land passenger vehicles and the government estimates that around four-fifths of households own at least one car. With no automotive industry, all cars in Ebenthal are imported from Brazil, and the national market is dominated by the Italian Fiat, followed by the Japanese Honda and the German Volkswagen. Two-thirds of the fleet are powered by compressed natural gas, as opposed to both gasoline and diesel, contributing to national anti- carbon policy and in protest against the value of fossil fuels provided by the Brazilian company Petrobras, which has a monopoly on access to fuels in the country.

Education

The Federal Univerity of Rio de Janeiro, the most attended college by resident Ebenthalers.

The Constitution of Ebenthal sets that education is a universal and inalienable right of every citizen. National educational policy is officially in charge of the Ministry of Culture and Education, which is also responsible for managing the administration of Zweig Institute, the only educational institution in the country. In addition, the central government leaves the educational initiative to the discretion of the municipalities and special autonomous regions. Due to the multiple limitations typical of a micronational state, Ebenthal is not able to fund a public education system, and therefore it encourages its citizens, all holders of dual citizenship, to seek out the educational systems of other countries in which they hold citizenship, in order to have a complete education.

Most resident Ebenthalers aged 18 to 30 frequent Brazilian colleges, among which the most frequented is the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, ranked 7th the best university in Latin America according to QS World University Rankings. As per the Ministry of Culture and Education, the literacy rate of the population is that of 100%, erradicating illiteracy in the micronation, making of Ebenthal, disputably, the first country in Americas to have eradicated illiteracy, albeit unrecognized by any UN member country. Ebenthaler educational policy universally recognizes the validity of undergraduate degrees. Attending an institution of higher education is required by the Civil Code to be eligible to become a public servant. Kindergarten, elementary and high educations are mandatory, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental, visual or hearing.

Health

The Copa Star Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, one of the most frequented by the people of Saxenfurt.

According to the constitution, free access to health and medical treatment is a basic and universal right. However, unable to provide for a proper public health system, the Ebenthaler authorities advises the citizens, all holders of dual citizenship, to seek out and take advantage of health systems of the countries in which they have citizenship. However, the Ebenthaler government manages the Royal Health Accord, a state-funded institution whose objective is to provide basic medical assistance to citizens in need. Furthermore, the country adopts a universal private health insurance system policy, whereby the government obliges people to have access to healthcare via private insurance. In view of this, private healthcare play a major role in Ebenthal and circa three quarters of the resident population is insured and often seeks treatment in private health, using public health only in emergency cases.

The Ebenthaler government has historically discouraged the use of homeopathy as a treatment, but belief in its results is widespread among the resident population and the practice remains legal and non-prohibited. Homeopathic treatment in cases of simple and low-risk diseases due to its placebo effect is to a point tolerated, but government authorities condemn the use of homeopathy to replace allopathic treatment. Additionally, the government recommends the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of mild symptoms, for example through teas and herbs, as a complement to professional medicine.

Since independence, Ebenthal has experienced an increasing rate of life expectancy. However, death from natural causes is still eclipsed by heart diseases and conditions, such as diabetes, angina and coronary artery disease, and cancer as the main causes of death in the country. A considerable part of the resident population suffers from innate diseases related to the respiratory tract, such as asthma, Rhinitis and sinusitis. Other diseases such as intestinal and bone diseases, affect the quality of life of the population, but so far have not had an impact on the national mortality rate. In 2020, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ebenthaler government enacted a law which obliges all resident citizens to be vaccinated as soon as vaccines approved by Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency are made available, under penalty of suspension of political rights, loss of nationality and even imprisonment (automatically commuted to banishment).[32]

Media and communication

The Altenburg Express front cover at Ebenthal's official website.

The Ebenthaler press was officially born in 11 August 2014 with the creation of a newspaper-like email news channel in work for only three month, when it gave place to the Royal Press, a state news blog on Ebenthal's official forum, which was the only formal channel of news communication until its extinction at the Ebenthaler civil war, when the journalistic archives were deleted along with much of Ebenthal's database, including the entire Ebenthaler forum. Between 2017 and 2020 Ebenthal had no active media. However, it kept the standard means of communication between government members and the citizenry, such as official e-mail. Ebenthaler authorities weren't able to recover the country's original website and data lost during the civil war, but managed to get the website-running account shut down in early 2019 due to years of inactivity.

Ebenthal's media and communication sector was restructured only after the 2020 reforms, with the creation of a new website, including a news blog, social media pages advertising, a Discord group and a WhatsApp group for direct government-to-government communication. In 2022, with the media rebranding, Ebenthal opened its first proper newspaper, The Altenburg Express, temporarily available on the government's official website as it is intended to have its own domain. The newspaper is also published on social media and communication channels in the country.

Demographics

Citizens
YearPop.±%
2014 11—    
2015 18+63.6%
2016 40+122.2%
2017 52+30.0%
2018 39−25.0%
2019 97+148.7%
2020 169[33]+74.2%
2021 189+11.8%
2022 206+9.0%
2023 233+13.1%
Information taken from every year

The Ministry of the Interior General Directorate of Statistics and Registry accounts for 233 citizens, 131 of which reside in national territory, including the Süden-Süden conominium[27] and 83 are active in exercising their citizenship to different degrees as of 2023.[34] The ration of men to women is that o 6:10, and approximately 90% of the entire population is defined as urban. The resident population is heavily concentrated in the Highlands, followed by the Riviera, the Northern Hills and the Condominium.

The country's first census was carried out in 2015 and recorded a population of 18 citizens. Over the next five years until 2020 the number of citizens multiplied more than tenfold as changes to Ebenthaler nationality law registered residents of Ebenthal as citizens with their full consent. The immigration Brazilians, German-Brazilians and Portuguese also contributed to demographic growth. With the accession of Arthur II to the throne, Ebenthal received an influx of citizens from Roschfallen who, following their former Monarch, became citizens of Ebenthal, many of whom entered the national political scene. The Ebenthaler territorial expansion which, following the precept of Nomadic Micronation Theory, incorporated the properties of the Monarch's family into the country, contributed significantly to the rapid demographic growth at the beginning of his reign. Subsequently, the intermicronational prestige that the country achieved under the reign of Arthur II attracted the attention of micronationalist civilians and politicians requesting citizenship, which began a process of transformation of Ebenthaler society, which became more multicultural. As the annual population growth rate has been positive and constant, mainly due to citizens from developed countries, life expectancy rose from 78 to 81 years in 2021, and to 83 years in 2023.

In 2022 the Ebenthaler government adopted less stringent measures for the citizenship application process, but strengthened filtering of potential citizens, severely reducing the rate of population growth. Fluency in at least one of the country's two official languages became a requiremente for the granting citizenship. The government has also adopted new methods of recording, documenting and allowings citizens easier access to their rightfull documentation, even though most of Ebenthal's pertinente documentation isn't physical, but internet-available only..

Race and ethnicity

Typical Ebenthaler people, including many members of the House of Bruyn.[35]

According to the 2023 Census by the Ministry of the Interior, 71.9% of the resident and non-resident Ebnthalers identify as white, 19.6% identify as mixed race (mostly Mulattos), 4.6% identify as Black, 2.8% identify as East Asian and 0.9% identify as Bengali.[34] According to the official interpretation of the Bureau of Immigration and Civil Registration, Arabs and Jews are generally included as whites due to their sharing of the now-obsolete taxonomy of caucasians. Similarly, people of origin in countries such as Japan, China, the Koreas, Bhutan, Mongolia and Taiwan are generalized as East Asians. Nevertheless, the census considers racial classifications according to phenotypes and self-declaration together. Thus, although many citizens, especially those of Latin American origin, may consider themselves white, due to the history of miscegenation linked to the colonization of the Americas, it is likely that they have Amerindians and African ancestors.

Ebenthaler society is divided mainly between resident and non-resident citizens, rather than the typical racial or social division regarding classes. This division between residents and non-residents coincides with the division between citizens of Brazilian origin and those of foreign origin. Currently, 57% of Ebenthalers are Brazilian, and they are the nationality that most actively exercises their Ebenthaler citizenship; all but three of Ebenthal's politicians are Brazilian. However, recently there has been a trend toward increasing involvement of non-Brazilian citizens in national politics. Due to this reason, as well as the geographic sparseness of Ebenthal's population, cases of racism per se are very rare. However, there is reportedly an increase in cases of xenophobia among citizens of Brazilian origin compared to those of foreign origin seeking political representation.

Religion

Sideview of the Basilica of the Immaculate Heart of Mary near Saxenfurt and frequently attended by the Royal Family.

Ebenthal is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. The kingdom has no official religion, and the government is officially committed to religious secularism, although the monarchical institution does sustain a series of Christian practices and features. Freedom of religion in Ebenthal is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. The practice of religion is now fully considered a private matter throughout society and the state. The majority of Ebenthalers though did consider religion to be important in their daily lives. According to the 2023 census, 51.4% of Ebenthalers identify as Catholics Christians. Much of the remainder is made up of Spiritists, who accounted for 24.2% of the population, divided–wrongly, albeit on purpose–into three sub-groups: Umbandists, Kardecists and Candomblecists. Due to the increase in the non-resident population of Germanic origin (i.e. Americans, Scandinavians, White Oceanians and Germans), there has been an increase in the previously barely significant Protestant population, accounting now for 12.1%. In contrast, the population that declared itself to have no religious affiliation or to be either atheists or agnostics fell from 14.8% in 2020 to 8.2% in 2023. The remaining are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Buddhism (1.9%) and Hinduism (1.4%).[34]

Most Ebenthalers enjoy their religious freedom without major difficulties. However, there is a significant level of prejudice and distrust towards Protestantism, especially directed towards the neo-charismatic Evangelicalism. Three evangelical groups, namely the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, the World Church of God's Power and the Assemblies of God, have been banned from national territory since 2020 by law initiated by King Arthur II. Historically the state has maintained the position that features of the neo-charismatic movement denominations are directly contrary to Ebenthal's constitution and criminal code. Initially, the stance of the state and government of Ebenthal in relation to Evangelicalism and neo-Pentecostalism raised few criticisms due to the small Protestant population. However, with the growth in the number of Protestant citizens, the criticism intensified to the point of damaging Ebenthal's diplomatic relations with countries with a Protestant majority, especially Evangelical.

Language

Interior of the Royal National Library in Bubbington Palace, Saxenfurt.

As per the Ebenthaler Constitution of 2024, the two official languages of Ebenthal are Portuguese and English, the former playing the role of national language, spoken natively by 78.1% of the population (as of 2022),[34] and the latter, spoken as a native language by 6.7% of the population, playing the working language role, being used in administration, business, propaganda and functioning as the country's lingua franca between citizens of multiple nationalities. Many other languages are spoken by thes Ebenthalers and some enjoy limited state recognition. In the special autonomous region of New Switzerland the Hunsrik, a Brazilian-originated German dialect, is the sole official language; German is the native language of 8.7% of the population. Another special autonomous region, Harram, has the Arabic as a co-official language along with Portuguese. Rioplatense Spanish, often called Castillian, which is the language of 5.8% of the population, is co-official in the municipality of Aufenbauer and is the sole official language in the condominium of Süden-Süden. Through organic law passed in July 2022 Swedish was recognized as minority language for being the native language of 3% of the Ebenthaler, despite the language not being spoken in national territory.

In 2017 the parliament approved the use of the Brazilian Sign Language, commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, as official language to deaf people. In 2022, with the exponential increase in the population of non-Brazilian origin and acknowledging the fact that a fourth of the Ebenthalers do not speak Portuguese, the Ministry of Culture and Education instituted that the use of all sign languages must be recognized by public institutions in the country. The law mandates the use of the sign languages in education and government services when required. The language should be taught as a part of the curriculum and language and language pathology curriculum. Sign language teachers, instructors and translators are recognized professionals. Schools and health services should provide access ("inclusion") to deaf people.

Brazilian Portuguese, the national and majority language spoken in Ebenthal, has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants, coming from Central Europe).

Culture

Ebenthal's culture was inspired by the German-Brazilian culture of Nova Friburgo, the Brazilian municipality in which the micronation was born.
The modern architecture is the main architectural style present in Ebenthal as seen in Erzfelsen, where all buildings follow this architectural style.

The core culture of Ebenthal is derived from the crossing of Brazilian culture, which is a by-product of Portuguese culture strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions, with German culture. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, which is the national language, Roman Catholicism, the country's predominant religion, and neoclassical architecture styles. Aspects of German culture, introduced through the Hunsrik-speaking Brazilian Germans, predominate in the national symbology, in the political structure and in the names of localities and administrative entities such as provinces and municipalities, while the Portuguese-Brazilian culture predominates in the social environment, in the customs and traditions, in the cuisine. Other cultures that influenced the cultural development of Ebenthal include the British culture and the Ottoman culture.

Ebenthaler art has developed since before the micronation's independence into in different areas and styles, the main ones being virtual arts (such as pixel art) and fantasy literature. The country is devoid of cinematographic history, but nevertheless, it has developed a particular complex audio-visual culture.

Architecture

The architecture of Ebenthal is influenced by Europe, especially by Portugal and Germany. It has a history that goes back 500 years to the time when Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil in 1500. Until very recently, neoclassical architecture the predominant architetonic style in Ebenthal, an inheritance of the Portuguese settlers and the pro-European policy of the former Brazilian Empire, and it is the basis for all modern adaptation styles in the micronation. Other distinguisheable architectonics styles are the Gothic architecture, mainly in the Northern Hills area of New Switzerland and Lüttenhausen. Modern architecture, which recently became the country's predominant architecture style according to studies, is on rise, specially in the form of adaptations to the classical styles (Retrofitting, mainly in the country's two largest cities and further specially in Erzfelsen, which lies enclaved within the Brazilian city of Belo Horizonte, a modern-looking late-19th century planned city. Despite having a strong aesthetic policy, neither the central nor the municipal governments have architectural regulations. A basic architecture course is offered at the Zweig Institute.

Music

The Efeito Colateral is a heavy and thrash metal band from Rio de Janeiro and Saxenfurt, recording.

The main musical styles heard in Ebenthal (not counting non-resident citizens) are mostly of Brazilian, American and British origin, and include genres such as Rock n' Roll and Metal and its subgenres, Samba and Bossa Nova, Brazilian popular music and American and British pop. The 2022 study by the Zweig Institute identified that the musical genres most listened to within the national territory are, in order, Brazilian rhythms such as Brazilian popular music, Samba and Bossa Nova together, forming 30.7%, Rock n' Roll and Metal with all its subgenres forming 29.5%, American and British Pop forming 18.9%, and other genres such as Classic Music, Jazz, Rythm and Blues, Eurodance and Electronica forming a total of 15%.[34]

Ebenthal's music industry is paltry, with only two bands having been officially formed in the country's history and, among them, the only one that followed a professional career is Efeito Collateral, which is a heavy and thrash metal band originally from from Malmünd.[36] The band has already toured the central region of Ebenthal, in New Switzerland and Lüttenhausen, and the Brazilian State of Rio de Janeiro, in addition to an album has been officially released and their music has been made available on major music apps. Amateur music, however, is a major highlight of the country. According to the Royal Academy, 71.2% of Ebenthalers stated that music is somehow important in their lives, and 27.8% of the resident population is proficient in some type of musical instrument. The same survey also showed that as of 2020, 65% of the country's population uses some kind of music application for smartphones such as Spotify and YouTube Music.

Additionally, since 2019, Ebenthal has hosted a karaoke championship every year, and the State actively encourages the proliferation of amateur bands and artists through performances sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and Education.

Literature

Machado de Assis, considered the greatest Brazilian writter, is the most famous author among Ebenthalers.

Despite a low literary production, Ebenthaler literature emerged in 2017, three years after the country's independence, with the publication of short story Ucronismos de Guerra by Adriano Moreira, 1st Marquis of Jännerach, depicting a fictional story about the Ebenthaler civil war. Ebenthal produced few but significant works in romanticism, especially focused on novels uchronic about Brazil's imperial past and equally uchronic short stories recalling important facts of Ebenthali history. Fantasy is also a highly developed literary genre in Ebenthal, with stories inspired by RPG games. One of the main national artists of the fantastic genre is Guilherme, Prince Consort, who has authored more than 10 short stories set in a fantastic universe developed in collaboration with King Arthur II. Published authors include Jean Roberto, who has published and sold 500 copies of his book Survivors, a drama about a zombie apocalypse portrayed in Brazil, and Prince Mário S. of Ebenthal, author to three published book and several essays on Brazil's sociology and political history.[37]

Among the literary genres most appreciated by the Ebenthalers are romance, fantasy, thriller, realism, history and political literature. The author best known and read by the Ebenthalers is the Brazilian novelist and realist Machado de Assis. Among other popular authors are H.P. Lovecraft, Mary Shelley, Tymothy Zahn, J. R. R. Tolkien, Fyodor Dostoevsky, José Murilo de Carvalho, Sigmund Freud, Paulo Coelho and José Saramago.

In 2018 the Arturian Royal Fair (formerly called Royal Fair of Arturia), a literary and social event organized by the House of Beato and the House of Bruyn, took place in the former capital city of Brauncastel (then called Arturia), where many citizens and foreigners (mainly Brazilians) came together to exchange and talk about several books of their preference. More than 30 people participated and the fair disposed of more than 100 books. Currently, Ebenthal is served by several particular libraries and three public, the Royal National Library, located at Bubbington Palace, the Baron of Roches Library located at the Rochesburg Palace, both in Saxenfurt, and the Princess Nilse Library, in Erzfelsen. The government destinates 5% to 15% of its budget to cultural input annually, especially the acquisition of books.

Cuisine

The main typical dishes of Ebenthal are chocolate-derived and powdered milk sweets, inspired by Gororoba, a national sweet created by he who would become the future King Arthur II in 2002.

Ebenthaler cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the micronation's varying legacy of indigenous and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences. Examples are the Gororoba, a sweet ball made of chocolate and milk powder, considered the country's national dish; currywurst is the main regional dish in the enclaves of Nova Friburgo due to the German and Swiss colonization; Doce de leite and cheese bread are the regional dishes in the enclaves o Minas Gerais.

The national beverage is the chocolate milk and coffee. A typical meal consists mostly of rice and beans with beef, french fries and a fried egg. Popular snacks are pastel (a fried pastry); coxinha (a variation of chicken croquete). Ebenthal's cuisine is mainly centered in candies, specially made of chocolate, so the micronation dispose of many desserts such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), rocambole (roll cake) and romeu e julieta (cheese with goiabada).

Sports

The most popular sport in Ebenthal is football. The micronation created its football team in late 2018, but it has been dormant following two games. Volleyball, basketball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large Ebenthaler audiences. According to a 2019 survey, around 10% of the micronation's population practice some type of martial arts, mainly karate, Jiu-Jitsu and Capoeira.

The micronation is also a powerhouse of Paralympic Games as it is home to the world record holder and multiple-times swim champion André Brasil, who is a 1st-cousin-once-removed and godfather to High King Arthur II and a Ebenthali national.

National holidays

Name Date Notes
New Year's Day 1 January The first day of the Gregorian year.
Peace Day 19 February Victory of the Ebenthaler government at the civil war
International Workers' Day 1 May Honors the contributions that workers have made to the country's well-being.
Abolition Day 13 May Celebrates the abolition of slavery in Brazil by Isabel, Princess Regent.
Independence Day 11 August Independence of Ebenthal from Roschfallen
International Missy Barrat Day 30 August Marked as a day dedicated to doing and ecouraging good deeds, associated with the fictional character Missy Barratt.
Salvation Day 27 September Deposition of King Mateus after he seized power and almost brought an end to the nation.
Children’s Day 12 October Honours children, promote mutual exchange, understanding among children as well as their welfare.
Teachers's Day 15 October Special day for the appreciation of teachers and their special contributions to the society.
Mother's Day 29 November Celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society.
The chosen date was the death of Marilia IV, Princess of Marienbourg, King Arthur II's mother, in honor to her.
Magnanimous' Day 2 December Tribute to the birth of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, a revered person in Ebenthal.
Christmas 25 December Traditional commemoration of the birth of Jesus and secular celebration of family bonds.
New Year's Eve 31 December The final day of the Gregorian year; Saint Sylvester's Day.

External links

Notes

  1. By Roschfallen. Brazil never acknowledged the independence of Ebenthal.
  2. The SEGMINAS and CAMPSEG private security companies provided the security of Ebenthal's two farms which make up roughly 40% of the country's territory.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 NS Cache. Roschfallenian-Ebenthali relations Retrieved on 4 October 2020. Published on 2 April 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Conferência de Santiago. Treaty of Santiago, 12 April 2020.
  3. Ministry of Information. Ebenthal joins the IAC. published in 1 July 2021.
  4. Ministry of Information. Ebenthal becomes the last applicant member to the Konmalehth. Published in 19 July 2020.
  5. Bragança, Carlos Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e. 1959. Dom Pedro II na Alemanha (in Portuguese). 74-75. Senac, São Paulo. ISBN 2873864869
  6. Boxer, p. 98.
  7. Jeffrey C. Mosher (2008). Political Struggle, Ideology, and State Building: Pernambuco and the Construction of Brazil, 1817–1850. U of Nebraska Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8032-3247-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=T_yszWOZUCkC&pg=PA9. 
  8. Lustosa, pp. 117–19
  9. Lustosa, pp. 150–153
  10. Vianna, p. 418
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  14. 14.0 14.1 Ministry of Information. "National Symbols Referendum". 2 May 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
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  21. Conferência de Santiago. Treaty of Persenburg, given in Persenburg, 12 March 2020
  22. Conferência de Santiago. Goetha Protocol, 30 March 2020
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