Geography of Ebenthal

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Geography of Ebenthal
Map of Ebenthal2.png
ContinentSouth America
RegionSouthern Cone
Coordinates
Area
 • Total92 km2 (36 sq mi)
 • Land98.1%
 • Water1.9%
Coastline0.05 km (0.031 mi)
BordersBrazil, Luna
Highest pointSchwarzenadel
1,155.21 m (3,790 ft)
Lowest pointAtlantic Ocean,
0 m (0 ft)
Longest riverAltendamenach River,
801 km (498 mi)
Largest lakeWasserteich Lagoon
5 m (16 ft)
ClimateTemperate, subtropical and tropical
TerrainCoastal mountain ranges
Natural resourceswood, clay and herbs
Natural hazardsfloods, hail and occasional frost, rarely cyclones and snow
Environmental issuesAir pollution

Ebenthal has a peculiar geography occupying a series of enclaves and exclaves in the extreme east of South America, in the subregion called Southern Cone, slightly above the Tropic of Capricorn. The country covers a territory of 9.2 km² (3.5 sq mi) of land and it is almost completely enveloped by Brazil, which does not recognize its sovereignty, but also shares a tiny border with Luna and it is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean. Ebenthal is estimated to be the third-largest micronation in the Brazilian sector by total area, as well as the most densely populated. Most of the country has a temperate climate between oceanic and subtropical, while the southern region has a tropical climate.

Ebenthal can be divided into three physiographic regions: the Highlands, the Northern Hills and Ebenthali Riviera. Ebenthal can subsequently be divided into three geopolitical regions: which includes the provinces of Geraldorf and Belmonte, the Central Region, which includes Schwarzberg and New Switzerland, and the Southern Region, which includes Altentupiland, Lüttenbühl and Altenburg. Despite Ebenthal's small territory, due to its sparse geography and the differences in altitude, climate and geology between its enclaves, its flora, which is dominated by the Atlantic Forest, is divided into rupestrian grasslands mainly in the central region, and seasonal tropical forests elsewhere. It is estimated that only a small part of Ebenthal's territory, around 5% to 10%, is covered by native forest. Ebenthal is bathed by the Jaguar River and Cat River, both tributaries of the Altendamenach River, which rises in Brazil with the name Rio das Velhas (Old Crone River) and flows into the ocean. In addition, the country is bathed by the Wasserteich Lagoon, the national name for the Saquarema Lagoon (Saquarema Lagoon).

Ebenthal is geologically inactive and has no earthquakes or inactive volcanoes on its territory. Local geological activity is estimated to have died out at least 50,000 years ago. Its highest point is Mount Schwarznadel, at 1,155.21 m (3,790 ft).

Physiography

Ebenthal covers a total of 9.2 km² (3.5 sq mi) divided into 15 enclaves within the 8 Brazilian municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Magé, Nova Friburgo, Itatiaia, Saquarema, Juiz de Fora, Belo Horizonte and Santa Luzia in the far eastern coast of South America. Due to sparseness between enclaves, Ebenthal's physical geography is relatively varied. High plains in terrain of seasonal forests prevail in the northern region of the country facilitating agriculture, rupestrian grasslands are prominent in the central region, with higher altitude and mild climate, while the southern region is dominated by low land, at sea level, humid forests and generally warm climate.

Ebenthali Highlands

The Ebenthali Highlands stretch from Belmonte to Geraldorf, arguably including the northernmost part of Schwarzberg, consisting of plains amid mountain ranges at least half a mile above sea level. The Ebenthali Highlands exist surrounded by the Brazilian Plateau. Its biogeography is dominated by seasonal forests, although the Geraldorf region is poor in native forest because its humid and flat terrain and subtropical climate favor agriculture, whose fields account for 80% of the province's land. There it lies the Altendamenach River, not very extensive in breadth, which divides the province. Due to its forests and simple terrain, the Highlands are home to a vast fauna that sometimes includes even large mammals such as jaguars and manned wolves.

Northern Hills

Despite the name, the Northen Hills are located in the central region of the country, south of the northern region. Its name is due to the fact that it is north of the capital Altenburg and the lack of the current northern region of Ebenthal at the time of its appointment, being at the time the northernmost region of the country. The Northern Hills are a mountain range stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ebenthali Highlands, encompassing the provinces of Schwarzberg and New Switzerland. The mountain range averages 900 meters in altitude and its highest point is Schwarznadel at 1,155.21 meters (3,790 feets). Due to its high altitude, the climate is temperate and mild, with the lowest average temperature in the country. It is the only region of the country with occurrence of snow. Due to altitude, oxygen shortage and atmospheric pressure, the mountain biome does not support high vegetation and is composed of rupestrian grasslands, with a fauna mainly of insects, birds and small mammals.

Ebenthali Riviera

The Ebenthali Riviera is the Ebenthal coastline, stretching across three provinces, from Altenburg through Altentupiland to Lüttenbühl. It is the most distinct of the physiographic regions of the country. Bathed by the Atlantic Ocean, the Riviera consists of lowlands and has a humid tropical climate, marked by its proximity to the sea. Its flora is from moist forests and is home to a varied fauna. It is the most urbanized region of the three that make up the national physiography. In this region is the Wasserteich Lagoon, the largest lagoon in the country, of salt water due to having formed by extension of the invasion of the sea in wetlands.

Climatology

The climate of Ebenthal comprises a variety of weather conditions across a scattered area and varied topography, but most of the country has a mild subtropical climate, while the southern region has a tropical savanna climate. According to the Köppen system, Ebenthal hosts three major climatic subtypes: tropical, oceanic and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from tropical rainforests in the southern region, subtropical vegetation, including temperate coniferous forests in the central and northern regions and rupestrian grasslands in the central region. Many microregions have starkly different microclimates.

The country experiences hot, humid summers, and mild, wet winters. In inland areas of the capital city of Altenburg, temperatures above 40 °C (104 °F) are common during the summer, though rarely for long periods, while maximum temperatures above 27 °C (81 °F) can occur on a monthly basis. On the other hand, cities such as Belmonte have a much more temperate climate with an average of 28 °C in summer and close to 0 °C during winter. Along the coast, the breeze, blowing onshore and offshore, moderates the temperature. Because of its geographic situation, the country is often reached by cold fronts advancing from Antarctica, especially during autumn and winter, causing frequent weather changes. In summer there can be strong rains, which have on some occasions provoked catastrophic floods and landslides. The mountainous areas register greater rainfall since they constitute a barrier to the humid wind that comes from the Atlantic. Snow has occurred in the central region (Schwarzberg), although it's rare. Frost occurs normally during winters in both central and northern regions.

Biogeography

Despite its widespread location in the form of enclaves, Ebenthal only spans the Atlantic Forest biome, although, due to the differences in altitude and climate between the enclaves that make up the country, there is a difference in the development of the local fauna and flora. In the higher altitude and lower temperature regions of Schwarzberg and New Switzerland the sub-biome of rupestrian grasslands predominates, while the rest of the country is dominated by seasonal forests with a wide variation of humidity in the coastal oceanic region.

Studies have not been carried out but the government estimates that between 70% and 80% of the territory of Ebenthal is urbanized and completely made up of buildings while between 20% and 30% is composed of nature and land dedicated to agriculture and livestock. Approximately 10% of the national territory is formed by a single conservation area, the Royal Rupestrian Park. Due to their size, the rupestrian grasslands form the largest sub-biome of Ebenthal, but proportionally the sub-biome is predominantly that of tropical and sub-tropical humid forests. The largest forest in Ebenthal is the Schönerhorizont Forest.

Environment

Due to its mixed urban-agricultural status, Ebenthal haven't much space free for nature. Nonetheless it is estimated that at least 5% of the country's total area is made up of native Atlantic rainforest, and the government has expent some effort into reforestation programs. Furthermore the Penal Code of Ebenthal foresee brutal punishments for environment crimes.

Geographical regions

Ebenthal is divided into three geographical regions with do not enjoy of any official capacity and are merely for definition: