Altenburg

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Altenburg
Free City of Altenburg
From top to bottom, left to right: A panorama of Altenburg's whereabouts as seen from the Meyer Annex, the Western Gardens including the famous Autumn Tree in the Western Borough, the Prinvess of Triunphus Ave. and the Dona Maria St. in the Northern Borough, the Palace of the Kings and the Elidian Walls in the Southern Borough.
From top to bottom, left to right: A panorama of Altenburg's whereabouts as seen from the Meyer Annex, the Western Gardens including the famous Autumn Tree in the Western Borough, the Prinvess of Triunphus Ave. and the Dona Maria St. in the Northern Borough, the Palace of the Kings and the Elidian Walls in the Southern Borough.
Flag of Altenburg
Flag
Official seal of Altenburg
Seal
Motto(s): 
Vivre et laisser vivre
Live and let live
Location of Altenburg (blue) among other Ebenthali enclaves (orange) within the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro (dark-bordered)
Location of Altenburg (blue) among other Ebenthali enclaves (orange) within the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro (dark-bordered)
CountryFlag of Ebenthal.svg Ebenthal
Settled by the House of Brum12 October 1876
Incorpored into Roschfallen28 January 2014
Capital of Ebenthal13 August 2014
Borders altered29 December 2019
Province5 February 2022
Founded byArthur Brum and Arthur Beato
Government
 • TypeDevolved government
 • PresidentThe Baron of Roches
 • CouncillorsAlessandro Rosas
The Duke of Novaes
Area
 • Total2.5 km2 (1.0 sq mi)
Elevation
Template:Infobox settlement/wp/lengthdisp
Population
(2020)
 • Total36 (permanent)
Demonym(s)Altenburger; Formely Arturian
Time zoneUTC−3
Postal Code
20000-001 to 23799-999
Area code(s)+55 21
HDI (2022)0.959 very high (2nd)
GDP (2022)𝒦ℳ 195.000
Per capita𝒦ℳ 5.416

Altenburg, officialy Free City of Altenburg (Portuguese: Cidade Livre de Altenburgo), formely known from August 2014 to August 2020 as Arturia, and from August 2020 to February 2022 as Gillisburgh, is the capital and largest city of Ebenthal, being also one of the country's three city-states. Landlocked by the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, the Free City is the most populated administrative division with up to 36 permanent inhabitants scattered across the city's 2.5 km². Enjoying of a special administrative status, the city is governed as a fully autonomous devolved government by a President appointed by the King of Ebenthal, who nonetheless exerts great influence on the city's administration. The city is further subdivided intro three boroughs and it is represented at the House of Councillors by two elected Councillors.

Prior to the European colonization of the Americas, the territory that comprises modern-day Altenburg was inhabited by numerous indigenous tribes, among which the Temiminós and the Tamoios. With Portuguese colonization, the territories that comprise Altenburg were incorporated into the city of Rio de Janeiro in the 16th century, and remained part of the city even after Brazil's independence. In 1876 the House of Brum acquired property in Rio de Janeiro, followed by an other acquisition by the House of Beato in 1933. In early 2014 the Brazilian micronationalist Arthur Brum established the Kingdom of Roschfallen, proclaiming its independence from Brazil and claiming his family's land as sovereign territoty. He was followed inFebruary that month by Arthur Beato, who joined Roschfallen with his own family's lands. Together they founded the city of Arturia out of their family's main properties in Rio as part of the metropolitan area of Triunphus, Roschfallen's capital. Later in August 2014 nonetheless, amidst political conflicts, Arthur Beato, attending as Duke of Gallar, proclaimed his properties' secession from Roschfallen and created the Kingdom of Ebenthal, subsequently declaring his family's properties enclaved in Rio de Janeiro, a substantial part of Arturia, as the new country's capital, while Arthur Brum's family portion of Arturia was absorbed into Triunphus. However, on 29 December 2019, with the accession of the House of Brum to the throne of Ebenthal to replace the House of Beatus, the city's border incorporated the Brum holdings and lost the territories of the House of Beatus, subsequently being renamed Gillisburgh, in August 2020, and later as Altenburg, in February 2022.

Having the largest economy by GDP among Ebenthal's cities, Altenburg is the administrative division that contributes most to the national economy, providing the country the largest revenue (through the dominatint services sector), serving as headquarter to the Bank of Ebenthal and to the Conference of Santiago's Financial Authority. The city alone represents 25% of the country's total GDP, being the main hub of activity to 80% of the multinationals serving Ebenthal, as well as reponsible for almost the entire national scientific production and research. The "micrometropolis" is the national economic, political and cultural hub, being de facto or nominally home to important institutions and monuments such as the Royal Academy of General Knowledge, the Ebenthali Space Research Institute, the Royal Ebenthali Library, the Bank of Ebenthal, the José Pedrosa Stadium, as well it is the main stage for artistic presentations.

Etimology

The name "Altenburg" is the junction of two German toponymys "Alten" (Old) and "Burg" (Keep), thus meaning "Old Keep". A keep is a medieval type of fortification, or a towered gate. The name was officially adopted as a replacement for "Gillisburgh" to make the capital's name more impersonal and disconnected from the House of Brum's particular history. In the specific case of the city, the name refers to the settlement by both the House of Brum and the House of Beato creating gated villages in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, somehow analogue to medieval keeps, encrusted in the mountains, which gave rise to new settlements which together would form the city of Altenburg at the time of its foundation.

History

Pre-micronation

Historical affiliations

Partido Monarquico.png Brazilian Empire 1876–1889
w:Brazil Fed. Rep. of Brazil 1889–2014
Roschfallen Flag.png Kingdom of Roschfallen Jan–Aug 2014
Ebenthal Kingdom of Ebenthal 2014–present

Prior to its creation, modern-day Altenburg's lands were part of the Imperial City of Rio de Janeiro, founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, initially as capital of Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. Later, in 1763, Rio became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal and Brazil, who subsequently, in 1815, through her son, the Prince Regent and future King João VI of Portugal of Brazil, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, and then the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. From 1960 to 1975 it became a city-state within the Guanabara state until it's fusion with the Rio de Janeiro state, when the city became capital of the homonimous federative unit.

Settlement by the Brums and the Beatos

Mundo Novo St. in Botafogo, 1870. The street on which José Pedrosa's property is located around the time he bought it.

Seeking new job opportunities, José Pedrosa, a Portuguese worker, moved to Brazil in the 1870s, settling in Rio de Janeiro where, with his savings, he bought a farm in the Botafogo neighborhood. He and his successors continued to live on the farm, which was expanded and turned into a village with a few houses. In 1946 his great-granddaughter Lindalva de Savoy married Mário Brum, 4th Baron of Roches, who was her neighbor and went to live with her in the Brum village. The couple had nine children, among them Armando, 5th Baron of Roches, who as his father's main heir, continued to reside in the village.

In the same period, Setúbal Beato, a son of Portuguese immigrants who had left the European country in 1919, bought a farm in the Méier neighborhood in 1933. They inhabited the two houses they bought while started the construction of a villa, caled Vila Beata which remains, to this day, a private property of the family.

The founding of Arturia

In 28 January 2014 Arthur Brum, son of the 5th Baron of Roches, proclaimed the independence of his family's properties in relation to Brazil and founded the Kingdom of Roschfallen. Initially the capital wasn't yet defined since it was still nameless.

Arthur Brum knew and was a friend of Arthur Beato, who participated, along with him, in proto-micronational activities such as in the online game Nation States. Brum then convinced Beato to join the government of his new micronation. On 8 February the two agreed that, since their homes were close together, they should together form different regions of a single city that would be the capital. Arthur Brum, now King Arthur I of Roschfallen, created a document by which both he and his friend Arthur Beato, ennobled as Duke of Gallar, would cede sovereignty over their homes and other properties of their immediate families to Roschfallen, and thus the properties of Roschfallen. House of Brum and House of Beato that existed in Rio de Janeiro jointly constituted the new capital of Roschfallen, which was named "Arturia", meaning "City of Arthurs", in honor of the micronationalists responsible for its foundation. The city of Arturia, nonetheless, became officialy a satelite city to the actual Roschfallenian capital which was called Triunphus.

Ebenthali capital

Façade of the Palace of the Kings, previously called Sinclair Palace, the official residence of the Ebenthali Royal Family.

Beginning in July 2014, Arthur Beato, 1st Duke of Gallar, along with other nobles, were clashing against King Arthur I over the structure and direction of Roschfallen's politics. In a desperate measure of protest, the Duke of Gallar proclaimed the separation of his family's estates from the Kingdom of Roschfallen, thereby causing the city of Arturia to split. In reprisal over the city, King Arthur I decreed the annexation of Arturia by Triunphus, but the decree only took effect on the portion of Arturia controlled by Roschfallen. On August 11 of that year, overnight, the Kingdom of Ebenthal was officially created and the Duke of Gallar was acclaimed its first King. In this way, Arturia was officially made the capital of Ebenthal.

As the capital, Arturia was the scene of the main political protests and the target of attacks in the country. In 2017 the Ebenthali Civil War directly affected the city as rebels led by the Count of the Hidden Mound released secret information about civilians which caused a civil disruption in the city. In October 2019, following the Mateusian Crisis, the city's geographic borders were pulverized, since the House of Beato no longer reigned in Ebenthal, and the capital came to exist only in name, while the seat of political administration of the country became Belmonte. This only changed on 29 December 2019, when the House of Brum ascended the throne of Ebenthal in the figure of former King Arthur I of Roschfallen as Arthur II of Ebenthal. Making use of the political theory he developed in 2014, dubbed the Nomadic Micronation Theory, Arthur II ceded the sovereignty of his family's properties to the Ebenthali State, and therefore, the capital Arturia had its borders again altered to emcompass the properties. of the House of Brum in Rio de Janeiro.

In 18 August 2020, King Arthur II of Ebenthal issued a Royal Decree changing the city's name to Gillisburgh, meaning city of Gillis, a homage to the House of Brum's forefather, Gillis Van Der Bruyn, and as a mean to give the city a more neutral and less "egocentric" name, thus not offending any potential future monarch.[1] Since then the city has been receiving many foreign diplomats. However, on 5 February 2022, the city's name was changed back to Altenburg as the King believed that having a city named after an ancestor made it too personal and could still be interpreted as a sign of self-centeredness.

Geography

Gillisburgh's enclaves in the city of Rio de Janeiro in pink.

The geography of the Free City of Altenburg is on the far western part of a strip of South America's Atlantic coast, close to the Tropic of Capricorn. Facing largely south, the city covers roughly 2.5 km² and it is formed by a series of private properties and uninhabited lands enclaved in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro belonging to Armando, 5th Baron of Roches, father of King Arthur II, and to which the monarch Ebenthali is the immediate heir. The city's borders also include properties belonging to Armando and Arthur's immediate family. Altenburg is a 100% urbanized city, recognized by the State of Ebenthal as a "micrometropolis". The terrain on which the city is located is often rugged, consisting mainly of slopes but also on land directly at sea level.

City districts

Altenburg is subdivided in three boroughs, each one made of one or more enclaves within three five different regions of Rio de Janeiro.

  • The Northern Borough: Consists on two enclaves in the Méier neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro.
  • The Southern Borough: Consists on three enclaves in Botafogo, Santa Teresa and Laranjeiras neighbourhoods of Rio de Janeiro.
  • The Western Borough: Consists on one enclave in Taquara neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro.

Environment

Due to the very high level of urbanization of Altenburg, the city is not served by natural environments such as forests and rivers, but in the Southern and Western boroughs the city borders areas of Atlantic Forest of the surrounding city of Rio de Janeiro. The city has, on the other hand, green areas such as parks and gardens well wooded and with a variety of tropical plants native to the Atlantic Forest, and also has artificial bodies of water such as swimming pools.

Altenburg is not a major producer of pollution, and although it suffers from pollution from the neighboring city, mainly due to the altitude and geographical location of the enclaves that make up the city, the level of pollution is negligible.

Climate

Altenburg has a tropical savanna climate (Aw) that closely borders a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification, and is often characterized by long periods of heavy rain between December and March. The city experiences hot, humid summers, and warm, sunny winters. Close to the coast, the breeze, blowing onshore and offshore, moderates the temperature. Because of its geographic situation, the city is often reached by cold fronts advancing from Antarctica, especially during autumn and winter, causing frequent weather changes. In summer there can be strong rains, which have, on some occasions, provoked catastrophic floods and landslides. The city has had rare frosts in the past and occasional falls of ice pellets.

Climate data for Altenburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40.9
(105.6)
41.8
(107.2)
41.0
(105.8)
39.3
(102.7)
36.3
(97.3)
35.9
(96.6)
34.9
(94.8)
38.9
(102)
40.6
(105.1)
42.8
(109)
40.5
(104.9)
43.2
(109.8)
43.2
(109.8)
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
29.4
(84.9)
27.8
(82)
26.4
(79.5)
25.2
(77.4)
25.0
(77)
25.5
(77.9)
25.4
(77.7)
26.0
(78.8)
27.4
(81.3)
28.6
(83.5)
27.3
(81.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.3
(79.3)
26.6
(79.9)
26.0
(78.8)
24.4
(75.9)
22.8
(73)
21.8
(71.2)
21.3
(70.3)
21.8
(71.2)
22.2
(72)
22.9
(73.2)
24.0
(75.2)
25.3
(77.5)
23.8
(74.8)
Average low °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.3
(73.9)
21.9
(71.4)
20.4
(68.7)
18.7
(65.7)
18.4
(65.1)
18.9
(66)
19.2
(66.6)
20.2
(68.4)
21.4
(70.5)
22.4
(72.3)
21.0
(69.8)
Record low °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
18.9
(66)
18.6
(65.5)
16.2
(61.2)
11.1
(52)
11.6
(52.9)
12.2
(54)
10.6
(51.1)
10.2
(50.4)
10.1
(50.2)
15.1
(59.2)
17.1
(62.8)
10.1
(50.2)
Average Rainfall mm (inches) 137.1
(5.398)
130.4
(5.134)
135.8
(5.346)
94.9
(3.736)
69.8
(2.748)
42.7
(1.681)
41.9
(1.65)
44.5
(1.752)
53.6
(2.11)
86.5
(3.406)
97.8
(3.85)
134.2
(5.283)
1,069.4
(42.102)
Average relative humidity (%) 79 79 80 80 80 79 77 77 79 80 79 80 79.1
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 11 7 8 9 6 6 4 5 7 9 10 11 93
Sunshine hours 211.9 201.3 206.4 181.0 186.3 175.1 188.6 184.8 146.2 152.1 168.5 179.6 2,181.8
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Politics

Gillisburgh's administrative structure.

Government

The Free City of Altenburg is a non-sovereign city-state, being one of Ebenthal's seven administrative divisions in the form of a single city-state. Due to this condition, the city does not have a municipal government, being administered by a government at the provincial level. The city is governed as a devolved government by a President appointed by the King of Ebenthal. The city is divided into three Boroughs which are respectivelly nominally administered by Administrators who are subsequently appointed by the President. Due to its national capital status and residency to the Ebenthali Royal Family, the degree of autonomy enjoyed by Altenburg is different from that of the other provinces of the country and volatile, but the city is often administered with greater autonomy than the other administrative divisions.

On its condition as an administrative division, Altenburg provides two elected members to the House of Councillors and two appointed members to the House of Aristocrats. The city and administrative division also showcase examples of direct democracy with proposals being made by its inhabitants to the President for his sanction or veto. Issues regarding the micronation per se are, though, directly send to the Central Government.

Embassies and consulates

Altenburg is officially home to the embassies of:

Demographics

Race and ethnicity

Race and ethnicity in Altenburg
Ethnicity Percentage
White
  
77.7%
Multiracial
  
13.8%
Black
  
8.3%

According to the Ministry of the Interior, there were 36 people residing in Altenburg. The census revealed the following numbers: 28 white people (77.7%), 5 multiracial people (13.8%) and 3 black people (8.3%), with the absence of East Asian and South American Native populations. The population of Altenburg is circa 60% female and 40% male

Altenburg is the municipality of Ebenthal formed by the most enclaves, with a total of six different enclaves. It is also the most populous city in the country as of 2020.

Different ethnic groups contributed to the formation of the population of Altenburg. The majority of the population of Altenburg is of Portuguese descent, with a considerable percentage being only the 2nd generation born in South America. The entire population, however, is descended from Portuguese, however the identification of primary ancestry varies according to the racial formation of the families. and the phenotypes of individuals. More than 25% of the population descends from Africans, mostly from Angola and Mozambique, who were brought to Brazil as slaves, while of these, 13.8% are also descended, in a next generation, from Europeans, mainly Portuguese, but also from Germans.

Religion

Religion in Altenburg
Religion Percent
Roman Catholicism
  
55.5%
Spiritism
  
33.3%
Atheism
  
5.5%
Protestantism
  
5.5%

Religion in Altenburg is somewhat as diverse, with Catholic Christianity being the majority religion, followed by a large Spiritist population. According to the Ministry of the Interior, the population of Altenburg had 22 Christians, that being of 20 Roman Catholics and 2 Protestant Evangelicals, 12 Spiritists and 2 Atheists.

Altenburg had a rich and influential Catholic tradition inherited from Brazil, which was subsequently inherited from Portugal. Nevertheless, the Catholicism seen in Altenburg is strongly influenced by Spiritism and shares with it beliefs such as reincarnation that are not observed by the Roman Church. Ebenthal and Ebenthali catholics does not recognize or abide to the Igreja Católica Micronacional (En: Micronational Catholic Church). Protestantism and Atheism in Altenburg, despite being professed, are often ostracized by other groups, the first for their prejudiced social postures, and the second for their disbelief and frequent discrediting of Christian religions.

Economy

Altenburg has the largest GDP of any city in Ebenthal and it is the province that generates the most income, approximately 𝒦ℳ 75.000, half of the annual revenue. Taking into consideration the network of influence exerted by the urban micrometropolis (which covers 17.8% of the population), this share in GDP is that of 18.20%. Subsequently, the city has the second-largest GDP per capita in the country, surpassed only by New Switzerland as a federative unit and by none as a city proper.

A fourth of the Ebenthali economic power is concentrated on the city alone. The service sector is the biggest source of income for Altenburg, which has a small industrial park and no agriculture. In services, work for international private companies (mainly of Brazilian origin) stands out, although there is a considerable number of public servants, and especially the self-employed microenterprise is the flagship of the sector. In services, commerce (decoration, luxury items), IT, education, administration and provision of services stand out. The financial sector follows that of services, with the presence of national companies and international services offered, both employing residents of Altenburg.

The country's financial and political hub, Altenburg is home to national public and private companies such as the Bank of Ebenthal and The Altenburg Express.

Infrastructure

The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, the most attended college by Altenburgers.

Education

Altenburg is home to the Royal Academy of General Knowledge, which is the only educational institution in Ebenthal, working in different areas of education. Due to its spatial and financial limitations, Ebenthal is unable to maintain a public education, nor pay for the private education of its citizens. However, in Altenburg, the population makes use of the public and private education system of the surrouding State and Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, as well as several higher education institutions located in that city. The Government of Altenburg encourages the studies of its inhabitants in the best schools and universities outside its borders, in the neighboring city and beyond, and carries out censuses and studies on the subject.

According to the Government of Altenburg, the university most frequented by Altenburgers (and by Ebenthalis in general) is the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and all the children and adolescents in the city are enrolled in schools, most of them private, in Rio de Janeiro.

Transportation

Public transportation

Altenburg also possesses and operates a series of unconnected "microroads", this is, stretched, mostly cobblestone paths for both pedestrians and vehicles, generally linking the city's inland territories to the outside. While Altenburg does not have the capability to sustain a public transportation system on itself, it is served by a Rio de Janeiro train station which practically borders the city linking it to several of Rio de Janeiro's neighbourhood through its rail network system. Formerly, this rail network also connected Ebenthal to Harram and Roschfallen, two micronations which also bordered train stations. Theoretically, Altenburg also borders the Kingdom of Luna, but this claim haven't been confirmed by Luna's government. Rio de Janeiro's Bus lines also feed the outskirts of Altenburg and, consequently, the city itself, being the second main form of public transport used by the city's inhabitants after the metro, according to reports from the Ministry of the Interior.

Bybicles

Although there is no research carried out on the subject, it is estimated that a minority but considerable percentage of the Alteburgers own and ride a bicycle between the city's enclaves and across the neighboring country, Brazil. Bicycles, however, are not often used in the same context as public transport, and are mainly used for leisure, although there is encouragement from both the Altenburg and Ebenthal governments to use them more widely.

Landmarks

Altenburg is home to a number of landmarks, points of interest and tourist attractions of its own. According to the Ministry of the Interior, Ebenthal's most visited landmarks are the Elidian Walls and Filipidian Lake, both at the Southern Borough. In addition to these, other important landmarks include the Royal Observatory at the Palace of Rochesburg, the Royal Ebenthali Library, the José Pedrosa Stadium, the Lily Gardens (which are part of the Western Gardens) and the Orangers View.

Culture

The Altenburger culture is a fac simile of the Carioca culture. Altenburger people, more commonly referred to as Arturians, have described themselves as pra frentex, meaning they're open-minded people regarding the social establishment and the adherence to modern practices and adoption of newer technology. The city's architecture ranges from Portuguese neoclassical to modern. Among Altenburger main points of interest are the Royal Academy of General Knowledge, the Royal Observatory, the Royal Ebenthali Library and the Royal Ballet School.

Literature

Inheriting it directly from the House of Brum's elitism, Altenburger quickly developed a European-style bourgeois cultural life. Altenburger has been the hub of production of most, if not all Ebenthali literature. Prince Mário Sérgio, King Arthur II's first cousin, has been the first recorded Ebenthali writer of success, writting and publishing several essays on Brazil's sociology and political history[11] pre-dating Ebenthal's existence and his position as a royal. Other distinguished authors are Jean Roberto, a king's friend who in 2015 published a horror book centered around a zombie apocalypse in Brazil and Armando, 5th Baron of Roches, who authored several poems and had some of them published in poetry books. Princess Heloísa has also been a successful figure in Ebenthali literature, appearing in national media giving interviews on her short works.[12]

In 2018 the Royal Fair of Arturia, a literary and social event organized by the House of Beato in partnership with the House of Brum of Roschfallen and the Al-Moraes Family of Barin, took place in the capital city of Arturia (currently called Altenburg), where many citizens and foreigners came together to exchange and talk about several books of their preference. More than 20 people participated and the fair disposed of more than 60 books.

Music

The music exppression of Altenburg is wide, ranging from the most listened genre of Brazilian Popular Music to Rock and Pop. Two rock bands has its origins in the city, although only one, the Efeito Colateral band, has been active professionally. A heavy and thrash metal band, Efeito Colateral has toured Altenburg in an event sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and Education.[13] They have released an album so far and also performed in Barin. Gillisburgh is also home to the Maestro João Genúncio, King Arthur II's uncle (as husband to the writter Princess Heloísa) who has performed twice in the country for a limited audience.

International relations

Seat of organizations

From the election of King Arthur II of Ebenthal as Secretary-General of the Conference of Santiago in 5 January 2022, Altenburg has been serving de facto as the headquarters to the Conference of Santiago. The city is also expected to be the headquarters of a Micronational Trade Organization.

Twin towns – sister cities

Following the Conference of Santiago Sister Cities Program, Altenburg is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. Royal Decree No 168-2020. Published on 20 August 2020. Retrieved on 26 August 2020.
  2. "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in português). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  3. "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in português). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  4. "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in português). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  5. "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in português). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  6. "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  7. "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  8. "Número de Dias com Precipitação Maior ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  9. "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  10. "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  11. Fluminense Federal University. Cantareira by Mário Sérgio Brum. Published in 2001. Retrieved on 10 December 2020.
  12. "Bebezão Quatrocentão" (in português). O Globo. 2015. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  13. Efeito Colateral. Published on 2014. Retrieved on 30 December 2020.