Karno-Ruthenian Empire

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German: Karniareich-Ruthenien
Hungarian: Karnia-Rutének
Czech: Karnia-Rusi
Croatian: Karnija-Rutenija

Flag of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire.svg
Coat of Arms

Indivisibiliter ac Inseparabiliter
Indivisible and Inseparable (English)

[ God Save Emperor Oscar]

Map of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire (capitals).

Capital city Persenburg (main capital) and Vídeň
Largest city Persenburg
Official language(s) English;
Official religion(s) Predominantly Roman Catholicism
Also Unitarianism, Deism and Eastern Orthodoxy
Demonym Karno-Ruthenian (English),
Karno-Ruteno (Portuguese)

Government Constitutional monarchy; Personal union through dual monarchy; Corporative federalism
- Emperor-King Oscar I
- Minister-President D. Guilherme da Lomellina e Berenguer
- Prime Minister Archduke Anton of Karnia

Legislature Imperial Council
Diet of Ruthenia
Upper House Herrenhaus
House of Magnates
Lower House Abgeordnetenhaus
House of Representatives

Formation 01 August 2016
Population 148 (2016 estimate)
Currency Ruthenian Mark (RM) (RMK)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy

Official website

Karnia-Ruthenia, officially The Kingdoms and Lands of the Crown of Ruthenia and the Lands Represented in the Council of Karnia and also known by other names and often referred to as the Karno-Ruthenian Empire, is a confederate constitutional monarchy largely based on the culture of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is located in America, Europe and Eastern Antarctica. It was created as a constitutional union of the Kingdom of Ruthenia and the Empire of Karnia, as a result of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016[1][2][3] and came into existence on 01 August 2016, when the compromise was ratified by the Imperial and Royal Council. Under a common government, the Empire consists of 09 constituent territories being ruled by royal families. This included an empire, four kingdoms, two grand duchies and two duchies.

The entire structure of micronational government is inspired by Austria-Hungary, although there is a deep preservation of democratic values and the integration of different micronational projects that coexist harmoniously under the leadership of Emperor-King. Citizenship can be acquired on its website for free, and political participation is widely encouraged. Diplomacy also has a prominent place in the history of Karnia-Ruthenia and its predecessor, the Kingdom of Ruthenia, which until the founding of the Empire, had established diplomatic relations with more then 80 projects.[4]

Structure and name

The monarch of the House of Götzö-Thomaz-Rocha rule as King of Ruthenia over the western and northern half of the micronation that was the Kingdom of Ruthenia ("Lands and Kingdoms of the Crown of Ruthenia", or Cismare) and the eastern half of the micronation as Emperor over the Empire of Karnia ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council of Karnia", or Transmare). The micronation bore the official name of Karno-Ruthenian Monarchy, but it is often contracted to “Dual Monarchy” or simply referred to as “Ruthenia” or “Karnia”, but the full official name is “Lands and Kingdoms of the Crown of Ruthenia and the Lands Represented in the Council of Karnia”.

Each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with some joint affairs, principally foreign relations. The division between the two parts of Empire allows common citizenship. The Diet of Ruthenia is located in Persenburg and the Imperial Council is located in Vídeň. Both parts also use a common currency, the Ruthenian Mark. Persenburg serve as the Monarchy's primary capital.

The inspiration behind the structure and nomenclature of Karnia-Ruthenia is the Austro-Hungarian Empire, since the two projects were inspired by the Monarchy of the Habsburgs and the union could be conveniently made the same way as Austria and Hungary did when they were united in 1867.



On 19 November 2014, the now Emperor-King Oscar established the Throne of Ruthenia, declaring the private property of his family in São Paulo and Piauí, Brazil as an independent kingdom.[5] The first three months of Ruthenia's existence were plagued by uncertainty and political instability,[6][7][8] but King Oscar was able to maintain order and develop the kingdom. An Absolute Monarchy in the beggining, everything has changed with the Ruthenian Constitution of 2015.[9]

The Principality of Lomellina, a former ally of Ruthenia, was an enclave and exclave micronation with self-proclaimed territories in Antarctica, Italy and Greenland. On 20 November 2014, the Lomellinian Aristocracy proposed a government change in which the High Chanceller Richard Abreo-Louis had complete ruling power over the aristocracy members, in a decision that did not pleased D. Guilheme I, the Prince of Lomellina, since the prince had gave great autonomy to aristocracy. His denial caused the anti-absolutist campaign called "Lomellinian Revolt", and Richard Abreo-Louis was crowned as the constitutional successor of Prince Guilherme and his reign lasted only 3 days. On 1 December, Guilherme I was officially overthrowed by Richard Abreo-Louis after the capture of Castello di Valle, Lomellina's capital city.

The original Declaration of Independence of Libertia.

After the revolution, D. Guilherme I was exiled in the Autonomous Kingdom of the Savage Islands, where his cousin Francisco II was King. After a week in exile, D. Guilherme took the conclusion that he still held ruling power in Lomellina Consolato and founded the Duchy of Libertia within the city along with his Ducal Family. On 30 January 2015, D. Guilherme established contact with the King Oscar of Ruthenia, with the idea of annexing Libertia into his project, the Kingdom of Ruthenia, a request that was instantly accepted, since the two were old friends. King Oscar elected Guilherme as Chancellor of Ruthenia and a place his family between the other Ruthenian noble houses.[10]

Once established and stabilized, the Ruthenian Government restarted the expansion plans. On 30 June, the Government of Ruthenia annexed the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land,[11] located on the eastern portion of Antarctica, which came to be known as Grand Duchy of Gaussland[12][13][14] and on 15 December 2015, Oscar of Ruthenia dethroned King Eitan of Acrin, assuming the throne of the Kingdom of Acrin and annexing it to Ruthenia.[15]

Karnia was founded on 2 February 2016 at Prague, Czech Republic through a political act signed by Anton Wenzel, who was elected as the first Kaiser of Karnia; Calvin Gustav, the first Minister-President and Louis Taünn, the President of the Imperial Council. Karnia was founded to preserve and celebrate the tradition of the Czech monarchy under the Habsburgs. After some weeks, the project didn't achieved the expectd result. Without a Constitution or a well estabilished system of government, the Karnian government understood they need help to estabilish themselves. Then, Kaiser Anton and the President of the Reichsratt, Louis Taünn found their help in the Ruthenian Government.

For weeks, while both governments and their sovereign approached, the Ruthenian government provided help, teaching from the writing of decrees to the making of national symbols. They guided the creation of a page on Facebook and Twitter, as well as the material to be presented, but nothing was successful. With the break between the Kaiser and the Minister-President caused precisely by disagreements about the conduct of government, the government of Karnia requested Ruthenian intervention. The cost of this intervention to save the newly created project was to deliver the Imperial Crown to the King of the Ruthenians. In return, the project would be expanded and be at par with the Kingdom of Ruthenia. The result of this negotiation was the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016.

Foundation of the Empire

The Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016 established the dual monarchy of Karnia-Ruthenia. The Compromise established partially the sovereignty of the Empire of Karnia, separate from, and not a subject to the Kingdom of Ruthenia. Under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Ruthenia were reorganized as a real union between the Ruthenian Kingdom and the Empire of Karnia. The Cismare (Ruthenian) and Transmare (Karnian) regions of the state were governed by separate parliaments and prime ministers. Unity was maintained through rule of a single head of state, reigning as both the Emperor of Karnia and King of Ruthenia, and common monarchy-wide ministries under his direct authority. The armed forces were combined with the Emperor-King as commander-in-chief.

It is attached to the treaty the document establishing the personal union between the Kingdom of Ruthenia and the Kingdom of Horvatia. This made the Ruthenian State much larger than the Karnian State, which imposed a dominant position of Cismare over Transmare. Soon after the signing, it became customary for the minorities of the empire (Acrinians and Horvatians mainly) demanded the Imperial and Royal Government to grant privileges and favors to balance the autonomy of the members of the empire.

Empire expands

On 18 May 2016, after weeks of diplomatic talks and negotiation with the Emperor-King of Karnia-Ruthenia, the Grand Duke Christian of Letzembourg, a member of the Karno-Ruthenian Government, presented a manifest demanding the union of the Grand Duchy of Letzembourg union with Empire. Relying on certain prestige and no opposition from the Imperial and Royal Government, the Emperor-King announced the government accepted the terms of the manifest. The union was made official with the proclamation of the Empire, transforming the grand duchy in an associate state of the Empire. The union caused a Constitutional Reform, since Letzemburgers and Horvatians demanded numerous guarantees of equality between the states of the Empire. A week later, the Duchy of Romitria joined the Empire.

During the month of June, two ministries were created: the Ministry of Strategic Affairs,[16] responsible for the development of new approaches from the Imperial and Royal Government to its citizens and foreigners and the Ministry of Antarctic Affairs,[17] to protect, defend and clarify the situation of the Antarctic continent and specially the current status of the Grand Duchy of Gaussland.

On 1 July, after weeks of negotiation and a history of friendship between Imvrassia and Ruthenia, it was decided that the smallest province of Imvrassia, Argadia, that became independent from Imvrassia on 23 June 2016 would join the Empire as a duchy. The status of the Duchy of Argadia was established to be equal to the other member states of the Empire, but strengthened the European side of the micronation, becoming the third state member of Karnia-Ruthenia established on the continent.

On 9 July 2016, the Household of Their Royal Highness-es the Co-Domnitori Alexander XII and Oscar I, has announced that the Domnitor Oscar abdicated from the Princely throne of the Carpathia leaving the throne solely to Alexander XII. This was done as a part of the Treaty of Alexandrești, signed between the two co-Domnitori, by which the Carpathia would become a constituent state of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire.[18]

During this period, the Empire's relationship with Francophone micronations was at its peak and was shown to be advantageous to the Empire. On 23 September 2016, after negotiations that lasted about a week, the Kingdom of Cumagne became the eleventh state of the Empire after the signing of the Treaty of Nison.[19] In addition to a significant increase in its population, it enriches the cultural diversity of Karnia-Ruthenia, which now had French elements that would be absorbed from the union, whereas Cumagne would improve its own internal policies from their union with a strong and stable government.

Despite the progress shown by the Empire's foreign policy, it also triggered separatist processes. On 9 October 2016, Duke NG of Romitria informed the Emperor-King the desire to secede the Duchy of Romitria from the Empire. The request was accepted and made official by the Imperial Decree n. 048-2016. The next day, the Principality of the Carpathia also left the Empire.

National colors and symbols


Main article: Imperial Council of Karnia and Royal Diet of Ruthenia

Ruthenia and Karnia maintain separate parliaments each with its own prime minister. Co-ordinate the two parliaments fell to a government under the monarch. In this sense, the Empire remain under a common government, as the Emperor-King appointed both Ruthenian and Karnian prime ministers. In the Ruthenian half, the King-appointed Government is responsible only to the Parliament instead of the King, which gave Ruthenian a great amount of autonomy, especially in internal matters. In the Karnian half, however, the Emperor has the power to both appoint and dismiss its Prime minister. The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch.

The common government comprises ministers for joint responsibilities (culture, finances, foreign affairs, immigration, imperial and royal household, information, interior and of defense),[20] the two prime ministers and the monarch. The two governments have influence in the common administration, however, the ministers ultimately answer only to the monarch who have the final decision. Under the terms of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016, the agreement must be renegotiated every three years, determine these matters.

On June 2016, two ministries were created: the Ministry of Strategic Affairs, responsible for the development of new approaches from the Imperial and Royal Government to its citizens and foreigners and the Ministry of Antarctic Affairs, to protect, defend and clarify the situation of the Antarctic continent and specially the current status of the Grand Duchy of Gaussland.

The offices of Minister-President of Ruthenia (replacing the office of Chancellor of Ruthenia) and the Prime Minister of Karnia were created. The Diet of Ruthenia were divided between two houses; the House of Magnates (upper house) and the House of Representatives (lower house) and the same about the Imperial Council of Karnia, divided between two houses as well the House of Lords (upper house) and the House of Deputies (lower house).


At the beginning of Ruthenian history, which is the origin of the Empire itself and the state with the most profound legal tradition, did not have a single legal system, considering the use of common-law principles. However, when the General Assembly of the Kingdom was established, the development of more specific laws such as the Civil Code, eventually forced the creation of a different legal system of the intended previously. Therefore, extensive legislation was created between the years 2014 and 2016 until the signing of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016.

Since the states of the Empire were formed in a large majority of new micronations, most of the legislation would be coming from the proper legislative process of the Empire, which largely was the Ruthenian legislation adapted to this new situation. In 2016, after the Foundation of the Empire, the common Criminal Code and a Civil Code, adapted of Ruthenian versions of 2015 was introduced after the consolidation of the Constitution over all other constitutions of the states that composed the Empire.

Internal Affairs

The Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016 created the semi-independent states of Ruthenia and Karnia linked by personal union under a common monarch, establishing a constitutional monarchy with a system of corporative federalism, a system of federalism not based on the common federalist idea of relative land area or nearest spheres of influence for governance, but on fiduciary jurisdiction to corporate personhood, where groups who are considered incorporated members of their own prerogative structure by willed agreement can delegate their individual effective legislature within the overall government. This system is similar to that used by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a version of corporative federalism that gave its wide demographic of different ethnicities each their own individual rights within their own assemblies instead of by relation to the territory of the Empire.

H.I.&R.M. signing the Treaty of Alcatraz on 06 January 2016.

Foreign Affairs

The foreign relations of the Empire are implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Emperor-King and the prime ministers of each part of the Empire play a role in setting policy, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs have a voice and are the one who develop this policy. Since its founding, the Kingdom of Ruthenia and after the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016, the Karno-Ruthenian Empire and its government pays special attention to foreign affairs. One of the first ministries of government was precisely the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was founded on the same day that the kingdom, on 19 November 2014. Diplomatic relations are conducted by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, but the leadership of Foreign Affairs is in practice, led by His Imperial and Royal Majesty, the Emperor-King. Karnia-Ruthenia monthly studies and develops diplomatic relations with several micronations around the world, maintaining cordial relations with everyone and accounting for only four international incidents, only two of whom suffered from more serious action by the government.


The military system of Karnia-Ruthenia, based upon the principle of the universal and personal obligation of the citizen to protect his homeland. Its military force was composed of the Imperial and Royal Army, a Imperial and Royal Navy and a Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops. The common army is under the administration of the joint Minister of War. The common Minister of War was the head for the administration of all military affairs and for all questions related to national defence of the states members of the Empire, but the supreme command of the army is vested in the monarch, who had the power to take all measures regarding the whole army and Commander-in-Chief. The Navy is mainly a defence force dedicated to the protection of Karno-Ruthenian interests in Gurguéia River, a river which is the natural border of the Principality of St. Peter and St. Paul and crosses the Principality of St. Stephen, which also forms the Lake of Dead River (Lago do Rio Morto, in Portuguese).


Constituent states

Administrative branches of the Empire.

The Karno-Ruthenian Empire consists of 10 constituent states, the largest of which is the Kingdom of Ruthenia. These states were once independent micronations and were joining the Empire through treaties of personal union and ultimately, joining the Empire with the commitment to submit to his suzerainty. These associated states have a high degree of autonomy under the terms of the Imperial Constitution, but are subject to interference of the Imperial and Royal Council and the Emperor-King himself, who despite being the direct ruler of most of the Empire, has influence in other regions.

Constituent states of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire
Flag Coat of arms State State
Capital Citizens Area (km2) Official language(s) Head of
Bandeirarutena.png CoA Kingdom of Ruthenia.png
Kingdom of
RTN Persenburg
3 km²
English King
Oscar I
Karniareichflagnew.svg.png KarniaCoA.png
Empire of
KRN Vídeň
English Emperor
Oscar I
Newlibertia.png Newlibertiacoat.png
Duchy of
LBT Grancasa
0.0024 km²
English Duke
D. Guilherme
Civil flag of Acrin.png Acri CoA.png
Kingdom of
ACR Pressenberg
English King
Oscar I
GausslandFlag.png Grand Duchy of Gaussland New.png
Grand Duchy of
GSL Gaussberg
621 km²
English Grand Duke
Oscar I
Civil flag of Horvatia.png BrasaoHorvata(3).png
Kingdom of
HVT Agram
Portuguese Ban
Weslley of Agram
LetzemburgFlagCivil.png LetzembourgGrandDuchy.png
Grand Duchy of
LZB Victoria
24.86 km²
English Grand Duke
Christian I
ArgadiaCivilFlag.png ArgadiaGreaterCoA.png
Duchy of
AGD Argadoupoli
0.08 km²
Aggelos I
Civil flag of Cumagne.png Coat of Arms Cumagne.png
Kingdom of
CMN Nison
49 km²
French King
Thomas I


The Karno-Ruthenian culture retains much of the European influence originally brought by the Imperial and Royal Family and the rulers of the states of the Empire. It places an important emphasis on family, religion, and traditions in general, such as respect for holy days. In Ruthenia, music consists mainly of traditional Hungarian folk music, especially the Csárdás, and music by prominent composers such as Béla Bartók, Vittorio Monti, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Georges Bizet, and also makes success the current pop songs. Other aspects of Ruthenian culture include Horse racing, Hunting (banned by the Royal Family since 2014), Masses on Sundays for the Catholics, and festivals between June and August dedicated to St. Anthony and St. John the Baptist, among others, where dancing around bonfires takes place.

The culture is also largely influenced by the Lomellinian Culture, adopting most of the Lomellinian traditions and customs as well as certain similarities with the Portuguese culture and Italian culture. These two great European influences made, especially of Libertian culture, a romantic and flattering influence in the micronational world. In Libertia, is usual for a citizen say they have three main goals: Discover, considering that since the beginning, the Libertian ancestors dedicated their lives into discovering new lands and new ways of living; so, Libertians follow their actions into discovering new ways to improve it's citizen's lifes. Create, the best works of art always inspired the best minds of mankind into re-writting history as we know today, Libertians create those inspiring pieces to allow tehir citizens to improve and Preserve, the world's biggest archives helped the people understand their ancestors into improving what was already done, Libertians preserve that information, allowing the common citizen to learn more. Libertians, mainly the Grancasian people practice somekind of artform wich is one of the greater values of the duchy, the ducal family is often seen painting, composing, decorating and even writing pieces of art.

Other cultures that influenced the Empire everyday are the Croatian culture brought by Horvatians and the Irish culture from Kingdom of Acrin. After the Compromise that united the Empire, these cultures began an exchange with each other, mixing tastes and habits, greatly enriched by Germanic cultural aspects brought by Karnia and Letzembourg. After the Treaty of Nison on September 2016, many French elements were observed in society and were introduced by the Cumagnaise.


In everyday use, Portuguese is used by the majority of the subjects in Ruthenia, Libertia and Horvatia. In Court, the official language while still the Portuguese, the English and French has also regular use, especially by the government and it is the only language used by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. But English is the official language after a plebiscite to decide which national language would be adopted by Ruthenia. Lusophones and Anglophones had split the Ruthenian government, disputing for power. The plebiscite ended with the victory of the supporters of the English language. With the formation of the Empire and the subsequent constitutional reform, English and Portuguese became the official languages of the micronation. The States of the Empire can edit legislation and make use of the Portuguese for their affairs, but in common subjects, only English is allowed. In some regions, French is also spoken among the population and in domestic affairs.


"St. Stephen, King of Hungary", by René Aigner.

Since the founding of the Kingdom of Ruthenia, religious freedom is guaranteed by law to all subjects.[21] This guarantee was reassured in the Ruthenian Constitution of 2015 and in the Imperial Constitution of 2016. Due to cultural and social diversity of the Empire, the Roman Catholicism is predominant and is even the official religion of the Empire, according to the constitution. But the Unitarianism, Deism and Eastern Orthodoxy still enjoy official status. The Patron Saint of the Empire is St. Stephen, King of Hungary, also the patron saint of the Imperial and Royal Family. His cult acquire more strength when genealogical studies showed a kinship between the Imperial and Royal Family with King Ladislaus I of Hungary through Mary of Hungary, wife of Iaroslav Sviatopolchich of Volhinia and also a distant relative of St. Stephen. St. Stephen's feast is observed on 16 August, one of the most important holidays of the Empire. In Karnia, the patron saint is St. Adalbert of Prague and in Libertia, Leonardo da Vinci was made a kind of "patron saint", an example to be followed in the duchy which is Deist.


Fish Lasagna, the national dish of Libertia.

With variety as diverse as its society, eating habits suffer direct influence of European cuisine. The Ruthenian cuisine is marked by the conspicuous use of meat in many of its traditional dishes. Typically, Ruthenians feed on rice accompanied by beans, quite varied green salad, and meat and eggs. A popular dish is the barbecue, especially beef, served with sauces or with French bread. In Persenburg, popular dishes include lasagna, pizza, pancakes, and also the consumption of sweets such as cakes and pies, all inspired by the European habits of the inhabitants of the capital. In Libertia, the national food is the Lasanha de Peixe (English: Fish Lasagna) mixing the Lasagna from the Italian culture and the fish element from the Portuguese culture. It is one of the most cherished dishes in Grancasa and is often in celebratory days, mainly Christmas and Court dinners. Other traditional dishes are Bacalhau (Cod Fish), Canelones (Cannelloni) and all types of pasta and sauces.

National holidays

The national holidays are of paramount importance in order to inspire the Karno-Ruthenian people to celebrate their unique and extremely rich culture and exist holidays with fixed and with varying dates. National holidays were regulated by Imperial Decree 028-2016[22] and other specific laws.

Name Date Notes
New Year's Day 1 January The first day of the Gregorian year.
Libertian Day 30 January Commemoration of the merger of the Duchy of Libertia to the Kingdom of Ruthenia.
Constitution Day 6 February Commemoration of the first constitution.
Archduke Ari’s birthday 3 March Anniversary of His Imperial and Royal Highness, the Archduke and former King of Ruthenia.
International Women's Day 8 March Celebration of respect, appreciation, and love towards women.
Dual Monarchy Day 10 March Celebration of the signature of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016.
Easter Day Between 22 March and 25 April Celebrates the resurrection of Jesus.
International Workers' Day 1 May Honors the the contributions that workers have made to the strength, prosperity, and well-being of the country.
Corpus Christi Between 21 May and 24 June Solemnity which honors the Body of Christ.
National Flag Day 26 May Celebration of the establishment of the national symbols of Karnia-Ruthenia.
Lover's Day 12 June The day before Saint Anthony's day, known as the “patron saint of marriages”. Karno-Ruthenian version of Valentine’s Day. Traditional start of the June Festival.
Archduchess Denise’s birthday 16 June Anniversary of Her Imperial and Royal Highness, the Archduchess and former Queen of Ruthenia.
Antarctic Day 30 June Celebrate the annexation of the Grand Duchy of Gaussland.
Martyr's Day 17 July Tribute to Royal Passion-Bearers Nicholas II of Russia and his family, as well as all other victims of Communism.
Empire Day 1–5 August Annual celebration of the Empire’s foundation and of the culture of the states of the Empire.
Emperor-King's Day 14 August Anniversary of His Imperial and Royal Majesty, the Emperor-King.
St Stephen's Day 16 August Tribute to the patron saint of the Empire and of Ruthenia and their Imperial and Royal Family; Hungary's first king St. Stephen's Day, also the day of the Foundation of Hungary.
Children’s Day 12 October Honor children, promote mutual exchange and understanding among children and initiate actions to benefit and promote the welfare of the world's children.
Teacher’s Day 15 October Special day for the appreciation of teachers and their special contributions to the society.
All Saints’ Day 1 November In honour of all the saints, known and unknown; Roman Catholicism.
All Souls’ Day 2 November Commemorates the faithful departed.
Armistice Day 11 November Commemoration of the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany and also in commemoration of both living and dead soldiers who served in any conflict.
Foundation Day 19 November Foundation of the Kingdom of Ruthenia, the predecessor State of the Empire.
Empress Paloma’s birthday 12 December Anniversary of Her Imperial and Royal Majesty, the Empress-Queen.
Christmas Day 25 December Traditional commemoration of the birth of Jesus.
New Year's Eve 31 December The final day of the Gregorian year; Saint Sylvester's Day.

External links