Pashqar in Nasta'liq Calligraphy
Official language in
|Sabia and Verona|
|Regulated by||Pashqar Linguistic Authority|
The Pashqar language (ﭘاشقار) was a conlang developed and spoken in Sabia and Verona. It was developed for its use in the region of Verona. It was declared extinct in 2015, due to its little use, marginalization by the Sabioveronese government, and perceived complexity.
The language was a priori, meaning that it was constructed without taking elements from another existing language. Its use was regulated by the Pashqar Language Authority. The first institution to recognize and teach the Pashqar language was the University of Elinore in Sabia. While the language was recognized as an official language by the 2014 Constitution, it was demoted to "national language" by the Aishaierovê Reforms of 2014. The 2015 Constitution did not mention the language at all.
The Pashqar language's current grammatical normative rules are dictated by the Pashqar Linguistic Authority. Modern Pashqar is a subject-verb-object language. It's an inflected language with five cases: nominative, vocative, dative, genitive and locative, which is subdivided into other cases itself. Pashqar is a genderless language. Nouns, adjectives and pronouns are declined in the five cases and two numbers, singular and plural. Unlike the more simplistic modern Valtir languages, Pashqar verbs are complexely conjugated for tense, aspect, mood, person and number in a very similar fashion to Spanish.
Modern Pashqar differs greatly from Middle Pashqar and Old Pashqar in the complexity of its grammar, which counts with diverse grammatical cases and various verb conjugations. Pashqar has definite (far, fari), indefinite (un, uni) and negative (zun, zuni) articles. Pashqar articles are only inflected by number, not by case or gender. It's a null subject language, partly due to the Spanish-based verbs since the subject is encoded in the conjugation. Prepositions are common and adjectives can be placed before or after the selected noun, although it's generally preferred to place them before the noun.
The nominative case is used to express the subject of a statement:
- بالعدهریس قافیس فارغلاضاص مودرا داحعلهکهسی کاشهسی
- Bal'derïs qäfis farGlaväz Mudrä Däh'lekesi Kashesi.
- Bal de Or (Bal'derïs) is the Capital City of Aguasblancas.
The vocative case is used to address someone or something in direct speech.
- !قهحهتیس هدان - دحارمان
- Qehetis edan, Dharman!
- I conjure you, Darmo!
The genitive case expresses possession, measurement, or source.
- قافایط رازهماس حاریفهس مایکهس
- Qäfaïth räzemas harïfes mäikes.
- We were in our mother's house.
The dative case expresses the recipient of an action, the indirect object of a verb. It also is used to represent agency in a construction with a passive periphrastic.
- سهطذسه حارفیق میدریق ون ناش
- Sethose härfiq midriq un näsh.
- I'll give my spouse a gift.
The locative case is used to express the place in or out of which or the time at which an action is performed, or the place into which said action will be performed. The locative case is subdivided into three other cases, which are the inessive,
- اشتیم قافهزیس نهغاشهس شالیصاس
- Ashtim qäfezïs negäshes Shalïzas.
- She's in a business trip in Salisse.
- حهزذلهط راصهمذس - دا امعحهزیس
- Hezoleth räzemos, da am'hezïs.
- I would go out (of the house), but it is raining.
...and the illative.
- ون یشذر - ماییدریکاس انهساس - خاک اشرین حهزایط مهریحهغا
- "Un ishör, mayidrikas änesas, khäk Ashrïn hezaïth merïhega..."
- "Once upon a time, in the full moon, the young Ashrïn went into the woods..."
- Many times the vocative is the same as the nominative.