History of Sabia and Verona

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This article refers to the history of Sabia and Verona from the Pre-Columbian settlers that inhabited the Valtir, to the establishment of Spanish colonies to the foundation of the first Micronation in its territory and present state of the Kingdom of Sabia and Verona.

Though information on Pre-Columbian settlers before the arrival of the Spanish is sparse, it's widely accepted that the area that is now the Valtir was once inhabited by indigenous tribes of the Timoto–Cuica people. The first Spanish settlement in this area was established on 9 October 1558 by Juan Rodríguez Suárez during one of the Pamplonian mining expeditions he led. The first settlement of the area was not the current one of Mérida but 30 kilometres (19 miles) to the south, in Xamú, where today stands the community of Lagunillas, Sucre Municipality.

In 2011 the first micronation in the area was founded: the Cizlandeese Republic, which soon became the Cizlandeese Empire. Tarik Karjasari, leader of these micronations, led a diverse range of short-lived micronational states throughout 2011 and 2012, which would be known as the Garrshirian micronations. In October 2012 the Kingdom of Sabia and Verona was founded, and the Garrshirian sector achieved relative stability. Today, Sabia and Verona stands as the sector's most long-lasting and stable micronation to date, and it's one of the most active micronations in the South American continent.

Foundation

Treteté flag waving in Alcabala on 20 October 2012 after the official foundation of Sabia and Verona.

Sabia and Verona surged as an idea after the separation of the Colony of Listva from the Empire of Würdigeland, and soon proposals of a new overseas territory joining the Kingdom of Juclandia arose in the Juclandian legislative bodies. In the meantime, Sabia and Verona began an organizational plan that included censuses, legislative arrangements, local elections and territorial divisions. The first meeting of the Courts of Sabia and Verona, the regional parliament happened on 18 October 2012, when all 20 members of the Courts met in Saint Enric (the newly elected capital) to discuss the issues of joining Juclandia and the new Sabioveronese entity, inter alia. The development of Sabioveronese media, the Juclandia-Sabia and Verona interaction and other topics were yet to be deepth.

On 20 October 2012, Juclandian legislative bodies accepted Sabia and Verona as an overseas territory and the King passed the respective law approving so. The treteté flag was raised in the city of Alcabala and the Local Government declared 20 October to be a national holiday.[1]

Juclandian era (2012–2014)

Early self-rule developments

On 26 October 2012, the SDCP and PCJ factions in Sabia and Verona (which formed the SiV People's Movement) formed a new political party, the Sabioveronese Socialist Party or Sahoedang, a left-wing[2] party headed by Napoléon Bleuberrie and Pomme-Gabrielle Gauvier. The foundation of the subordinate party represented a step further into the political self-control of Sabia and Verona. The Sahoedang became a strong political entity in Sabia and Verona, if not the strongest. Leading its way into being the most supported political party in the region, the Sahoedang became a cultural icon, representing Sabia and Verona's regionalist identity.

On 14 November 2012, the Unity Party was founded to represent all Juclandian non-aligned opposition parties, becoming the second Sabioveronese party and the main political opposition to the Sahoedang. Soon the Sabian Nationalist Movement would join the factions of the Unity Party and become a stronger identity. Sabian language is officially adopted by the party.

From left to right: Gold, Casablanca and Blackhorse, mugshots at Saint Enric penitentitary

In December 2012, skirmishes began with three "rebel" leaders declaring themselves "Kings" of different areas of the Kingdom. Albert Gold, "King of the Highlands"; Leandro Casablanca, "King of the Riverlands" and Andrew Blackhorse "King in the East" were detained and the indulgence was controlled by government officials. Motivated by the lack of proper strength exhibited during the insurgencies by the Sabioveronese government, King Ciprian ordered the creation of a military force in Sabia and Verona, the Land Army of Sabia and Verona. The new military force's headquarters are located in Alcabala. This new army, working jointly with the Gendarmería Regional, managed to tie the Three King Movement with Unity Party members, who were arrested on 6 December 2012.[3]

On 13 December 2012, the Courts of Sabia and Verona passed, by a majority of votes, the bill #016 of the Legislative Courts entitled "Language reform", that outlawed the official use of Korean and Spanish languages and adopted the Sabian language as only official language within the territories of Sabia and Verona.[4] This mass adoption of Sabian language appeared to please the Sabioveronese people, as street signs and non-official allegories to the Korean language were removed and eventually replaced by Sabian language ones.[4] The Sahoedang party adopted a Sabian name and became the CM.

On 16 December 2012, the Socialist Party and the Unity Party signed the Karasal Treaty, a peace agreement where both counterparts agree to maintain peace between each other and the region, and commit to help the democratic progress of Sabia and Verona in stability and equality.[4] The treaty, along with the People's Government help, served as base for the creation of the Regional Committee for Democracy and Stability in Sabia and Verona, also known as the Karasal Committee (which would later become the Commission for the Preservation of Democracy). The signing of the treaty and the foundation of the Karasal Committee would be the bases of the Sabioveronese democracy. To celebrate the signing of the treaty and the existence of it, the People's Government of Sabia and Verona commissioned the Music Academy of Saint Enric with the creation of a new anthem for Sabia and Verona,[4] an anthem that represented the region's hopes for peace and equality in democracy. The final result was Ryəmoništa, a Sabian word traduced merely as "harmony". The anthem was approved by the Governor of Sabia and Verona and later the Legislative Courts.

Movement towards democracy

Sabia and Verona held its first official elections on 23 December 2012. Socialists and Conservatives meet with the two candidates for Premiership, Napoléon Bleuberrie, going for the next six months period; and Osez Kóvérsz, that had just emerged from local politics as Mayor of Caenia. Against all the odds, Kóvérsz and the Unity Party win the election with 67.4% of the votes.[5] The historical results defined a new era and proved the benefits of the Karasal Treaty in Sabian politics. Kóvérsz and his cabinet took office in January 2013.

During Kóvérsz' office, several reforms were introduced both in governmental aspects and sociocultural aspects. The new Prime Minister adopted a mixed cabinet, with members of both Unity and Socialist parties. A process of "de-Bleuberrismization" begins to take place, and Socialist government propaganda is eliminated. A new party, the Free Suyu Front is welcomed by the Courts after being considered a terrorist movement, causing the Schubert-Moss controversy[6] and it soon joins Kóvérsz' cabinet as well. Relations with Lycem strengthen and the Lycene Golden Cıjk is unofficially adopted. Towards the 5th month anniversary of Sabia as a Juclandian overseas territory, Kóvérsz commands the creation of a navy for the Sabioveronese military.[7] 9 ships are built and become the People's Navy of Sabia and Verona, with Noa Dargany as Admiral. Reaching its 6th month of existence, the capital city of Saint Enric passed to be named Salisse, in honour to the loyal duchy of the Holy Dussesh Empire. Verona's five municipalities are reorganized to become only two, Tegula and Abrelia. The population of Verona increases as Sabians from Salisse and Caenia migrate west, and a new system of municipality association is adopted to balance the populance within the region. In the third census of April 2013, the Sabioveronese population had increased from 44 to over 70.

On 20 April Tarek Kârjasary's term as Governor of Sabia and Verona concludes and Isadora Annenak enters office. The Strawberry Party was founded by Kârjasary after a long time of planning. As well in early May, after protests and disturbances the neo-fascist[8] Righteous Faith League was founded by Hans Starlynn to oppose the socialist communities of Salisse.[8] Starlynn would later be endorsed by Siroccan Premier Daniel Anderson.[9]

Bleuberrist propaganda for the May 2013 election.

During this term the Pashqari people of Verona began to be heard of, and got involved into politics by protesting the government's lack of inclusive policies, striking and eventually forming their own political branch to represent their minority's interests. The Pashqari People's Party, leaded by Rhaegal Marlaryen is thought to be the first political party representing a minority in Juclandia. The PMM would unsuccessfully seek support within the Legislative Courts, hoping to make the Pashqar language official alongside Sabian. However, the language is only recognised officially in Tegula[10] and by scholars at the University of Elinore, some of whom would later join the PMM in support of the Pashqari people.

Ann Stefanović won the September 2014 elections and successfuly broke the hegemony of the Socialist and Unity parties.

Return of Bleuberrie to power and Stefanović

In the May 2013 general election, four parties with four different candidates meet in what was the largest electoral strife in the region. Among the candidates, the Socialist Party had nominated Bleuberrie. On 20 May 2013, Napoléon Bleuberrie and the Socialist Party win with 31.8% of the votes, carrying Salisse and Aguasblancas. He and his second cabinet took office in June 2013.

Bleuberrie and his cabinet, this time one with mixed parties took office on 1 June 2013. The strategies employed by the Socialist Party during Bleuberrie's first term can no longer be applied mainly due to the large amounts of political parties that had evolved during the Kóvérsz administration and the diversification of opinions within the region. This time, Bleuberrie promises to follow the convictions of the Karasal Treaty and maintain the democratic proceses of the region. Despite this, on 25 July 2013, Bleuberrie dissolves the Karasal Council and the Legislative Courts and takes over the Lirvetta Enə in Salisse with a group of bleuberrist high-rank military officers, including Boris Tovinski and Timothy Lawrence.[11] Bleuberrie's control of the Legislative Palace was little and soon he fled to Elinore in order to establish talks with Prime Minister of Juclandia Teddy Populescu and King Ciprian. While establishing his grounds with the Prime Minister, the Lirvetta Enə was recovered by the loyalist Air Force and Bleuberrie was arrested in Alcabala.[11] Gen. Rubén Hernández assumes the office of Prime Minister temporarely. Intermicronational reactions were varied, ranging from discontent for the end of Bleuberrie's government to criticism regarding instability. Unity's Osez Kóvérsz and Ann Stefanović of the Progressive Coalition faced on in the September 2013 general election; Stefanović and the Coalition won 75% of the general vote and attained a supermajority in the Courts. Her cabinet took office on 1 October 2013. In late October 2013, the Courts of Sabia and Verona approved a new bill redrawing the Sabioveronese limits and inner divisions, and adding a new municipality, the North Sabia United Territory (Áko Sâbia Souxârik Territóriâta, ÄCCT). The reorganization of Sabioveronese claims represented a significant loss of claimed territory, Sabia and Verona now counting with 0,13 km2 of land over the 0,22 km2 previously claimed.

Isadoran era (2014–2015)

Queen Isadora began her reign on 23 February 2014. Crowned later on April of the same year, her reign was known as the Isadoran era and has represented a great set of reforms throughout all of the nation.

Formation of the Federation and Galieri premiership

On 1 February 2014, the Juclandian newspaper Scânteia announced the changes and reforms that the Governments of Juclandia had intentions to make since late 2013: the creation of the Federal Union of Juclandian Lands. The introduction of a new Federal system that gave more autonomy to each of the Juclandian territories (both provinces of the mainland and overseas territories) allowed Sabia and Verona to choose between a monarchy of its own or a devolved monarchy like it had been before, with the King of Juclandia as Sabioveronese monarch. The Courts of Sabia and Verona opted for an autonomous Sabioveronese monarchy. Former Governor Isadora of Annenak would be elected by the Sabioveronese federal citizenry as Queen, and she was declared Queen Regnant on 23 February 2014, when the Federation became the official successor of the Kingdom of Juclandia. Lycem also became part of Sabia and Verona, becoming the third region to the east. On 27 February 2014, the Senate of Sabia and Verona, the new upper house of the Courts, voted in favour of making Jason Momoa the patron saint of Sabia and Verona, as was promised by Stefanović earlier in her campaign.[12]

Sabia and Verona's newfound autonomy gave way to the resurgence of a nationalist sentiment that was shared by parties of all ideological backgrounds. The new constitution and federal framework effectively revamped the Sabioveronese political system. The Roots Party separated into two factions: the Left Alliance (which merged with the weakened Socialists and the minoritarian Communists) and Convergence and Amity. While the Left Alliance attempted to restore the legacy of the disgraced Napoléon Bleuberrie, Convergence and Amity adopted a less militant stance, refusing to be defined in the traditional left-right spectrum.

The fourth general election held on 20 March 2014, saw the highest voter turnout up until then. The Left Alliance and the Convergence Party, natural allies as they were ideologically like-minded and both parties stemmed from the same group (the Roots Party and some Socialists), formed a coalition government headed by Leftist leader Léon Galieri, who became Prime Minister on 1 April 2014. Both parties held a supermajority in the Courts, with a weakened opposition (the Pashqari People's Party was adamant and co-operated often with the coalition government, a friendship that originated in the Progressive Coalition).[13]

In August 2014 the internal subdivisions of the entire Kingdom were rearranged and the Municipalities became "Prefectures". Caenia and Elinore were merged into the Elinore Prefecture and several cities changed their territorial overlords. On 3 September 2014 aś-Aıśok Myasādaelosak, a 15 ft. tall Phanera tree in Pēlyonarīn Tenmeı, Elynor Loś, Elinore had to be cut off and removed in order to protect the nearby structures due to the tree's invasive roots.[14] The tree had been a major icon in Sabia and Verona's popular culture and was mourned by many in the Kingdom.[14]

Rivière and the Aishayerovê

At the September 2014 the governing coalition was returned to a majority, but since the two parties in the coalition (Galieri's Left Alliance and Convergence) were at odds with each other, Queen Isadora granted her mandate to form a government to Bertrand Rivière, leader of the Unity Party, which was in an alliance with Initiative for Democracy.[15] This was the last election in which the Pashqari People's Party or the Initiative would run, as both dissolved before the 2015 election.

Rivière and his cabinet took office on 1 October 2014, alongside a new set of provincial legislators. That same day, following Rivière's opening ceremony, the new Chamber of Deputies met for the first time at the Lirvetta Enâ in Salisse. The meeting was dubbed as the "Aishayerovê" ("Great Assembly"), as during its duration of three hours a large number of laws and reforms were passed and discussed among the new legislators, and the discussions held there would change the shape of Sabia and Verona. Several amendments were made to the Constitution, which required the approval of the Senate and the Queen herself.

Some of the reforms implemented during the Aishayerovê were the introduction of a new peerage system, the division of the Senate into the Eidêvân and the Naídêvân, the adoption of Sabian names for most governmental institutions (which would be reflected in the English language also), the reclamation of the Sournêliádin Gardens and the Eastern Lands into the TANSUX, the adoption of new national symbols (a new anthem and the dogashemon), the nationaliation of the Church of the Pahun and the disestablishment of the Royal Navy.

By mid-2015 the legislative power of Sabia and Verona was completely inactive, and the system that had been adopted at the Aishayerovê had proven to be a failure in praxis. By June 2015 the Ayerovê had met three times, Council of Elders had met once and the Council of Nobles had not met once. Since the judicial power in Sabia and Verona was directly dependent to the Legislative Courts, two of Sabia and Verona's three political powers had been frozen for months. In 12 July 2015 Rivière met with the Lt. Secretaries of the Sabioveronese prefectures and after obtaining approval from the Queen, effectively dissolved the Sabioveronese legislature. Although the move was not precisely constitutional, Rivière defended the decision by saying the 2014 constitution had not foreseen a scenario in which the legislature could render itself deedless. A popular referendum to elect a new leader in the nation was organized, and though the turnout was considerably low (at 64%), it was recognized as legitimate by the Crown. Rivière was elected to become High Commissioner of Sabia and Verona as an interim head of state. Rivière's cabinet became a transitional council in the meantime. Sabioveronese authorities called the act the "official fall into inactivity", admitting the problem had been a reality for months.

Haronos and the Congress of Salisse

Participants of the Congress of Salisse. From left to right: H. Cerwyn, Kóvérsz, Galieri, A. Cerwyn, Schubert-Moss, Rivière, Jens, Müller, Bleuberrie, Boulin and Xiongmao.

As the economic and social situation in Venezuela worsened, Sabia and Verona suffered the side effects of being enclaved and almost entirely dependent on the South American country. The Haronos Plan was devised as a result of this. Named after the mythological figure of Charon, Haronos was an initiative to allow Valtirian plush toys to emigrate to Argentina and form a community outside the Valtir.

Haronos consisted of two stages: Haronos I, which was executed between the 24th and 25 August 2015, and Haronos II, which would be executed between September and October 2015. Participants of Haronos I would get to Buenos Aires directly by plane and would decide which of the plan's proposed outcomes to carry on: Horizons or Freedom. Horizons proposed establishing a new settlement which would serve as Sabia and Verona's new capital, from which the entire nation would be administered; Freedom proposed establishing a completely new state, independent from Sabia and Verona but still a province of the FUJL. Participants of Haronos II would get to Buenos Aires by land, crossing South America through the Transandean Highway. The division of the plan into two stages was due to the limited capacity of provincial citizens that could be carried in each travel. Over 20% of the Sabioveronese provincial population became part of Haronos I, as much as could be transported from the Valtir to Argentina in the direct flight.[16]

Fearing for the state in which the Kingdom would be left once the plan was executed, Rivière summoned the Sabioveronese people to a "Congress of Salisse", to be held on 16 August 2015. The congress was an open assembly of important political leaders of the region, including the Left Alliance's Bleuberrie, Léon Galieri, Ülla F. Müller and Snø Jens, Unity's Osez Kóvérsz, Dímeros Grenouille and Mei Xiongmao, Convergence and Amity's Étienne Boulin, Apollo and Hidram Cerwyn, and Rivière himself; many of these figures would later partake in Haronos. The main objective of the Congress was to draft a "just-in-case constitution", should Horizons be carried out by participants of Haronos I.

Public opinion overwhelmingly favored Horizons. By the time the Congress was half-way through writing the just-in-case constitution, it was widely accepted by the Valtirian population that Horizons would be carried out, and on 17 August, Queen Isadora visited Salisse one last time to present an Instrument of Abdication. Still, the instrument would only be enforced if Horizons was indeed carried out, and dismissed if Freedom ended up being Haronos I's course of action.

Finally, Rivière upheld Isadora's Instrument of Abdication, and on 23 August, Tarik Kârjasary was crowned King of the Valtirians by lack of any other suitable electors. On 25 August, Haronos I was executed, and as it had been foreseen, Horizons was carried out. The newly founded city of Alios became the new capital of Sabia and Verona, and the just-in-case constitution became the second constitution of the Kingdom.

Early post-Haronos era (2015–2017)

Rise of the DSN

Flag of the National Artists' Guild.

The 2015 general election was the first held under the new constitution, which established a new unicameral parliament, in place of the bicameral Courts. Haronos shifted the balance of powers in the Kingdom considerably, and much of the population found itself unable to vote in the new election due to the new constitution. Voters in Alios only elected representatives for the eight districts of the so-called Metropolitan Municipality (the districts of Darmosari and Monesari elected two representatives each), for a total sum of 10 seats to the newly created Parliament.

As Rivière resigned from Unity's leadership in the wake of Haronos, Andrew Blackhorse was internally selected by the party's barons to lead the party in Alios. Wishing to distance themselves from what they saw as the "old régime", factions of the Left Alliance and Convergence formed the National Artists' Guild (DSN), appointing political newcomer Shounn Virny as its leader. The Artists received a supermajority in Parliament, and formed a majority government with Virny as prime minister.[17] The election's turnout of 100% was the highest recorded turnout in all of Sabia and Verona's history.

First Virny premiership and Alios Agreement

First-edition groxar notes.

Virny took office as Prime Minister on 1 October 2015, alongside what would be known as the First Parliament. During his first month in office, most of Virny's administration focused on government spending, tax and budget laws. On 20 October 2015, Virny led the celebrations of the 3rd anniversary of Sabia and Verona.[18] A couple of days later, he oversaw the annexation of land bordering Alios to the south to Austenasia, which was met with a positive response from the Sabioveronese people.[19]

In November 2015, Parliament passed a law creating the National Bank of Sabia and Verona. After appointing E. M. Starlynn as the National Bank's president, Virny announced his administration had intentions to create a fully functional, Sabioveronese-only currency.[20] The next month it was announced the new currency would be known as the groxi.[21] On 1 January 2016, the groxi successfully entered the Sabioveronese market.

In February 2016 the Alios Agreement, which officially made Sabia and Verona independent from the Federal Union of Juclandian Lands, was signed between King Tarik and King Ciprian.[22] In March of that year, the Koringate corruption scandal resulted in a prolongued series of judicial processes against several National Artists' Guild politicians, chiefly Berth Jens.[23][24] In April 2016 the Prime Minister and Unity Party leader Andrew Blackhorse met in the Kodesari neighborhood of Alios to discuss the upcoming general election and other topics.[25] On 27 August 2016, Virny became the longest-serving Prime Minister in Sabioveronese history.

The negative impact of Koringate on the DSN was particularly favourable for Unity.[26] As well as the controversy, the Blue Party underwent a process of "re-branding" under the Blackhorse's leadership that saw its traditionally right-wing conservative policies tilt to the center-right,[24] supporting social liberal policies such as the law of same-sex adoption and the reduction of the military, an unprecedented move for the historically pro-military party. This change in the party's policies sat well the the mostly social liberal Sabioveronese population, and after the disastrous events of the Koringate scandal in March 2016, the party saw an increase in popularity exemplified by most polls at the time.[24]

On 10 May 2016, former Verona governor Apollo Cerwyn became the new leader of the Left Alliance, and announced the party would be running for seats in the parliamentary election in 2016, disbanding the Valtirian National Party and turning against the Treaty of Kotavari. This changed the landscape leading to the election considerably, placing the Guild in a bad position against the Unity Party.[27]

DSN–Left coalition and La Plata incident

In the 2016 general election, the DSN leadership lost over 20% of the general vote and its majority in Parliament.[28] On 21 September 2016, Virny announced he would be entering in a coalition government with the Left Alliance (R). Following the formation of the 8th ministry on 1 October 2016, Virny became the first Prime Minister to form two governments in a row. On 14 November 2016 Blackhorse presented the New Valtirian Plan, a proposed new party platform that would radically change Unity's structure and organization, as well as a large part of its platform and ideology.[29] Most notably, the plan changed the party's name from Unity to the Liberals, marking the third time the party changed its name and the first name that didn't contain the word Unity in it.[29]

Virny in La Plata, during his controversial visit to Argentina in January 2017.

Virny's second mandate as Prime Minister got off to a rough start with only two Parliament meeting taking place between the 8th ministry's formation in October 2016 to January 2017. On 7 January 2017 Virny was heavily criticized by Andreina Rossini, his leftist Secretary of Botany, for inactivity and for "colluding with the Liberals" by backing the Liberal-led initiative to join the Grand Unified Micronational as an observer state; Rossini resigned from her cabinet position on the 10th.[30] This was just the beginning of a series of controversies that engulfed the Prime Minister over the following months.

On 17 January, Virny was publicly accused of "not [addressing] the Left's concerns" by Left Alliance leader Apollo Cerwyn, who said Virny was unwilling to discuss the subject of constitutional reform, one of the Left's main platform points.[31] Cerwyn claimed, and later other Left secretaries confirmed, Virny had promised the Left constitutional reform would be discussed at some point early in the second Parliament's tenure.[31] Tensions grew over the following days to the point there was no communication between Leftist and Artist secretaries of the cabinet.[32]

A special Parliament meeting was scheduled for 25 January, in which the topic of constitutional reform was to be discussed by a joint petition of the Left and the Liberals; however, Virny didn't show up to Parliament that day, and was missing for several hours causing great concern throughout the Kingdom. Hours later he posted a selfie in front of the La Plata City Hall, in the capital of Buenos Aires Province, captioned: "Having a blast in #LaPlata today. Still unable to reach @mariuvidal [Buenos Aires Governor María Eugenia Vidal]. We'll see!"[33] The tweet, and the fact Virny had taken a day off to visit Argentina on the day an extraordinary Parliament meeting had been convened, caused great controversy in Alios and prompted sharp criticism for the Prime Minister, who was called to resign.[33]

Constitutional Assembly and contemporary era (since 2017)

Leaders and deputy leaders of all three parties in the Constitutional Assembly with the first printed copy of the 2017 Constitution of Sabia and Verona.

The Left Alliance had campaigned for constitutional reform since 2016. Apollo Cerwyn, leader of the Left had been a member of the Salisse Congress, but claimed nonetheless the 2015 Constitution was deeply flawed in different sections, including the idea of separation of powers and the inflexibility on electoral laws.[34] Cerwyn was Virny's Deputy PM at the time of the La Plata incident.[35] According to Cerwyn and other Left Alliance referents, Virny had promised them the issue of constitutional reform would be discussed as part of the government's program and addressed in Parliament.[36] The PM, however, refused to discuss the topic and dismissed the Left's concerns, further straining relations in the already conflicted governing coalition.[32]

By February 2017, the La Plata incident and the government's refusal to consider constitutional reform had pushed the Left to team up with the Liberals, then the largest party in Parliament, to campaign against Virny and for constitutional reform. Alongside the Liberals, the Left was able to put pressure on the government to allow for a referendum to be held on whether the 2015 Constitution should be reformed or not.[34] The referendum was held on 5 March 2017, the first of its kind in Sabioveronese history. It concluded with the 'Yes' taking 74% of the vote, with a turnout of 90%. Following the referendum, Virny resigned as DSN leader, which meant he would not run for re-election in the following election.[37]

Upon the approval of the Constitution of 2017 by the Constitutional Assembly on 21 April, new elections were scheduled for 30 April,[38] but after an appeal by the National Artists' Guild, now led by Snø Jens-Galieri, the interim Electoral Commission moved the election date to May 14.[39] Virny was third on the Artists' list, under Jens-Galieri and the party's secondary leader, Harmê Bertram de Asra. At the 2017 election, the Artists received their worst result since the party's formation and were unable to form government; Virny's premiership was quoted by many as one of the main reasons for the Artists' poor performance in the polls.[40] On 22 May 2017, Noa Dargany of the Liberals succeeded Virny as Prime Minister of Sabia and Verona.[41]

Dargany governments and dissolution of the DSN

The 2017 general election resulted in major gains for the Liberals and the Left, which won one and two seats in Parliament, respectively. The National Artists' Guild lost nearly 20 pp and two seats. Immediately after the election's results were released by the newly established Electoral Commission, the Left ruled out forming any coalitions with the Artists or the Liberals. The Liberals then became the most likely to form a government, with Liberal leader Blackhorse being mentioned as favorite to become PM.[40] Shortly after election day, Virny pointed out on his Twitter account that the Liberals' government formation talks were being headed by Deputy Leader Noa Dargany, instead of Blackhorse. The next day, the Liberal leadership revealed Dargany was their pick to become Prime Minister, as Blackhorse intended to step down from the party's leadership in the near future.[42] On 19 May 2017, Dargany received the King's mandate to form the 9th government of Sabia and Verona, which was confirmed by the 3rd Parliament on 22 May 2017.[41] Now leading the largest party in opposition, Cerwyn became the new Leader of the Opposition.

Key issues of Dargany's first government were the military reform, which was approved with unanimous support from her party and effectively reformed the armed forces of Sabia and Verona into the single-branch National Guard.[43] The fight against institutionalized corruption was also a major objective in Dargany's agenda, exemplified by the Liberal initiative to remove Snø Jens-Galieri's parliamentary immunity in an effort to press charges of embezzlement against him.[44]

In October 2017, the Left Alliance entered talks with a dissident faction of the National Artists' Guild, led by Snø Jens-Galieri.[45] Talk of a 'leftist superfront' (so-called because it would group together all the left-leaning forces in Sabia and Verona) had existed since early 2017, when the DSN, once the Kingdom's largest party, began dwindling due to a number of factors.[46] The Democratic Party (horói geñkurago in Sabian, lit. "Party for the People's Government"; HG) was founded on 28 November 2017, with Cerwyn at its helm.

At the 2018 general election, Dargany's Liberals lost nearly 10 percentage points in the vote, and the Artists saw their vote share plummet below 10%.[47] The number of Liberal seats was unaltered, but due to an earlier reform to increase the overall number of seats in Parliament, the 10-member Liberal bloc remained two seats short of a majority.[48] It was thanks to another confidence and supply agreement with the DSN that Dargany was able to secure the formation of a second government, becoming the second Prime Minister in Sabia and Verona's history to form two consecutive governments.[49] The abismal results of the parliamentary election, as well as Orion Bennet's defeat in the prefectural election in Sato later that year, led the National Artists' Guild to vote for its permanent dissolution on 18 July 2018.[50][51] This effectively turned the Kingdom's political party system into a two-party system.

New Frontier and Blackhorse government

Lake Bruñberrí (named after Napoléon Bleuberrie) in Doga Runann Dependency, the territory claimed as part of the New Frontier Plan.

After the Liberal victory in the 2018 election, Dargany's government drafted and introduced the New Frontier plan, a proposed expansion of Sabia and Verona's territories to the South that would see the enlargement of the Kingdom's claimed land from 379.45 m2 to over 47,000 m2; territorial expansion had been one of the main campaign points for the Liberals ever since the adoption of the New Valtirian Plan in 2016.[52] However, the Democratic opposition, whose support was necessary in order for the project to pass through Parliament, refused to co-operate with Dargany even after several rounds of negotiations.[52][53]

On 1 October 2018, deputy PM and former Liberal leader Andrew Blackhorse formally challenged Dargany in a leadership spill, which he eventually won a week later on 7 October.[54][55] Having lost command of her party, Dargany resigned from the premiership to avoid facing a vote of no confidence; Blackhorse received the King's mandate to form a government the same day of the leadership vote, and his government took office on 10 October 2018.[56] It was the first time in Sabia and Verona's history that a government took office without a mandate formed through popular vote, a possibility that was only established in the 2017 Constitution.[56]

The Blackhorse administration re-started New Frontier negotiations with the Opposition as soon as it took office.[57] Blackhorse was successful in reaching a deal with the Democrats in order to make New Frontier a reality. The government and the Democrats finally reached an agreement in 2019, when the New Frontier plan went ahead and the newly formed territory of Doga Runann was claimed by the Kingdom. [58][59] Doga Runann was incorporated as a nature reserve, the first of its kind in Sabia and Verona's history.

Cerwyn governments

The Liberals were unable to turn their success in the New Frontier negotiations into electoral support, and the Democrats were rewarded with their best-ever result at the 2019 general election, gaining over 55% of the vote and achieving the first parliamentary majority in an election by any political party since 2015.[60] Cerwyn was shortly afterwards granted the King's mandate to form the 12th government of Sabia and Verona, which took office on 3 June 2019 when it was confirmed by the 5th Parliament in its inaugural session.[61] Cerwyn's government saw the return of Snø Jens-Galieri to the Commerce Division and Kastor Gevras Drigy to the Justice Division.

Early into his mandate Cerwyn's government was threatened by internal disagreements over the issue of the Northern regions, which was sparked by education secretary and Democratic Party deputy Soraya Hreti's opinion piece on The SiV Phonograph, which called the rest of the government to act swiftly on the Northern question.[62] Cerwyn later defended Hreti and stated that his government was merely "pluralistic in views".[63] Cerwyn would later mandate the establishment of a special parliamentary commission to assess the situation and deliver a non-binding verdict on how the government should proceed on the Northern question.[64]

In December 2019 Cerwyn's cabinet spearheaded the campaign to amend the 2017 Constitution for the first time since its adoption in order to make the Spanish text fully gender-neutral and extend by one year the term of magistrates of the judiciary;[65] the amendments were subjected to a popular referendum in which they all passed by an ample margin.[66] Cerwyn was credited for opening dialogue channels with the opposition, led by Shounn Virny, to allow the amendment proposals to pass through Parliament with relatively unanimous support.[67] Toward the end of 2019 the government released the Jens-Galieri report (so named as it was elaborated by Snø Jens-Galieri), the first integral economic report in Sabia and Verona since 2016; the report noted a moderate growth of Sabia and Verona's economy.[68]

In 2020, the media conglomerate Starlynn & Bennet launched mbirág aliosin, the second-ever Sabian language news blog and the first bilingual media site available in both English and Sabian, as part of the "iderá sabin!" campaign launched by the Sabioveronese government's Arts Division to promote the use of the Sabian language.[69]

See also

General:

References

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  2. "Sahoedang Party hails the Courts". The SiV Phonograph. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  3. "Land Army and Gendarmería arrest Unity Party members". The SiV Phonograph. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Language reform, Karasal Treaty and Ryəmoništa". The SiV Phonograph. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
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External links