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|The Right Honourable|
James Stewart OBS, IKA, et al.
Grand Duke Emeritus of Francisville
Baron of Flandrensis
|Stewart in his office, August 2020|
28 November 2008 - 3 June 2011
13 July 2009 - 13 October 2009
|Born||August 1993 (age 29)|
Inverness, United Kingdom
New Virginia (2020–2021)
|Residence||Edinburgh, United Kingdom|
Lord James Stewart OBS IKA ACCL KNVI KCSM (formerly His Grace James I, Grand Duke of Francisville) is a former Scottish micronationist most notably associated with the former state of Francisville. The founder of the Democratic Duchy of Francisville in 2008, he reigned as the Grand Duke from the establishment of the nation until the abolition of the monarchy by his own initiative on 3 June 2011. Due to his participation in intermicronational politics during the early days of the Grand Unified Micronational, he has become regarded as one of the principal architects of the early MicroWiki Community along with Alexander Reinhardt of St.Charlie, Jacob Tierney of Renasia, and James von Puchow of Landashir. He served two terms as the Supreme Tribune of the organisation and became elected Chair of the Quorum of Delegates during the time of the Rhodesian and New Euro-Erusian conflicts. His diplomatic efforts established Francisville as a prominent neutral power.
In Francillian domestic politics, he remained prominent constitutional theorist and the founding father of the Federal Republic of Francisville due to his position as the intellectual founder of the June Convention. His micronational activity decreased following the disestablishment of Francisville in 2014. He was citizen of New Virginia from earl 2020 until September 2021, where he served as First Ambassador, ambassador and principal delegate to the GUM, and Speaker of the House of Burgesses. He no longer holds any major micronational offices, but continues to archive and share the history of Francisville as the Convenor of Historic Francisville.
Stewart was born in Inverness in the Scottish Highlands in 1993. He spent most of his early life in Kirkburgh. Stewart developed an early interest in political theory and the history of political reform, citing numerous early influences on his political outlook including the democratizing tendencies of the Scottish Enlightenment and the effects of land movement.
Grand Duke, 2008–2011
Stewart became familiar with micronationalism whilst he was completing his secondary education, when he was exposed to nations such as Molossia and Flandrensis. Following discussion with other interested individuals, he drafted and promulgated a provisional constitution for the Democratic Duchy of Francisville on 28 November 2008. Under Emergency Clause I.VII, the constitution established a powerful elected monarchy under the administration of the Archduke of Francisville. Amendments adopted on 16 January 2009 transferred the duties of the monarch to the Grand Duke of Francisville who was provisionally held to account by initiatives of direct democracy. On 8 May 2009, Stewart proposed the adoption of a revised constitution which transformed the state into a constitutional monarchy, allowing for the election of the first legislature on 3 June 2009. The May 2009 constitution also permitted the establishment of territorial land claims for the first time in the nation's history. Stewart has noted:
Our approach to micronationalism was that the sovereignty of a micronational state derives from the sovereignty of the individuals who compose its national community. As an expression of this sovereignty, micronationalism allows communities of individuals who profess the same values and aspirations to form institutions which represent and further them. I have seen territorial possession as strictly tertiary and nonfundamental to the legitimacy of a micronation
The Duchy established two territorial regions in 2009 which provided physical locations for the nation's activities. In line with Francisville's guiding view on micronational sovereignty, the territorial claims were not considered essential to the nation's existence and they were frequently altered. Acting as Francisville's primary intermicronational representative in his role as Grand Duke, Stewart is credited with establishing Francisville's reputation as a neutral power with a commitment to diplomacy and co-operation. His signature was legally required for any international treaty and he negotiated agreements with numerous states including St.Charlie and Flandrensis. He also visited the Community of Landashir in 2010 on a state visit hosted by James von Puchow.
Chair of the Grand Unified Micronational, 2009
Francisville was admitted to the Grand Unified Micronational on 8 January 2009 as one of the first members of the organisation other than the constitutionally recognised founding member states. From 13 February until 13 April, Francisville served on the first GUM Security Council along with Scientopia and the Ohio Empire. The credentials of Francisville as a neutral power were first bolstered by its involvement in peace talks during the Meissner-Antifan War when Stewart also served as a juror on the Special Tribunal to Investigate Allegations of New European Racism. His judicial efforts contributed to his election as Supreme Tribune of the Justice Commission with his election backed by Robert Lethler and Alexander Reinhardt. Serving in this office from 13 April - 13 July 2009, he presided over the trial of Scientopia for inappropriate release of New Europe's secure information.
As the international representative of Francisville to the Quorum of Delegates, he was considered responsible for Francisville's heavy involvement in the early days of the organisation. He successfully maintained the nation's constitutional neutrality during the Siple War and New Euro-Erusian War. He was elected as 3rd Chairman of the Quorum of Delegates on 13 July 2009. His chairmanship was marked by the outbreak of the Rhodesian War which led to the demise of the United Micronations (UNMCN) and the hegemony of the GUM over the MicroWiki community. Stewart withdrew Francisville from the UNMCN and acted as a principle negotiator during the conflict, signing the peace agreement along with Robert Lethler on 2 August 2009. He was later a signatory to the Treaty of Universal Non-Aggression at the close of the New Euro-Erusian War.
Stewart's chairmanship was noted for his successful diplomatic efforts which marked the end of the transition between the Conflict Era and the Peaceful Era. Despite this, he later expressed concerns about his complicity in establishing the power of Robert Lethler over intermicronational affairs. He has also criticized figures who have justified Lethler's influence. His chairmanship had been assisted by Alexander Reinhardt as Vice-Chairman who was removed from office on 27 August 2009 in response to the Observergate scandal, which was later revealed as an experiment contrived by Lethler. A similar incident occurred with the scandal surrounding the return of Peter I of Erusia after which Stewart proposed his resignation from the office of chair. In response to defense of Lethler, he has responded that these events were unjustified interventions which diverted the community's attention from productive projects and encouraged intermicronational conflict. His term as chairman ended on 13 October 2009 after serving a term of 92 days.
He served a second term as Supreme Tribune from 13 October 2009 until 13 January 2010. The end of his term marked the gradual decrease of Francisville's involvement in the GUM. The nation ceased to hold any position within the organisation after this date although Stewart continued to comment on its political affairs. Stewart's desire to draw Francisville away from Erusia's influence was considered as the primary motivation behind this decision. Francisville later remained temporarily outside of the MicroWiki Community until the exposure of Robert Lethler in July 2010.
Federal Republic, 2011–2014
In additional to his role as the founder of Francisville, Stewart's legacy is characterized by his role as a constitutional reformer and the founder of the June Convention. He released a statement in 2011 calling for the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a constitutional convention to develop an alternative democratic form of government. After the declaration, he became a prominent figure in the convention and he pushed constitutional proposals which emphasized direct democracy, decentralization, and workers' self-management. He succesfully proposed a constitutional amendment which limited legal personality to co-operatives and mutual organisation thereby abolishing the concept of the private corporation in Francisville. The proposal was unanimously accepted by the electorate making it the most popular proposal in the nation's history.
He represented Francisville to the European Micronational Culture Organisation and Germanophony but he developed a skeptical position on intermicronational organisations as his career developed. On 23 April 2012, he proposed a referendum which ended Francisville's Permanent Observer of status of the Grand Unified Micronational, a status the nation had held since the re-restablishment of the GUM in August 2011.
His constitutional proposals also introduced the requirement of a referendum for membership in any intermicronational organisations. Despite his lack of activity in the MicroWiki community during the time, he actively opposed the ban of Sebastian Linden (then known as Mark Dresner). He was one of few prominent micronationalists in the community to oppose the ban, along with the now Jonathan I of Austenasia and Marka Mejakhansk of Nemkhavia.
Stewart represented Francisville at PoliNation: 2nd International Conference on Micronations where he delivered a presentation focusing on Francisville's constitutional reforms. He was again hosted by James von Puchow with whom he visited Landashir and North Llabdey. The conference was followed by a state visit to Austenasia organised by Crown Prince Jonathan which Stewart attended with James von Puchow of Landashir and Will Sörgel of Sandus. Despite his distrust of intermicronational organisations, he agreed to act as the temporary Juclandian delegate to the GUM during a post-conference quorum. He later dined with Jacob Tierney of Renasia along with Alexander Reinhardt and James Lunam of St.Charlie where the parties discussed topical issues such as the Lethler controversy and Scottish independence.
Following a federal referendum, the constitution of the Federal Republic was ratified on 16 April 2012. Stewart was subsequently elected to the Federal Chamber as one of two Deputies for Wasserbrueck but he failed to gain a seat in the inaugural Federal Council. He was appointed to the Federal Council in the 2013 elections. Stewart also served as First Minister of Wasserbrueck, Provost of Kirkburgh and President of the Federal Chamber until the dissolution of the Federal Republic on 14 August 2014.
Stewart had not occupied a permanent position in micronational governance since the dissolution of Francisville in November 2014. He remained an active observer within the micronational community, however, and maintains contact with several former and current members of the MicroWiki sphere including Alexander Reinhardt, James von Puchow, Gaius Soergel Publicola, Jacob Tierney, and Sebastian Linden. In November 2017, he founded Historic Francisville with the aim of preserving and promoting the history and legacy of the nation. Stewart is a citizen of Flandrensis and New Virginia as well as being an Honorary Subject of Austenasia. He was appointed New Virginian delegate to the Grand Unified Micronational on 29 May 2020. He has also served as the Consul-General in Scotland for the Empire of Austenasia since 7 February 2020. On 25 May 2020, he became a citizen of the Commonwealth of New Virginia by order of the Provisional Council. He was subsequently appointed as the Commonwealth's ambassador and delegate to the Grand Unified Micronational.
Stewart stood in the 2020 election to the House of Burgesses for Roanoke-at-Large, being affiliated to the Free Democratic Party. He was successfully elected as one of two FDP candidates, alongside Chloe Chloris, with 27.4% of the vote. On 24 August 2020, he was elected as the inaugural Speaker of the House. On 5 September 2020, he was appointed cabinet minister for the Foreign Office as First Ambassador. He supported the 24th of July Movement to uphold the Constitution of New Virginia following the July Revolution but subsequently departed New Virginia in September 2021.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Lord James Stewart
Grand Duke Emeritus of Francisville, Baron of Flandrensis
|Reference style||His Lordship|
|Spoken style||My Lord|
Titles and styles
- 28 November 2008 – 15 January 2009: His Excellency James Stewart, Archduke of Francisville
- 16 January 2009 – 13 February 2009: His Grand Ducal Highness James I, Grand Duke of Francisville, Baron of Flandrensis
- 13 February 2009 – 20 August 2012: His Grace James I, Grand Duke of Francisville, Baron of Flandrensis, OBS
- 21 August 2012 – 14 September 2012: Rt. Hon. Sir. James Stewart, First Minister of Wasserbrueck, Grand Duke Emeritus of Francisville, Baron of Flandrensis, OBS, ACCL.
- 15 September 2012 – 7 November 2014: Rt. Hon. Sir. James Stewart, First Minister of Wasserbrueck, Grand Duke Emeritus of Francisville, Baron of Flandrensis, IKA, OBS, ACCL.
- 8 November 2014 – 30 August 2020: Lord James Stewart, Grand Duke Emeritus of Francisville, Baron of Flandrensis IKA, OBS
- 30 August 2020 – 5 September 2021: The Rt. Hon. Sir James Stewart B.P., Grand Duke Emeritus of Francisville, Baron of Flandrensis, OBS, IKA, KNVI.
- 6 September 2021 – Present: Lord James Stewart, Grand Duke Emeritus of Francisville, Baron of Flandrensis, IKA, OBS
The Right Honourable Lord James Stewart (sometime His Grace James I), Grand Duke Emeritus of Francisville, Duke of Kirkburgh, Earl of Ennerau and Holmewood, Founder of the Nation, Baron of Flandrensis, Imperial Knight of the Austenasian Order, Officer of the Order of the Blue Star, Knight of the Holy Military Order of Saint Polycarpus, Ritter of the Order of the Reich, Knight of the Order of Bohr, Knight of the Order of New Virginian Independence, Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Marinus, Knight Master of the Order of the Gilded Rose, Academic Companion of the Community of Landashir, Knight in the Order of the Melting Mountain.
Honours and decorations
- Baron of Flandrensis - 16 January 2009
- Knight of the Holy Military Order of Saint Polycarpus - 14 July 2009
- Ritter of the Order of the Reich - 27 October 2009
- Knight of the Order of Bohr - 30 August 2010
- Pristinian Award of Appreciation - 26 September 2011
- Academic Companion of the Community of Landashir - 1 January 2012
- Pristinian Award of Appreciation - 30 April 2012
- Imperial Knight of the Austenasian Order - 15 September 2012
- Ufficiale of the Order of the Blue Star - 14 April 2014
- Knight of the Order of New Virginian Independence - 30 August 2020
- Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Marinus - 31 December 2020
- Knight Master of the Order of the Gilded Rose - 31 December 2020
- Commemorative Medal of the First Anniversary of the Vishwamitran Monarchy - 8 June 2021
- Knight of the Order of the Gods - 9 September 2010
Obsolete, discontinued on 30 July 2011.
- Officer of the Order of the Sovereign Eagle - 13 January 2011
Obsolete, discontinued on 30 July 2011.
- Cavaliere of the Order of the Blue Star - 13 February 2009
Admitted to the rank of Ufficiale on 14 April 2014.
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Vishwamitra - 8 June 2021
Abolished, discontinued on 24 October 2022
Standards and arms
| Coat of arms as Grand Duke of Francisville
(2008 – 2011)
| Coat of arms as Baron of Flandrensis|
(2009 – present)
| Standard of the Grand Duke
(2009 – 2011)
- ↑ Constitution of Francisville, 2008, National Archives of Francisville, Accessed 01/01/16
- ↑ Constitution of Francisville, January 2009, National Archives of Francisville, Access 01/01/16
- ↑ Francillian Legislative Election, May 2009, National Archives of Francisville, Accessed 01/01/16
- ↑ Constitution of Francisville, May 2009, National Archives of Francisville, Accessed 01/01/16
- ↑ Treaty between the Grand Duchy of Flandrensis and the Democratic Duchy of Francisville, National Archives of Francisville, Accessed 01/01/16
- ↑ Opening Addresses Recieved Well by Congress, Erusian Central News, 31 August 2009
- ↑ 'Emergency-vote-of-no-confidence-nominated-reinhardt-as-gum-vice-chair', St.Charlian Observer, 3 March 2010
- ↑ Declaration of the Republic, Grand Ducal Office, Accessed 01/01/16
- ↑ Citizens will vote on disputed isues, The Francillian, 15 February 2012
- ↑ Latest Survey Results Published, The Francillian, 19 March 2012
- ↑ London Conference Schedule, 14 June 2012, , Accessed 01/01/16
- ↑ POLINATION 2012: “I TOLD YOU THAT THERE WERE MORE OF US”, St.Charlian Observer, 15 July 2012
- ↑ Polination 2012 Weekend, Austenasian News Archive, Accessed 01/01/16
- ↑ James Stewart appointed GUM Ambassador The Herald, 13 June 2020. Accessed 22 June 2020
- ↑ PM White: New Virginian government “not legally dissolved” Austenasian Times, Accessed 22 September 2022