United Provinces of Mauritia

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United Provinces of Mauritia
Dutch:Verenigde Provinciën van Mauritia
Portuguese:Províncias Unidas de Mauricia
Flag of Mauritia
Flag
Coat of arms of Mauritia
Coat of arms
Motto: 
"Cras Es Noster"
"The Future is Ours"
World Map of Mauritia (cultural reclamation).png
Area whose cultural heritage is claimed by Mauritia in orange
Capital
and largest city
Mauritsstad
Official languages
Other languagesFrench
Ethnic groups (2019)Mixed Race
White
Black
Indigenous
Religion(2020)Mostly Catholicism
DemonymMauritiaanse, Maurense
GovernmentFederal aristocratic crowned republic
Lucas of Woestein
Jorge van Marckheijd
LegislatureLegislature
Estates General
National Senate
Established
• Foundation
03 July 2013
24 July 2013
• Revival
01 November 2015
20 April 2020
08 May 2020
Area
• Total
0.1 km2 (0.039 sq mi)
• Water (%)
Null
Population
• 2020 estimate
180
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
No calculation available
• Per capita
No calculation available
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
No calculation available
• Per capita
No calculation available
Gini (2022) 29.0
low
HDI (2022) 0.900
very high · 27th
CurrencyMauritiaanse Florin (MFL)
Time zoneBRT (UTC−3)
• Summer (DST)
BRST (UTC−2)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Drives on theright
Calling code+55
Internet TLD.xyz


Mauritia, officialy United Provinces of Mauritia (Portuguese: Províncias Unidas de Maurícia; Dutch: Verenigde Provinciën van Mauritia) is an unrecognized self-declared nation, commonly known as a micronation that claims feasible and/or cultural continuity of the Dutch colonization in northeastern Brazil as sovereign state. Subsequently, Mauritia is classified by her peers of Brazilian origin as a virtualist micronation, that is, a nation, with an established society and culture, that exists without necessarily controlling a territory, much like a sovereign entity (such as the Order of Malta). Nevertheless, Mauritia ceremonially claims the territory of much of northeastern Brazil as the cultural successor to the Dutch colony of New Holland. With over 180 citizens, Mauritiaanse nominal territory is divided in 5 provinces and 2 ultramarine territories, with its capital and largest city being Mauritsstad.The nation's two official languages are the Portuguese, which is the national language, and the Dutch. In contrast to most states and micronations, Mauritia still adopts French as a diplomatic language.

Prior to its existence, the territory claimed by Mauritius was inhabited by different groups of indigenous people. In the 16th century the Portuguese Empire established the State of Brazil in the region and subsequently State of Grão-Pará and Maranhão, whose northeasternmost part was conquered by the Dutch West India Company in 1630 and administered as the Dutch colony of New Holland until 1654, when the territory was reincorporated into Portuguese Brazil. In 1822 Brazil gained its independence from Portugal and in 1889 it became a republic. The Dutch influence resulting from its 24 years of rule in the 17th century, however, resisted the centuries and in 2013 the United Provinces of Mauritia were established by a group of twenty citizens of the Holy Empire of Réunion and the Free Community of Pasargada as micronational successor state to Dutch Brazil. Mauritia grew to become the most important micronation of Brazilian origin in its peak. It adopted a constitution upon establishment mostly based on that of the Dutch Republic describing the country as a federal feudal constitutional and parliamentary aristocratic republic.

Although her territorial claims are merely symbolic, Mauritia has developed a highly advanced national identity, culture and society, being recognized as a regional and historic power by the Brazilian sector and a small power in global intermicronational affairs. Despite having changed its axis of political action, Mauritia is still largely associated with the Lusophone sector and, after years of isolationist and sectoral foreign policy, has been opening up to external recognition. The national economy is based on the Mauritiaanse Florin, and the state has a stable budget, capable of maintaining some of the oldest communication platforms in South American micronationalism. On the course of its history, Mauritia has been part of the Micronational Monarchies Organization and in 2020 it joined the Conference of Santiago through the enactment of the Convention of Mauritsstad.

Etimology

The Mauritiaanse constitution established the country's official name as United Provinces of Mauritia, in both Portuguese and Dutch language.

The country's proper name, Mauritia, is a homage after John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen (Johann Mauritius van Nassau-Siegen), Governor of Dutch Brazil, and it means land of Mauritius. The title-name of the country, United Provinces, is a referrence to the Dutch Republic common name of Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands.

History

Pre-micronational Dutch Brazil

Map of Dutch siege of Olinda and Recife in Brazil, 1630. The United Provinces of Mauritia were established directly inspired by the Dutch Brazil.

In 1549 the Portuguese Empire established the State of Brazil, its central government over the Portuguese hereditary captaincies in South America , subsequently divided in 1621, when Portugal and Spain were united as the Iberian Union, between the State of Brazil to the south and the State of Maranhão to the north. In 1630 the Dutch Republic, which had 42 years ago proclaimed its independence from the Spanish Empire, wishing to obtain the eastern region of the State of Maranhão, the largest and richest sugar-producing area in the world, launched an invasion of the Brazilian northeast region, expelling the Portuguese administration and establishing the colony of New Holland under administration of the Dutch West India Company. By 1635 many Portuguese settlers were choosing Dutch-occupied land over Portuguese-controlled land. Despite being protestants, the Dutch offered freedom of worship to the Catholics and Jews and security of property. In 1637 John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen, became the Governor of Dutch Brazil, further expanding the Dutch control inland, from the mouth of the Amazon River to the São Francisco River.

Maurice claimed to have always loved Brazil due to its beauty and its people, and under his rule, the colony thrived. He organized a form of representative local government by creating municipal councils and rural councils with both Dutch and Brazilian Portuguese members to represent the population. Maurice worked through the councils to begin modernizing the colony with streets, bridges, and roads in Recife. On the island of António Vaz, he founded the town of Mauritsstad (also known as Mauricia). Under Maurice, protection for Brazilian Jews, who had been ostracized to that point, was increased. He allowed former Jews who had been forced to convert to Christianity to return to their former faith. Non-Catholic Christians, such as Calvinists, were also allowed to practice their faith as part of religious toleration. Furthermore, the Catholic majority in Dutch Brazil was allowed to practice their faith freely, at a time in history in which there was extreme religious conflicts such as the Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants. This was formed into the new law of Dutch Brazil in the peace accord signed after the conquest of the captaincy of Paraiba. Although there were Dutch immigrants to Brazil, the majority of the population was Portuguese and Brazilian-born Portuguese, African slaves, and Amerindians, with Dutch rule an overlay on pre-existing social groups. As such, the Dutch were a ruling minority with a Portuguese and Brazilian-born Portuguese population.

In 1640, John, 8th Duke of Braganza declared the end of the personal union between Portugal from Spain, ending the Iberian Union. As a result, the threat of further Spanish intervention against Dutch Brazil declined, since Brazil was originally and had remained a Portuguese colony. In 1641-1642 the new Portuguese regime concluded a truce with the Dutch, temporarily ending hostilities, but the Dutch remained in Brazil. In 1644, the WIC recalled John Maurice to Europe in an attempt to cut military expenditures, following the cession of hostilities. A year after Maurits was summoned back by the WIC board, the WIC faced a major uprising of Portuguese planters in June 1645. By 1646, the WIC only controlled four toeholds along the Brazilian coast, chief among them being Recife/Mauritsstad. Following the Battle of Guararapes in 1648, the Portuguese recapture of Angola from the Dutch which had seized it, in 1649, and the recapture of Recife, the Dutch were expelled from Brazilian territory in 1654.

Formation of Mauritia

Oscar I of Karnia-Ruthenia, Lucas of Mauritia and a former friend during a meeting in 2018.

In 2011 the Free Community of Pasargada went into decline and eventually ceased its political activities after 10 years, although it did not relinquish its claims, also coinciding with the decline of political activities in the Holy Empire of Reunion. In view of this, 20 nobles and politicians from these nations, led by Lucas VIII, Prince of Woenstein, came together and established, on 3 July 2013, the United Province of Mauritia, claiming to be the state successor to the Dutch administration over northeastern Brazil. On the same day of its foundation, the Constituent Assembly began. The following day, the assembly, in its second session, elected Sílvia Soares as Director of the Board, acting as speaker of the house and de facto head of the legislature. A provisional government was formed and Felipe Aron was appointed Chancellor, head of government of the country, subsequently appointing Lucas of Woenstein as Minister of Justice, Fábio Pedro Racoski as Minister of Immigration, André Cyranka as Minister of Interior, and Lucas Willem as Minister of Communication. Initially Stadhouder's position had been formally established but had not yet been filled. The next day then, 5 July, before the promulgation of the constitution which was made incessantly for 2 whole days, the assembly elected Luke VIII, Prince of Woenstein, as Stadhouder of Mauritia for life. The new head of state then promulgated the Constitution and called elections for the first legislature of the National Senate the following day. Three days later, the Stadhouder inaugurated the Senate, formed by Felipe Aron, Silvia Soares, Fábio Pedro Racoski, Lucas d'Albuquerque, Tiberio de Salgueiro, Lucas Vitor Sena; Fábio Racoski was elected Chancellor, Felipe Aron was elected President of the Senate. Nevertheless, it did not take long for Racoski's new government to be overthrown, and Felipe Aron was again sworn in as Chancellor.

In December 2013, in the midst of a political crisis, the Stadhouder dissolved the Senate and called for new elections that resulted in the appointment of Lucas Morais, 1st Duke of Albuquerque, as Chancellor. The opposition, however, led by Felipe Aron, did not accept the result of the elections and formed a rebel government not recognized by the Stadhouder and the Mauritian institutions, eventually abandoning the Mauritian government and nation, which, due to its low number of politicians and active citizens and the personal relationships between them, soon went on hiatus from political activity.

Political revival

Crowned heads of the Conference of Santiago in early 2022, featuring the Stadhouder of Mauritia.

In November 2015, national political activity was resumed under the provisional government of the Duke of Salgueiro; shortly afterwards, in December, a senate was elected, and Lucas Morais finally took office as Chancellor; since then, Mauritia has recovered much of the stability it achieved in its first two years of existence, with its offices fulfilled by the right constitucional way, through elections and appointments. It was in this period that, by common agreement, the Principality of Noronha was established as a Mauritian sovereign and protectorate from the territory claimed from Mauritia by Prince João I of Noronha.

Later on this period, the self-proclaimed King Felipe VII of the simulationist Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (Portuguese: Reino de Portugal e Algarves, or shortened RUPA renounced his position, leaving the simulacrum of throne vacant. Understanding that the "micro-portuguese" constitution would irremediably appoints him as successor to the throne, on the conditions that he was the highest noble at that court (entitle Duke of Vigo), the Stadhouder of Mauricia claimed the pretense throne of RUPA and its according titles. Opposed to his predictions though, a popular inssurection installed a new government which declared war on Mauritia. The Mauritiaanse nation and the emulation of a revived Portuguese kingdom engaged in belligerancy using every resources available to them, giving the natural limitations of micronations and the micronational interpretation of war, but the pressure was already too high on the Stadhouder and the timing was lost. The war ended with the Stadhouder abdicating his pretensions to the throne RUPA to the de facto reigning self-styled King Marcelo I.

In 2020 Mauritia became one of the founding nations of the Brazilian sector, shifting its axis of political action from the simulationist-dominated Lusophone sector to the new sector. Convinced to join Conference of Santiago - the largest intermicronational organization of the Americas - by Karno-Ruthenian Emperor, on 8 April 2020 the Mauritian Government ratified the Convention of Mauritsstad nominally in its capital; the document, created especially for the purpose of Mauritia's entry into the Conference, categorized the micronation as "virtualist" and a sovereign entity analogous to a micronation secessionist. Following Mauritia's entry into the Conference of Santiago, the country became the target of attacks by the Kingdom of Manso and the Kingdom of Bauru, responding with diplomatic notes and defending its virtual space. Thanks to its participation in the Conference, Mauritia abandoned her de facto quasi-isolationist policy towards non-Lusophone micronations.

Government and politics

Lucas VIII, Prince of Woenstein. The first, only and current Stadhouder of Mauritia.
Lucas Pessoa, 1st Marquis of Frag, current Chancellor of Mauritia.

The United Provinces of Mauritia is constitutionally defined as federal constituional aristocratic republic, but de facto the country works as parliamentary constitutional elective monarchy and it is sometimes referred to as a crowned republic. The Head of State is the Stadhouder, or Stadtholder, whose position is reserved for the nobility, life-long and elective. He is the highest representant of the nation, responsible for appointing the Guardians of Justice (judges and justices), the Provider-General (the head of the public ministry), and the Chancellor (the head of government), as well as dissolve the legislatures and call for elections. The Chancellor, which is the Head of Government, is formally appointed by the Stadhouder upon hearing the will of the parliament. He is always the leader of the parliamentary majority, responsible for appointing the Ministers and Secretaries of State and to govern the country on the Stadhouder's behalf, thus answering to both Parliament and Crown.

The legislative power is exercised through a bicameral legislature composed of the National Senate as its lower house and the Estates-General as the upper house. The National Senate is elected by popular and indirect vote through universal suffrage with a fixed number of senators for each province, according to the provinces' own statutes which vary from a territory of the generality, a community, autonomous community, and canton, each providing varied number of senators. In the last yearly session of the legislature, the National Senate decides wether the next legislature to be convened will be the the Senate itself or the Estates-General. The Estates-General, in turn, is the the universal representation of all feudal lord of Mauritia. Each member has one vote for each feud it holds. The National Senate is elected by the Provincial General States; the provincial general states of each province elect their senators (according to the number they are entitled to represent) from among their members. The principle is the same as that of the national Estates General: one vote for each feud held there.

Judicature

The judiciary is composed of the Department of Guardians of Justice, with lifelong judges called Guardians of Justice which are appointed by the Stadhouder and must be approved by parliament convened. The head of the Department is the First Guardian of Justice, which is always the longest-serving Guardian of Justice. Each guardian, in fact, is titled according to the order of arrival: First Guardian, Second Guardian, Third Guardian, etc. There is no fixed limit for the number of Guardians and the Stadhouder can sack them at his will.

The accusatory body is appointed by the Department of the Provider-General of Justice's Office, composed of career Provider-General, appointed by the Stadhouder and upon parliamentary approval to serve for life. Formerly the offic was called Public Defender's Office, but in 2015 the name was changed to that of Provider-General inspired both by the Dutch Republic's former office as well as by the former Portuguese Provider-General.

Military

The Stadhouder of Mauritia is also commander-in-chief of the Royal Mauritiaanse Armed Foces and makes use of the patent of Captain-General, being constitutionally defined as "[...] paramount commander of all the military". The Stadhouder's nominal command of the armed forces is exercised on his behalf bu the General Chief of Staff of the Royal Armed Forces, an offices which is breveted in the most higher military rank through its term (equivalent to that of Generalíssimo, a six-star general, higher than a Marshal). The Royal Armed Forces is composed of the Régio Exército (Royal Army), the Régia Armada (Royal Navy) and the Régia Guarda Nacional (Royal National Guard), each with different attributions and independent from one another, although all are answerable to the General Chief of Staff, itself answerable to the Chancellor and the Stadhouder. The Royal Army in encharged with the territorial defense and administration when it not provided by the Government, being ultimatelly responsible for govern colonial territories and administrate cybernetic engineering. The Royal Navy is mostly responsible for carrying out espionage and counterespionage duties, although it is formally responsible by guarding Mauritia's seas and its interests beyond sea. The Royal National Guard acts as a gendarmerie, entrusted with police power through all the national territory.

Political divisions

Map of the territory virtually claimed by Mauritia and administrated through virtual means.

The United Provinces of Mauritia form a federal and feudal state in which the provinces have, in theory, great autonomy. Mauritia is made up of 6 provinces (Bahia, Calabar, Parahyba, Vrijland van Pernamburco, Woenstein and Angola), each governed as governed as hereditary monarchical fiefs loyal to the Mauritiaanse crowned republic embodied by the Stadhouder, who itself it can only be one of the provincial feuderal lords. There are also two ultramaritime incorporated territories (Burgundy and Kharg Islands) which are administrated separately from the Mauritiaanse provinces as autonomous communities. They're directly governed according to the Stdahouder's will. Mauritia has also exercised suzerainity over two protectorates which are the Imperial State of Badakhshan, ruled currently under crown union with Mauritia by the Prince of Woenstein, and the Principality of Noronha, which retains its sovereignity and was created from Mauritiaanse territory.

Foreign policy

Mauritia's foreign policy was initially limited to sectoral isolationism within the Lusophone sector, where its main ally was the Holy Empire of Reunion and Mauritia came to develop hegemony over the sector, maintaining a relationship with very few micronations of non-Brazilian origin such as Flandrensis, Glencoe and Lochabar and Rino Island. After the micronation's entry into the Conference of Santiago, Mauritia abandoned her quasi-isolationism and adopted new requirements for the establishment and maintenance of diplomatic relations by ratifying the Treaty of Persenburg, the Protocol of Goetha and the Convention of Mauritsstad. Mauritiaanse foreign policy is a by-product of the country's position as a great power within the Brazilian sector. The nation follows a strict policy and resolution and came to strongly opposes simulationism.

Mauritia has a policy of categorizing micronations according to their diplomatic relations divided into three categories: allied countries, countries with which Mauritia maintains formal diplomatic relations, and a country with which Mauritia recognizes its existence and right to sovereignty, but does not maintain formal relations and /or informal. Mauritiaanse foreign policy is managed by the Stadhouderschap, through the Ministry of State for Foreign Affairs, which manages the nation's diplomatic contacts, diplomatic and consular personnel, and the smooth running of the concert of nations through Mauritia. A list of criteria is adopted for Maurittia to recognize a micronation or establish diplomatic relations, being: Self-declared manifesto of the micropathiological project; Referential territory; Platform for social interaction and micronational practice, which can be self-hosted on its own or third party internet domain, or electronic mailing lists; Population larger than an individual; Culture; Government installed; Ability to relate harmoniously with other micronations.

Mauritia possesses four embassies, to Karnia-Ruthenia, Ebenthal, Reunion and Padme. The country also exerts its influence over micronations established by Mauritian citizens by installing protectorates over them.

Economy

5 Mauritiaanse Florins banknote.

The Mauritiaanse Florin was the first micronational currency used in a wide scale in South America (although restricted to the Lusophone sector in Brazil). The country also counts in a extremely developed banking system which works through a platform developed entirely by Mauritia and with Mauritiaanse technology. In 2020 the country refused to adopt the Conferential Doubloon, the Conference of Santiago's official currency, officialy adopted by most of its member states, but agreed to supply the Conference of Santiago Financial Authority with technical knowledge on virtual banking systems.

The Mauritiaanse economy is managed by the Ministry of Interior and Customs relies mostly in the services sector and the sale of national products such as e-books produced by the Mauritiaanse Historic and Geographic Institute and commemorative stamps, in addition to anonymous and private donations. The State nominally charges, but effectively does not collect taxes from its citizens, preferring to tax export products and services. There is no publicly available calculation about the Mauritian budget, but it is estimated in a situation of relative stability due to the capacity of the Mauritian State to keep active for almost 10 years a series of platforms, systems, in addition to its bureaucratic machine.

Infrastructure

Demographics

Race and ethnicity

Religion

Language

Culture

Mauritia claims the cultural succession of the 17th century Dutch colony in northeastern Brazil New Holland, so its general culture is strongly inspired by Dutch and Portuguese-Brazilian, being also influenced by the varied indigenous and African cultures that make up the general Brazilian culture and are particularly influential in that region of South America. Among other influences, the Portuguese and later Brazilians of Portuguese origin introduced the Portuguese language, which is the national language, and Catholicism, which is the dominant religion in the country and contrasts with its Dutch culture, essentially of Reform Protestant origin. Aspects of Dutch culture predominate in the national symbology, in the political-administrative structure, the proper names. Mauritia is also influenced by French and German cultures to a lesser extent.

The Mauritiaanse culture is widely considered by the states that identify with the Brazilian sector as being the most developed among the micronations of Brazilian origin. Mauritiaanse nationalism explains a strong Mauritiaanse national identity developed over the years with care through interpersonal relationships and having as a background the legacy of Dutch colonization, without neglecting Portuguese, African and indigenous influences. The country has a large literary sector of its own, as well as the development of micropatriology and visual arts research in the form of heraldic studies.

Heraldry

Mauritiaanse heraldry is one of the most complete of all Lusophone micronationalism. As a nation extremely dedicated to historical studies, Mauritia has a huge collection of coats of arms, flags and pennants, as well as bodies devoted to the preservation and registration of all heraldic and vexillological art, such as the De Mauritiaanse Wapenrol (Mauritiaanse Arms Parchment Institute), directed by Mr. Johannes Raphaël, Knight of Laurentia-Garnat. Mauritia also has a Golden Book of Mauritia, where all the nobility, their titles and holders are listed, and the Armorial of the National Orders of Mauritia, a portal of access to information and pennants of knights and nobles who belong to the Mauritiaanse chivalric orders. Currently, Mauritia has more than 46 completed national heraldic projects and, due to its expertise and know-how, the country exports heraldic art, mainly to its allies.

Cuisine

Literature

Sports

National holidays

See also

References