Secundomian Federation

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Federation of Secundomian Socialist Republics
Flag of Secundomian Federation
Motto: Secundus Domus
File:Kansas, Missouri, Antarctica
CapitalHanover (since summer 2020)
Largest cityMiddle Secundomia
Official languagesEnglish, Secundomian, Slin-English (Secundomian Classical)
EstablishmentApril 30, 2016
• Census
CurrencyUSD ($)
Time zoneUTC−06:00
Preceded by
Democratic Republic of Secundomia
Principality of Sterling
Principality of Tergumterra

The Secundomian Federation, officially the Federation of Secundomian Socialist Republics (FSSR, dubiously Secundomia) is a socialist micronational federation consisting of several republics located in North America and Antarctica. It is a single-party state lead by the Maoist-Worker's Party of Secundomia. The constituent republics in the nation include Tergumterra, Secundomia, and Sterling-Charcot. Gravois, a founding constituent republic, left the nation in 2020.

The Federation is a successor in the long line of Secundomian micronations. It is an amalgamation of most of the remaining members of the Secundomian Sector. All three constituting republics have varied histories but are closely tied together through a common leader, Parker I. The totalitarian government is meant to be radically socialist, but in practice operates as a one man nation with highly limited capacity to restrain the country's economy and politics. Due to its size, community orientation and "bricks and mortar" existence, the Secundomian Federation is classified as a 6th world country.


Name of Secundomia in Secundomian and English.

The Federation of Secundomian Socialist Republics is named after its core constituent republic of Secundomia. In turn, Secundomia is a neologism of the Latin words secundus and domus meaning roughly "behind the house." This name was created by Parker I with the founding of the First Kingdom, which consisted exclusively of his backyard. The name of Secundomia was decided by a vote of the prospective citizens of the First Republic. The abbreviation FSSR was chosen due to its similarity to the USSR, a country from which the federation takes political inspiration.[1]


Flag of the Kingdom of Secundomia

The FSSR traces its origins to the Secundomian Micronational Boom, an event in December 2009 in which several micronations were founded in quick succession. The impetus for the boom occurred when brothers Parker I and Spencer I researched micronations together on Wikipedia and drew inspiration from Molossia and Aerica.[2][3] The two brothers resolved to form a micronation together but a lack of communication resulted in each founding a nation antagonistic to the other, the Republic of Skillz and the Kingdom of Secundomia.[4] Both nations were short lived and volatile, with Skillz collapsing due to internal strife just hours after a declaration of war by Secundomia. The brothers sought peace and joined together with Skillz vice-president Nate I to form a new nation.[4]

First Republic

The Republic of Secundomia was founded on December 16, 2009 and Parker sent an email to various friends to recruit new members. The new republic was extremely volatile internally with unrest in the state of Halstopia[5] and dueling national factions supporting rivals Parker I and Luke of Secundomia. The state of Atlan seceded in late 2009[6] drawing the two rivals to show unity to prevent total collapse, resolving to become co-presidents in January 2010.[7]

Republic of Secundomia's coat of Arms was created as a gift by Dylan Callahan of NottaLottaAcres, an early ally of the nation.

Secundomia was quick to enter the micronational community on MicroWiki, posting on talk pages of other nations to grow its diplomatic influence. Secundomia signed a pact with Kleinland[8] and entered into an alliance with NottaLotta Acres.[9] Secundomia grew to be a somewhat influential nation on MicroWiki, allying itself largely with younger and more aggressive nations. Parker I advocated strongly in favor of simulationism[10] and micronational warfare which drew the ire of some of the older and secessionist style nations in the community. Secundomia was also often involved in ideological conflicts, with Parker being a leader amongst conservatives in the community.[11]

Flag of Sterling

Foundation of Sterling

In late January 2010 Parker I was concerned about a potential loss in the upcoming elections. In order to avoid losing power and also to ensure quicker diplomatic action in the MicroWiki sector, Parker founded the absolute monarchy Kingdom of Sterling. The original Kingdom claimed of the Grand Duchy of Iceia, all ice present on top of the Arctic ocean.[12] Further claims were made on Pluto, Mercury and 243 Ida.[13] In February 2010 Sterling laid claim on Charcot Island, Antarctica[14] and entered the Antarctic Micronational Union.[15] To solidify its legitimacy within the AMU and the Organisation of Active Micronations, the King renounced all extraterrestrial claims.[14]


Spencer I was elected as the first sole president of Secundomia in late February 2010.[16] Secundomia then went through a large territorial expansion known as the "Golden Days," an influx of citizens recruited by Spencer and the return of the state of Atlan.[17] Soon, the Secundomian sector turned its eye on intermicronational affairs in March 2010. During the Second Black March, King Parker saw an opportunity to take intermicronational action under the banner of Sterling. While President Spencer's administration and the Secundomian Congress were cautious about launching military efforts, the Sterling Monarchy had no such qualms.

Secundomia and Sterling's membership in the Aegis Alliance resulted in international entanglements during the Austenasian Civil War

As foreign minister of Secundomia, Parker I declared full diplomatic support for the Carolinian rebels in the Austenasian Civil War to the fullest extent of his authority. Meanwhile, as King of Sterling, Parker I expressed his intention to mobilize military support on behalf of the rebels and declared war on the Empire of Austenasia on March 8, 2010.[18] This decision drew significant criticism from the community, particularly from Alexander Reinhardt of the St. Charlian Observer.[19] Sterling withdrew from the war only two days later with the King denying that public pressure had forced the withdrawal. However, Parker did admit that Sterling's suspension from the AMU was a significant step back for the nation.[20]

The close Secundomian allies Zona and NottaLotta Acres entered the Austenasian Civil War under the Allied Carolinian Coalition on March 20, drawing Sterling back into the conflict.[21] The conflict began to affect Secundomia's reputation as well, with the Midget Nation-in-Exile shifting their diplomatic stance towards Secundomia to "enemy." On April 1, however, Sterling withdrew from the coalition calling the war "a series of empty threats." The ACC was dissolved a day later and Crown Prince Jonathan thanked Sterling for leaving the war.

Parker I announces his cabinet choices. (artist's depiction)

Parker I ascended back to the office of the President of Secundomia in April 2010.[22] Controversy erupted in the country after his appointments for cabinet were released. The Cabinet Crisis bifurcated the country between Parker I, the Empress of Atlan and a large group of protestors desiring positions in the new government.[23] Parker and the Empress accused Rahim I and Ibrahim I of conducting harassment campaigns which were against the law on official Secundomian discussion boards. This resulted in the Trial of Ibrahim I, a high profile event in which Ibrahim was acquitted of all charges.[24] Continued unrest after the trial resulted in realignment of much of the population behind President Parker I and the exile of Rahim from the country.[25]

Late 2010

In later 2010 the Kingdom of Sterling was folded into Secundomia, only consisting of its claims to Charcot Island.[14] The reorganized "Colony of Sterling" was lead by Protector J of Sterling.[26] Luke of Secundomia was elected president for the second time and the state of Gravois was added to the republic alongside Bu Ocajin and Southern Cipania.[27] The nation also developed increasing military strength with the foundation of the Secundomian Navy and Air Force.[28] Secundomia joined the Organisation of Active Micronations[29] and was selected to host the 2010 Micronational Olympics.[30]

The Intermicronational Democratic Commonwealth was the spiritual predecessor of the FSSR

In late 2010 Parker I joined another micronational project after he was offered a department in the Slinky Empyre. Parker and Kyng Fyrst founded the Tergumterra Department out of a small slice of land cut off from Middle Secundomia.[31] Parker was appointed vyceroy of the department. Meanwhile, Bubba Marra of the Sandbars approached Secundomia with a proposition. The Sandbars was a young micronation, and wanted the guidance of Secundomia. In return, the Sandbars became a dependent territory. Together with the Colony of Sterling, the three nations formed the Intermicronational Democratic Commonwealth.

Late Republic period

In 2011, Parker was elected president once again after a hard fought election against Spencer I. As a part of his platform, Parker touted the successes of the Secundomian Agency for Air and Space Exploration, including the launch of Eagle I aided by General Phineas Snow.[32] Despite large levels of activity within the intermicronational community, Secundomia was fairly dormant itself. There would never be another election in the Republic of Secundomia and Parker would remain president throughout the remainder of its existence.[33]

Tergumterra was a central member of the Slinky Republyc.

The Slinky Empyre began to become a site of controversy in January 2011 after Kyng Fyrst's return to MicroWikia. Parker lead a revolt from Tergumterra and the Empyre dissolved. Tergumterra joined the young Slinky Republyc and Parker I was appointed prime minister, again holding two micronational leadership titles. Soon, like Secundomia, the Slinky Republyc became inactive internally and dissolved in February. The Tergumterra Department was transferred to Secundomia and Parker I granted independence to the territory as Res Publica Tergumterra. Secundomia also renounced its claims to the Colony of Sterling which became the Republic of Sterling.

The Sandbars collapsed on March 31, 2011. Soon after, Res Publica Tergumterra took its place in the Intermicronational Democratic Commonwealth, alongside the reorganized Republic of Sterling. This was the first full unification of the three nations that would eventually become the FSSR.

Eran Federation

After a year of internal inactivity, Secundomia joined the Eran Federation in 2012. Parker I was elected Prime Minister of the federation as leader of the Conservative Libertarian Alliance in June.[34] However, Secundomia was unable to sustain its activity in Eran. Parker was entering high school and with increasing personal responsibilities he began to step away from micronationalism as a hobby. In December 2012, Secundomia officially seceded from Eran.

Butterfly Monument commemorating Eran

Reorganization period

Secundomia, Sterling and Tergumterra became largely inactive after Eran. Sometime in 2013 (although the date is officially lost), Sterling and Tergumterra combined to form the Republic of Sterling and Tergumterra. In 2014, Parker reorganized Secundomia into the Second Kingdom now officially containing only Parker I as a citizen. All three micronations were united for the first time in 2015 when Parker conducted a coup-d'etat under the Secundomian Nationalist Monarchist Party to preserve Secundomian values. The three nations together were known as the Third Kingdom of Secundomia, with Sterling and Tergumterra as vassalized principalities, also held by King Parker I.

Maoism was a core inspiration behind the founding of the Democratic Republic of Secundomia.

The Third Kingdom only lasted a few months before three new citizens joined the country. These new citizens were unhappy with the nationalist form of government under the King and two of them, Jaedon I and Antonia I formed the Worker's Party of Secundomia and confronted Parker I in the First August Revolution.[35] After negotiations, Parker I agreed to abdicate and join the party as chairperson under the vanguard committee of President Jaedon I. The Worker's Party joined with the Anti-Sloth Party of Brennan I to form a Revolutionary Coalition to head up the new Democratic Republic of Secundomia, now headquartered in Eastern Secundomia rather than the traditional capital of Middle Secundomia.[35] At no point did the Revolutionary Coalition recognize the existence of Tergumterra and Sterling, which both were now de jure independent under interregnum after the abdication of King Parker I.

Founding of the FSSR

Original (2016-2020) flag of the FSSR prior to the collapse of Gravois, note the extra stripe representing the fourth republic.

The Revolutionary Coalition ultimately failed to inspire inactivity in Secundomia. Parker I decided to again seize power to sustain the history of the country. In April 2016 Parker founded the Maoist-Worker's Party of Secundomia and conducted a second revolution enveloping not only the Democratic Republic of Secundomia but also Sterling and Tergumterra. All three nations were reorganized as the Federation of Secundomian Socialist Republics. Tergumterra remained largely the same with Parker I appointed premier of the Socialist Republic of Tergumterra. The Secundomian State of Gravois was separated from the newly christened Socialist Republic of Secundomia to form the Socialist Republic of Gravois while the remaining states were reorganized as districts. The Principality of Sterling was reorganized as the Socialist Republic of Sterling-Charcot and split into three districts.

Since 2016 the FSSR has been largely inactive. Most of the activity within the country comes from historical efforts by the MWPS and Parker I in particular to catalog the history of Secundomia. Efforts to centralize the FSSR's economy have met some resistance, which resulted in large parts of SR Gravois falling apart and returning to the United States. The remainder of SR Gravois, largely dependent on the tourism industry, fell victim to the COVID-19 pandemic and the FSSR renounced their claims to their fourth constituent republic. The FSSR was originally lead from Eastern Secundomia, site of the revolution. However, the capital moved to Hanover in 2020. Officially, the Federation is still lead from Hanover, but since October 2021 does not hold any power in the city. The Party conducts official business either in exile or on occasion from Middle Secundomia.

Politics and government

The FSSR is a single-party state lead by the Maoist-Worker's Party of Secundomia. As chairperson and sole member of the party, Parker I holds absolute power within the federation. Parker and the MWPS espouse a commitment to Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as an ideology and regard a totalitarian socialist state a necessity for the progression towards communism. The party expresses support for the line of communist philosopher J. Moufawad-Paul,[36] especially his concept of the Communist Necessity,[37] which is used to justify the totalitarian power of the party. Further, the party has adopted elements of Juche, including the tenet of national self-reliance and the "Great Leader" theory.

Banner of the MWPS.

The government is split into three Constituent Republics, Sterling-Charcot, Tergumterra and Secundomia. Each are administered by a Premier, a representative appointed by MWPS to control the territory. All are further subdivided into administrative districts. Tergumterra is made up of a single district, while Secundomia and Sterling-Charcot both contain multiple districts. The former republic of Gravois was subdivided into counties rather than districts as a result of its heritage as a state of the Republic of Secundomia.

Law and order

The Secundomian Federation officially supports the Black Lives Matter movement.

Despite its totalitarian nature, the FSSR government lacks significant capacity to conduct law and order within the country. The MWPS expressed support for the Black Lives Matter movement in the summer of 2020, opposing the brutality of American police. Although the MWPS has not ideologically adopted abolition within the FSSR, it supports the defunding of police in the United States.[38] The law and order system is largely non-present within the micronation due to the relative limited capacity compared to the external state forces in Kansas and Missouri.

Foreign relations

Unlike its predecessors in the First Republic and the Kingdom of Sterling, the FSSR is largely isolationist. The government lacks sufficient resources to conduct intermicronational relations to the level of its predecessors. The extent of intermicronational relations as of 2022 are updates to wiki pages to inform other nations about the history of Secundomia and its political evolution. In 2021, Bepistan reached out to Parker I to establish a treaty of mutual recognition. The FSSR declined in April 2022, committing to a policy of isolationism.[39]

Macronational relations

The Secundomian Federation does recognize a significant amount of UN member states with few exceptions. Notably, the nation does not recognize the State of Israel. The FSSR extends recognition to Palestine instead. The FSSR also does not recognize the UN-represented governments of Ukraine, Afghanistan or the Republic of Korea. In addition to UN member states, the FSSR recognizes the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Donetsk, Luhansk, Transnistria and Artsakh. Reciprocal recognition has not been extended to the Secundomian Federation by any macronation.


The MWPS recognizes the importance of a national military in Maoist theory and Juche. According to the MWPS, external forces of capitalism can prevent the natural development of socialism within particular countries. Despite ideologically supporting a strong defense system, the FSSR is restrained by material inadequacy. When the MWPS seized power in the Democratic Republic of Secundomia, all members of the armed forces left the nation. Further, after the dissolution of Gravois, the FSSR lost much of its military capacity locked into its Navy. The FSSR also lacks strong ground and air forces.

View of the Gravois National Naval Base in Secundomian Bay just prior to its abandonment.


The Navy was the only active branch of the FSSR. After the MWPS seized power, the naval branch of the Secundomian Military was still in force in Gravois. Gravois was granted status as a Republic under the MWPS and held control over the navy. In 2016, the Navy was split between two bases, both in the SR Gravois - Gravois National Naval Base (GNNB) along the Secundomian Bay and Gravois National Naval Base West (GNNB-W) in Little Bay. The naval forces themselves consisted of multiple personal watercraft, several large vessels and two kayaks left over from the Republic of Secundomia. The Party was not actively involved in maintaining the Navy, this responsibility fell upon several non-party members who were often hostile to the Communist ideals of the government.

The Navy suffered significant losses with the fall of East Gravois. The citizens of the City of Gene fled the nation in 2017, decommissioning or abandoning most of the naval forces. These were recovered by local American citizens. The navy was reduced to less than half of its material capacity at this time. Further losses struck the military in 2020 when Stone County collapsed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The inability of the MWPS to visit and maintain the remaining naval forces meant they were decommissioned alongside SR Gravois.

Geography and climate

Map of the FSSR. SR Tergumterra in red, SR Sterling Charcot in blue, the former SR Gravois in purple, SR Secundomia in green is obscured by the map, but is located neighboring Tergumterra.

The geography of the FSSR varies significantly between the Republic Sterling-Charcot (located in Antarctica) and the other Republics (located in North America). Sterling-Charcot is located on a mountainous island almost entirely covered by a glacier.[40] Although it borders the Bellingshausen Sea, access to the island is heavily restricted due to ice.[41] Secundomia is surrounded by Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, located in the rolling, wooded hills of the Kansas City metropolitan area.[42] Tergumterra is entirely enclaved within Secundomia and consists of only a small, triangular strip of asphalt nearby Middle Secundomia City.

Administrative divisions

The FSSR is politically divided into 3 republics. All 3 republics are subdivided into districts, some of which have cities within them. The current capital of the FSSR is the city of Hanover in the district of Eastern Secundomia, SR Secundomia.

Flag Name Population
Socialist Republic of Secundomia 1
Socialist Republic of Sterling-Charcot 0 (year round)
Socialist Republic of Tergumterra 0
Defunct Republics
Socialist Republic of Gravois 0 (defunct)


The climate of the FSSR varies based on location. Secundomia and Tergumterra lie within the center of the North American continent. They have a humid continental/humid subtropical climate.[43] Both Secundomia and Tergumterra lie within the Tornado Alley of North America, making them vulnerable to extreme weather.[44]

Climate data for Hanover, Eastern Secundomia District, SR Secundomia, FSSR
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 74
Average high °F (°C) 38
Average low °F (°C) 20
Record low °F (°C) −18
Average Precipitation inches (mm) 1.26
Average Snowfall inches (cm) 5.70
Source: [45]
The Marion Nunataks in the 30th April District near Charcot City

Sterling-Charcot has an extreme arctic climate.[46] With the exception of the Marion Nunatuks, island of Charcot is covered in ice year round[40] and is not hospitable to human life without significant accommodations.[47]


The FSSR has attempted to transition to a centrally planned economy without much success outside of Tergumterra. Tergumterra's strategic location on the asphalt of a road that runs through Middle Secundomia allows it to control traffic in the area. The MWPS has released plans to implement a fare system, although there are potential legal problems as the City of Overland Park, Kansas claims ownership over the same stretch of asphalt.

While Tergumterra's economy is largely dependent on the public transportation sector, Secundomia largely remains a free market economy due to limited capacity by the FSSR to enforce economic norms. Income to the country comes largely from worker's wages paid by American companies and government. Although the United States does not recognize the Secundomian Federation's capacity to regulate trade, they are the largest import and export partner of the micronation.

Sterling-Charcot is occasionally visited by foreign cruise lines.[47] These Cruise lines observe the local fauna and landscape of the island. The government of the FSSR has been unable to implement a tax to profit off of these companies, however, as they do not recognize the sovereignty of the nation. This has hamstrung the government's ability to control and moderate the economy.

Culture and media

The FSSR's culture is largely influenced by American culture, in particular American sports culture. Some parts of FSSR culture have developed independently with a focus on unique backyard games often featuring 3 participants and the development of conlangs.

Personal Watercraft (PWC) were used for sport in Gravois alongside their naval duties.

Sport and games

The FSSR has a highly competitive sports culture. Many in the nation are fans of professional sports including American football (the federation's official sport), association football, hockey, baseball and basketball. The city of Middle Secundomia has been a place of sports innovation, with sports like Cupball, "sandbox soccer," and others invented there. Gravois historically played host to American football events, PWC racing, water skiing, swimming and diving. Board games including Chess and Crokinole are also popular in Middle Secundomia alongside classic arcade games.


A diversity of languages are spoken in the FSSR. Historically, Turkish and Latin were prominent in Secundomia. The MWPS has overseen development of the Secundomian language, a conlang designed to be uniquely Secundomian. German is occasionally spoken in the district of Eastern Secundomia. Secundomian Classical Slin-English, a variant of Slin-Englysh is native to Tergumterra.


The media in the FSSR is largely non-existent. The MWSP seeks to control most of the media for propaganda purposes, but in reality most Secundomians get news from American sources and social media.

The flag of the FSSR represents the nation's politics, geography and history.

Symbols and flag

Symbols are a highly important part of the Secundomian Federation. Although there is often a lack of internal activity, symbols are core to the legacy through which the Secundomian Federation persists. The flags of the various Republics are influenced by their history as the Kingdom of Sterling, Tergumterra Department and Republic of Secundomia. The flag of the FSSR contains a hammer and sickle on a red field to reference the nation's socialist character. Three colored vertical bars are located on the right side of the flag to represent the nation's republics and their varied histories, with yellow representing Tergumterra, green representing Secundomia and dark blue representing Sterling. A fourth light blue bar represented Gravois prior to their secession from the Federation.

See also


  1. Officially, the FSSR takes inspiration from Maoist political organizations throughout the world. The name FSSR was chosen by Parker I to reflect one of the most prominent Marxist-Leninist countries as well as reflect the nation's birth from three different Republics
  2. NBTween Email Server - "micronation-- great idea!" email, sent by Parker I, Dec 15, 2009
  3. "Today in Newspaper email thread", started by Luke, reply by Parker I, Dec 15, 2009
  4. 4.0 4.1 Secundomia log book, 8 Feb 2010
  5. Secundomia Email Server - "Micronation thread" - email from H of Halstopia, Dec 16, 2009
  6. Secundomian email server - "Vote Parker I" thread - reply by Erised, Empress of Atlan, 23 Dec, 2009
  7. Secundomian email server - "Christmas Break" - reply by Luke of Secundomia 23 Dec 2009
  8. Micronations Fandom - Talk:Kleinland
  9. Micronations Fandom Message Wall:Son3
  10. OAM forums posts (website now inaccessible)
  11. Micronations Fandom - Talk:Istorian-Erusian War
  12. Secundomian Email Server - "Become Grand Duke of Iceia!" thread, original email sent by Parker I, 15 Feb 2010
  13. Secundomian Email Server - "Creation of the Kingdom of Sterling" thread, original email sent by Parker I, 30 Jan 2010
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Secundomian Council Resolution 2: Definition of the Kingdom of Sterling
  15. Secundomian email server - Secundomia in the AMU 6 Aug 2010
  16. Secundomian Email Server - "Spencer Wins" 23 Feb 2010
  17. Secundomian-Atlanian Treaty of 2010
  18. RepublicofSmithville News - Special Issue May 24, 2015
  19. Reinhardt's Corner - The Corrosive Decline of Community
  20. Parker I, public statement to the Secundomian People in Middle Secundomia
  21. The Bannerman Online - Separate and Unequal: Brizendine and Callahan
  22. Secundomian Email Server - "Parker I has locked in victory for President in the March 2010 Secundomian Elections." 31 March 2010
  23. Secundomian email server ":|" sent by Parker to Ibrahim I, 5 Feb 2011
  24. Secundomian Email Server - "Trial of Ibrahim I begins today 18 Apr 2010
  25. "That's It!" Personal email from Luke to several secundomians 25 Apr, 2010
  26. Secundomia Email Server"Hey what's up Secundomia? (PLEASE READ EVERYTHING, IMPORTANT)" Sent by Parker I, 28 Dec 2010
  27. Secundomian Email Server - "While we were gone in Secundomia." sent by Parker I, 1 Aug, 2010
  28. Secundomian Email Server - "Appointments for Various Positions" Luke of Secundomia 1 Aug 2010
  29. Micronations Fandom - Talk:Organisation of Active Micronations
  30. Good - The Absurd History Of The Intermicronational Olympic Games
  31. Slinky Empyre Terrytory - Google My Maps in Slin-English
  32. Secundomian Email Server - "Rocket Launch" 2 Jan 2011
  33. Secundomian Email Server - "IMPORTANT Senate Resolution 01 proposed TO COMPLETELY RESTRUCTURE SECUNDOMIA" 9 Jun 2011
  34. Eran Forums
  35. 35.0 35.1 In person discussion and meeting of the WPS in Eastern Secundomia
  36. MWPS founding documents, Hanover, Eastern Secundomia (undated)
  37. Moufawad-Paul, J. The Communist Necessity (Montreal: Kersplebedeb, 2014)
  38. Official government statement from Hanover, Eastern Secundomia - Announced by Parker I, June 2020
  39. User talk:Parker
  40. 40.0 40.1 APA Database - Antarctic Treaty
  41. Columbia Climate School - An Inlet By Any Other Name: Lamont Scientist Honored with Antarctic Namesake
  42. Secundomian Email Server - "All Secundomian Maps" 9 Jul, 2010
  43. Overland Park climate
  44. Weather.Gov Top Ten KS Tornadoes
  45. Intellicast
  46. - Climate & Weather Averages in Charcot Island, Antarctica.
  47. 47.0 47.1 Cruises visiting Expedition to Charcot Island (Antarctica) - Ponant

External links