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| Principality of Roschfallen |
(pt) Principado de Roschfallen
Infinitum Et Ultra
(English: To the Infinity and Beyond)
|Government||Parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy|
|- Captain Regent||Nathan de Menezes|
|- High Inquisitor||vacant|
|Legislature||Council of Fools|
|Established||28 January 2014|
|Area claimed||2 km2|
|Time zone||BRT −3 and −2|
Roschfallen, officially the Principality of Roschfallen (Portuguese: Principado de Roschfallen), is a enclaved micronation located in South America, completelly surrounded by Brazil. At 2 square kilometers (0.78 square miles) and with over 200 people, Roschfallenian territory is divided into enclaves in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro in three cities. The capital and the most-populated city is Triunphus. It have Portuguese as sole official language. Its territory comprises several buildings, alongside a vast unexplored natural area of Atlantic forest and a lagoon.
Roschfallen was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the settlement in 1565 by Estácio de Sá, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire as part of it's new colony of Brazil. Roschfallen remained part of Portuguse Brazil until independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, which later became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. In 2014, Roschfallen was created as a micronational project, proclaiming it's independence from Brazil and claiming it's own private lands as the national territory. Roschallen's current constitution, formulated in 2015, defines it as a semi-parliamentary unitary monarchy. The state is subdivided into 6 districts.
Roschfallen's economy is based on the added value of its properties, resources and profits, with the gross value of GDP reaching 4.5 million dollars, and the GDP per capita reaching the value of 21.000 dollars. Roschfallen until 2015 had a fast growing economy, mainly based on services and exports of industrial goods. Brazil is a founding member of the former Liberal League, an international alliance that brings together nations with liberal policies. Citizenship can be acquired by simply living in one of it's territories.
- 1 Etimology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
The name "Roschfallen" is a German surname of a legendary warrior named "Lord Karl Vissen Roschfallen" from the national folklore. According to the myth, Lord Vissen, as he was called, was a Prussian Baron who emigrated to the present territory of Roschfallen, establishing himself in the mountain region. Bearer of mental diseases, the baron proclaimed himself Lord of Roschfallen, proclaiming the independence of his 1.5 kilometers lands. The derivation of the name comes from the medieval Low-Saxon, meaning fallen stone.
Before the proclamation of independence, the members involved in the creation of the new micronation decided to adopt the name Roschfallen for aesthetic reasons in return for the name of indigenous origin that baptized the territories of the nation. Between 28 January and 16 February the country was officially called the Principality of Roschfallen until its reorganization into a Grand Duchy and it's return to the previous Princely state.
The constitution also stipulates that the name of the country be officially treated in documents such as the most serene: The Most Serene Principality of Roschfallen
On 28 Januray 2014, the now Arthur I, Prince of Roschfallen established the Throne of Roschfallen, declaring the private property of his family in the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro, Magé and Saquarema as a Principality independent from the Federative Republic of Brazil. The first year of Roschfallen's existence were plagued by uncertainty and political instability, but the Grand Duke was able to maintain order and develop the realm. An elective absolute Monarchy in the beggining, the country became a hereditary semi-parliamentary monarchy with the Roschfallenian constitution of 2015.
Founded as a Principality, the country soon became a Grand Duchy - only to return to be a Principality - when the former Grand Diet proclaimed Arthur, then Prince of Roschfallen as Grand Duke in 16 February 2014, conferring on him full powers. In the following months the political structure of Roschfallen was created based on the structure of the Holy Roman Empire, with the state divided into several duchies under the suzerainty of the current Prince, following the basic laws of state. In 30 April 2014 Lord Thales Fernandes was named the first Captain Regent of Roschfallen, as a co-Head of Government. Together with the Grand Duke - current Prince - they had appointed the first ministerial cabinet. The monarch was solely responsible for appointing the judiciary officials; The Captain Regent was responsible for structuring the ministries; And both, together, made the first legal appointments to the Grand Diet. In July 2014 the Diet was renamed "Council of Fools" as a way of representing the participation of the people - fools - in the national policy of the nobles.
During this period a national aristocracy was created. In this first year, the power of the aristocracy took uncontrollable proportions to the government; the aristocrats and rulers of the federal states pressed for a democratic election to the title and rank of Grand Duke. Fearing to lose his power, the Grand Duke canceled the constituent project and granted a new constitution instituting Roschfallen as a hereditary monarchy and reformulating the system of government with the semi-parliamentary façade, while the Grand Duke still retained absolute powers over a politically controlled parliament, restricting the autonomy of the federal states and the power of their monarchs.
As of August 2015, with national policy stabilized, the national economy started to grow again, despite the strong economic crisis affecting the neighboring nation. The Roschfallenian government expanded its territory with the annexation of the region of the current Avalon Department through a process of possession in the Brazilian justice system through an indemnity in the amount of US$10.000 dollars. The region comprising the Gros Morne Condominuium was expanded with the annexation of 200m² of uninhabited land, and thanks to increasing economic development, the region was severely revitalized and urbanized with the construction of new and modern buildings.
In 12 October 2015 the Constitution come to power. Well established, the central government had defined an international policy of mutual recognition among South American micronations to be followed up to the new year. In 14 January 2016, the Empire of Schneeblutig became the first micronation to recognize the independence and sovereignty of Roschfallen through a treaty of mutual recognition. Through the treaty, Emperor Petar I of the House of Karvalho granted the then Grand Duke Arthur of Roschfallen the courtesy title of Prince of Schneeblutig. International relations were established with other micronations such as the Sultanate of Harran and the Kingdom of Manso.
During this period there was a large population increase with a constant flow of Brazilian, Portuguese and Argentinian immigrants who came to the country seeking residence or professional opportunities. All were naturalized citizens of Roschfallen, according to article 5 of the Constitution.
In August 2016, with the repercussion of the Brazilian political crisis and the positive reaction of the market, Roschfallen continued to thrive until December, as changes made in the economic policy of its neighbor caused exaltation and uncertainty about the directions of the Brazilian economy, consequently the crisis reached Roschfallen in full, causing a slight but slow economic recession. This very year, in November, the Council of Fools voted and passed a constitutional amendment that drastically enlarged the monarch's power.
Faced with the economic problems, the Grand Duke prostrated himself for the sake of helpfulness, giving his all to help to face the turbulent period for which the nation passed. Protests erupted throughout Rochfallen against the economic policy of then Minister of Finance Carlos Manoel dos Santos. Pressed by the population and parliament, the minister was fired from his post and was appointed to replace him then-Administrator of the capital, Reynald Loss. Loss was able to soften the effects of the crisis on the national economy through a more liberal economic policy, opening the market to foreign capital and making necessary and valuable investments that yielded 100% profits to the national economy.
Roschfallen was only able to completely get out of the economic crisis in July 2017 when it began receiving the first profits from the acquisition and expansion of its Western territory. Between December 2017 and January 2018 the country underwent serious administrative reforms to cut spending and soften bureaucracy. Since then, for example, the positions of Speaker of the House and High Inquisitor have been vacant. In February 2018 negotiations began with the Karno-Ruthenian government for the incorporation of the Grand Duchy to the Karno-Ruthenian Empire. On February 28 Karnia-Ruthenia recognized the independence and sovereignty of Roschfallen. This same month, the Grand Duke was invited to occupy the charge of Minister of the Imperial and Royal House of Karnia-Ruthenia by Emperor Oscar I, which was accepted bringing great honor and salutes to all across the nation. On 20 August 2018 the country underwent a structural and administrative reform and returned to the status of Principality, rather the Grand Duchy, making the Grand Duke, Prince again.
Roschfallen is on the far western part of a strip of South America's Atlantic coast (enclaved in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, Magé and Saquarema), close to the Tropic of Capricorn, where the shoreline is oriented east–west, and only share land borders with Brazil. It also encompasses a number of oceanic tiny islands, such as Bacaxá Rocks, Our Lady Rocks, and Jaconé Island. Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Roschfallen geographically simple, with Atlantic forests and a Subtropical climate.
With a total area of 2.1 Km², Roschfallen spans only one time zone, the UTC−3, and the summet time zone UTC−2. Roschfallenian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres and 400 metres. The northern region of the country is rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountains that are natural borders with Brazil. Roschfallen has a simple but vast aquifer system, being bathed by an immense lagoon of salt water and by the sea in the eastern region.
The climate of Roschfallen comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical savanna climate. According to the Köppen system, Roschfallen hosts three major climatic subtypes: tropical oceanic and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from tropical rainforests in the east and subtropical vegetation in the west, to temperate coniferous forests in the north. Many regions have starkly different microclimates.
The country experiences hot, humid summers, and mild, wet winters. In inland areas of the city, temperatures above 40°C (104°F) are common during the summer, though rarely for long periods, while maximum temperatures above 27°C (81°F) can occur on a monthly basis. Along the coast, the breeze, blowing onshore and offshore, moderates the temperature. Because of its geographic situation, the country is often reached by cold fronts advancing from Antarctica, especially during autumn and winter, causing frequent weather changes. In summer there can be strong rains, which have on some occasions provoked catastrophic floods and landslides. The mountainous areas register greater rainfall since they constitute a barrier to the humid wind that comes from the Atlantic.
Government and politics
The form of government is that of a constitutional monarchy with and unitary state and a semi-parlamentary system. The Prince is both head of state and head of government of the nation and his position is hereditary. The Prince appoints the Captain Regent, who in turn appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Legislative power is exercised through the Council of Fools, the national Unicameral legislature. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively through the Inquisitional Court. Roschfallen is a autocracy, according to the Micronational Democracy Index 2010.
The Roschfalleanian Unity is the "indissoluble union" of the departments, condominium and the capital district. The unity is set on five fundamental principles: submission, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labor and freedom of enterprise, and political control. The branches of government (executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system) are formally established by the Constitution, mostly centralized into the Grand Duke. The executive is organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary and the legislative are organized only at the national unitary sphere.
All members of the auxiliar legislative branch, the Council of Fools, are directly appointed by the Prince. Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams. For most of its tiranical history, Roschfallen has no popular elections. National politics is divided into 5 parties: the Liberal Party, Conservative Party, Progressive Party, Labor Party and Green Party. The former Republican Party was outlawed in 2016 after a vote of the Council of Fools has approved a constitutional amendment that drastically extends the power of the monarch.
Roschfalleanischen law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Roschfallenian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.
The Inquisitional Court of Roschfallen serves primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country. The legal system is based on the National Constitution, which was promulgated on 12 October 2015, and is the fundamental law of Roschfallen. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules. The minor states have their own basic laws, which must not contradict the National Constitution. Departments and the Federal District Capital have "organic laws", which act in a similar way to constitutions. Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms. Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the National Constitution allows the Council of Fools to pass on legal judgments. There are also specialized military, labor, and political courts. The highest court is the Inquisitional Court.
The armed forces of Roschfallen consists of the Princely Army (including the Army Aviation Command), the Princely Light Navy (including the Submarinist Corps and Naval Aviation), the Princely Air Force. Numbering total 54 active personnel, being 32 members of the army, 18 members of the navy and 4 members of the Air Foce. The PrincelyPolice is described as an ancillary forces of the Army by the constitution, but are under the control of the National Government. Roschfallen is served by the Brazilian Military Firefighters Corps.
The Princely Army is equipped with high-powered military vehicles and armed with light weapons with easy access. Its main function is to protect the most isolated regions of the nation from external and internal threats. The Princely Light Navy has a yacht, as well as two high speed boats. Its main function is to patrol the maritime borders and the exclusive economic zone of Roschfallen. The Princely Air Force, the lesser Roschfallenian armed force, consists in a small single-engine airplane and three drones, responsible for flying over and patrolling the country's airspace.
Roschfallen has not been attacked since 2016, when Brazilians invaded the national territory illegaly. They were hunted and leave the country lands. Two of them were shot, and one was taken by the police.
Roschfallens's international relations are based on Article 4 of the National Constitution, which establishes non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation and coordenation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Roschfallen's relationship with other micronations and multilateral organizations. According to the Constitution, the Princely has ultimate authority over foreign policy and is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Roschfalleanischen foreign policy.
Roschfallen's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional micronational power within the state of Rio de Janeiro and thanks to it's liberal citizenship policy. Roschfalleniann foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries.
Currently, Roschfallen is recognized as an independent and sovereign micronation by threeteen micronations: Karnia-Ruthenia, and all it's 12 sovereign members, Schneeblutig, Harran, Unx, Empire Arabic Empire, Manso, Acadeshia, Znatsnaz, Lorien, Alissonovia, Jandira, Rubrayev, Leontino, Bugolavia and Piratiní
Roschfallen is a unitary state composed of 3 departments, 1 condominium and 1 district (The capital city, Triunphus) and 8 Municipalities. The departments are administrated by an appointed and submissive to the Grand Duke and the National Government. Charge diferenes tax rates, according to the social-economic differences in each state, which are sent to the central bank of the Triunphus. The states have a administrator, called Captain and a legislative assistant council, appointed by the Captain. The capital district is personally ruled by the Grand Duke. Roschfallen is divided into:
- Gros Morne Condominium (North/Magé and Petrópolis):Tercessuinotlim
- Seine Oceanic Department (East/Saquarema): Lorencia
- Avalon Department (West/Taquara and Praça Seca): Gander; Gomorra
- Iriland Department (South/Botafogo, Laranjeiras and Santa Teresa): Acquitane; Wittelsbach; Iriland
- Capital District (Central/Méier): Triunphus
Roschfallen total economy budget is of US$ 4.524 million dollars, about to R$ 14 million reais, being a large amount to a micronation. Roschfallen has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources and a developed common market. The Roschfallenian economy has been predicted grow in the next decades with the GDP per capita following and growing, provided that large investments in productivity gains are made to substitute the GDP growth of the last decade that is attributable to the increase in the number of people working, free market and government funds to the private sector. Its current GDP (PPP) per capita is $21,236 in 2018 putting Roschfallen in the one of the bests position among micronations. Active in agricultural, manufacturing and service sectors Roschfallen has a labor force of over 150 people and unemployment of 11.2%.
The country has been expanding its presence in intermicronational financial markets. It has become a large car market. Major export products include consume goods, Manufactural goods, information technology, dairy, textiles, services and decoration goods.
With no national currency, Roschfallen uses the Brazilian Real unofficially, which follows a manged-float monetary policy by the Central Bank of Brazil. The conomy of Roschfallen succeeded due to the free-market and ordoliberal economic system adopted by the government interventionism in rare cases, in order to avoid prejudice to the national market. The laws of respect for the primary surplus has been respected since independence, although the country has gone through turbulent times in 2016.
The higher expenses of Roschfallen economy are with infraestructure and security, followed by welfare, health and the environment. Spending on government manutention are minimal. The Ducal Government has invested heavily in modernizing its intitutions and apparatuses in key areas of invesiment. Total expenditures total over 1 million reais, making it one of the governments of greater investment in their region.
Science and technology
Technological research in Roschfallen is largely carried out by the government in research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from the profits of its investments in the financial market. Roschfallen's most esteemed technological hubs are the Acer Institute, the Ovonel Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Gros Morne Agricultural Research Corporation and the Imperial Schneeblutigan Agency in Roschfallen. Owner of relative technological sophistication, the country develops ships, robots, automatic machines, as well as being involved in geolocial and agricultural research.
Roschfallen produces a large part of its energy consumed through wind, solar and thermoelectric power plants, managed by National Light Company, a state agency of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. According to research, the entire inhabited territory of Roschfallen has internet and telephone signals, and 85% of the Roschfallenians families have at least one computer and a smartphone.
Roschfallenian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. All roads in Roschfallen are paved, although most are cobbled in the Gros Morne Condominium. The first investments in road infrastructure have given up in the 2014, soon after the independence, by the Ministry of Infrastructure Marcelo Penna. Roschfalleanian roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Brazil. There is no annual registration fee or road tax; however, all Roschfallenian roads are privatized. The new car market is dominated by Toyota, (57% of cars sold in Roschfallen as of 2016), Jeep (30%) and Renault (13%). Over 70% of new cars sold in 2016 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines.
There are one little airport in Roschfallen, Princess Maria Airport, located in Tercessuinotlim, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling small domestic flights in single-engine and twin-engine aircraft. Royal Flight is the national carrier airline, although some private airline companies provide domestic travel services.
Roschfallen also has a small river transportation network connecting Lorencia to the Brazilian cities like Saquarema, Maricá and Araruama, linking the Seine Oceanic Department to the Brazilian Rio de Janeiro state. The country does not have a railway system.
The Roschfallenian public health system, the Public Health Service, is managed and provided by all levels of government. On the other hand, private healthcare systems play a major role. Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free. However, the construction and maintenance of health centers and hospitals are financed by taxes, and the country spends about 5% of its GDP on expenditures in the area. In 2017, Roschfallen had 5 doctors and 3 hospital beds for every inhabitants, as part of the lease of land rented to a clinic of one NGO.
Despite all the progress made since the creation of the universal health care system in 2017, there are still several public health problems in Roschfallen which leads the majority of the population to seek private health or to deal with the Brazilian Unified Health System, whose services are extended to Roschfallen through a unilateral agreement. The greatest cause of death in Roschfallen is due to Cardiovascular diseases (12 deaths per 200 inhabitants). The number of deaths from noncommunicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases (5 deaths per 200 inhabitants) and cancer (4 deaths per 200 inhabitants), also has a considerable impact on the health of the Roschfallenian population. Finally, external but preventable factors such as violence and suicide caused 10.9% of all deaths in the country. The Roschfallenian health system is one of the most well-developed among micronations, at the level of the World Health Organization (WHO) according to their 2000 pattern.
The National Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the National Government, Departments, Capital District and municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems. Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources. The constitution reserves 25% of the state budget and 20% of national taxes and municipal taxes for education.
According to the Roschfallenian Institute of Database and Estatistics (IRDE), in 2015, the literacy rate of the population was 96.0%, meaning that 3 people (4% of population) people are still illiterate in the country; functional illiteracy has reached 21.6% of the population. Illiteracy is highest in the Gros Morne Condominium, where 19.9% of the population is illiterate.
Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses, which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers. Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense.
Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education. Kindergarten, elementary and medium educations are required of all students, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental, visual or hearing.
As the territory of Roschfallen does not have space for the construction of an educational institution, the country has unilateral agreements with Brazil for the use of its educational system. Currently the university most frequented by Roschfallenians is Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, ranked 7th the best university in Latin America, according to QS World University Rankings.
The population of Roschfallen, as recorded by the 2015 PNAD, was approximately 211 people, with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1 and 85.64% of the population defined as urban. The population is heavily concentrated in the Northern (79 inhabitants) and Southern (55 inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the North and the East, which together make up 60% of the Roschfallenian territory, have a total of only 83 inhabitants.
The first census in Roschfallen was carried out in 2015 and recorded a population of 197 inhabitants. From 2015 to 2018, 12 Brazilians and 2 Portuguese arrived. Roschfallenian's population increased significantly between 2017 and 2018, because of a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. In the 2010s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 2020s according estimatives and remaining at 2.9% in the 2025s, as life expectancy rose from 78 to 81 years and to 83 years in 2016. It has been steadily falling since the 2010s, from 3.04% per year between 2010 and 2015 to 1.05% in 2018 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050 thus completing the demographic transition.
In 2018, the illiteracy rate was 0.48% and among the youth (ages 15–19) 0.02%. It was highest (9.30%) in the Northern, which had a large proportion of rural poor. Illiteracy was high (11.18%) among the rural population and lower (0.5%) among the urban population.
Race and ethnicity
According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2015, 59% of the population described themselves as White; 35% as Mixed race; 5,5% as Black of different ethnicities; and 0,5% as Asian, mainly (99%) chinese.
In 2016, the Native People Ducal Foundation estimated that Roschfallen has only one ethnical tribe, dwon from their estimate of three in 1989. Roschfallen is believed to have a zero estimate os Indigenous population as of 2018.
Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable miscegenation between local Amerindians and [w:European|Europeans]] has taken place in all regions of the country (with European ancestry being dominant nationwide according to the vast majority of all autosomal studies undertaken covering the entire population, accounting for between 90% to 98%).
Roschfallenian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, although some income disparity is found between race groups, so racism and classism can be conflated. Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance (phenotypes) rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups.
From the 19th century, Roschfallen opened its borders to immigration. Hundreds of people from over 10 countries migrated to Roschfallenian current territories between 1808 and 1972, most of them of Portuguese, German, Swiss, French, Chinese and Brazilian.
Roschfallen is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Roschfallen has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious secularism. Freedom of religion in Roschfallen is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state. With Catholicism in decline after having once been central and integral to Roschfallenian culture and daily life, Roschfallen has become a post-Christian, secular state. The majority of Roschfallenians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, but still believe in God. According to the 2015 census, 77% of Roschfallenians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 68% of the population. Much of the remainder is made up of Protestants, who accounted for approximately 32% in a 2015 survey. The largest Protestant denomination is the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (accounting for 6.1% of Roschfallenians), followed by Batptist (5.0%), and Anglican (1.9%). Secularization has been growing. In 2015, 9% declared no religious affiliation, compared to 4% in 2014. The remaining 14% are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Spiritism (12%) and Buddism (2%).
The official language of Roschfallen is Portuguese. (Article 13 of the Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Roschfallen), which almost all of the population speaks and is practically the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. The most famous exception to this is the English, which was recognized as secondary and business language by the Grand Duchy of Roschfallen. In 2014 the Council of Fools legally recognized the use of the Brazilian Sign Language as official language to deaf people; The law was regulated in 2015. The law mandates the use of the Brazilian Sign Language, more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, in education and government services. The language should be taught as a part of the curriculum and language and language pathology curriculum. LIBRAS teachers, instructors and translators are recognized professionals. Schools and health services should provide access ("inclusion") to deaf people.
Roschfallenian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants, coming from Central Europe)
Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. In some departments, Portuguese is the co-official language along with other major languages of foreign settlers, mainly English, French and German. In Gros Morne Portuguese in the co-official language along with the German. Learning at least one second language (generally English and Spanish) is mandatory for all 12 grades of the mandatory education system.