Carolinianism was a response to the ascension of Emperor Esmond III to the Throne in February 2010 after the abdication of Emperor Terry I. The Austenasian Civil War was declared as a result of this rival claim to the Throne, with all rivals of the legitimate Austenasian government being known as Carolinians.
Many embraced Carolinianism because they believed parliamentary interference with monarchical succession to be illegitimate, and many others joined the Carolinian side in the Austenasian Civil War for a variety of reasons, some seemingly for attention.
After the defeat of the Carolinians in the Austenasian Civil War, Princess Caroline officially withdrew her claim. The Carolinian claim then theoretically passed to the then Crown Prince Jonathan, but he denounced it the day afterwards, after which it would have passed to HIH Princess Christine, the eldest sister of the former Emperor Terry and the current pretender. She has never made any attempt to take up the Carolinian claim.
On 14 October 2009, Emperor Terry I relinquished his title of "Duke of Highland" in favour of Esmond McLaughlin, a good friend of the then Crown Prince Jonathan. Eleven days later, on 25 October, the new Duke of Highland was also made 2nd in Line to the Throne, by Act 105 of the Austenasian Parliament. Like all Acts of Parliament, it had the consent of all Representatives and of the Monarch. This was done as a purely ceremonial honour. It was not expected that Lord Esmond would ascend to the Throne.
On 15 February 2010, Emperor Terry I unexpectedly announced his abdication. Under Austenasian law, an abdicated Monarch legally remains Monarch until a willing successor is found. Crown Prince Jonathan was Heir to the Throne, but he lawfully refused the Throne in order to remain Prime Minister (under the Constitution, the Monarch cannot become Prime Minister and vice versa). The Throne therefore passed to the 2nd in Line, Esmond, made 2nd in line by a lawfully passed Act of Parliament. He ascended the Throne on 16 February, after giving Imperial Consent to Act 113. As well as officially accepting the Throne, this Act kept the Line of Succession the same as it had been for Emperor Terry in order to keep the Monarchy stable. Crown Prince Jonathan was therefore still Heir to the Throne, and Princess Caroline was 2nd in Line.
On 3 March 2010, over two weeks since the ascension of Emperor Esmond III, Princess Caroline announced that she was making a formal claim to the Throne. She did not believe that the Line of Succession should be able to be changed by Parliament, and that as the closest blood relative of Emperor Terry I after his abdication, she should be next in line and therefore rightful Empress.
The Vestry Conference was arranged to try and secure a fair compromise, but ended in disaster with the declaration of the Austenasian Civil War. Lord General William raised rebel forces to fight on behalf of Princess Caroline's claim. After the rebels and their supporters were defeated in two battles against supporters of the Emperor, the Carolinians agreed to the Austenasian Monarchical Referendum, in which it was proved that the Austenasian public supported Emperor Esmond III. Princess Caroline therefore withdrew her claim on 24 May 2010 with the Treaty of Ruskin Road, also ending the civil war.
After Princess Caroline withdrew her claim, Crown Prince Jonathan realised that he had inherited the Carolinian claim to the Throne, as if Princess Caroline had been Monarch then he would have been Heir to the Throne. He renounced this claim the following day, after which it passed to HIH Princess Christine, the eldest sister of the former Emperor Terry, who has never made any comment on this theoretical claim. The last official support for the Carolinian claim ended on 14 November 2011, when the Decracy of Yunivers withdrew their support for the alternate succession.
HIH Princess Caroline
|3 Mar 2010
|24 May 2010
|Only Carolinian pretender to actively advance her claim, as well as the only pretender with military support from foreign governments. Renounced claim ("abdicated") after defeat in the Austenasian Monarchical Referendum.
HIH Crown Prince Jonathan
|24 May 2010
|25 May 2010
|If Princess Caroline had been Monarch, as Carolinians claim, renouncing the Throne would count as abdication - if she had been Monarch, then her brother the Crown Prince would have been Heir to the Throne and therefore have inherited the Throne. Renounced claim ("abdicated") as soon as he had realised that it had passed to him.
HIH Princess Christine
|25 May 2010
|Under the Carolinian viewpoint, if Crown Prince Jonathan and Princess Caroline had both abdicated then Princess Christine, as eldest sibling of the former Emperor Terry, would have been next in line. Does not advance claim.
- Socialist Union of Nemkhavia and Pristinia: 7–13 March 2010. Withdrew from the Austenasian Civil War due to dissolution of the Socialist Union.
- Kingdom of Sterling: 8–10 March, 20 March - 1 April 2010. Withdrew from the Austenasian Civil War after giving support for the idea of a dual monarchy - later re-joined under the Allied Carolinian Coalition but withdrew yet again saying that the war consisted of nothing but "empty threats".
- Democratic People's Republic of Eniarku: 8 March 2010. Withdrew from the Austenasian Civil War after only a few hours, and declared war on the Carolinians instead the next month.
- Zonian Confederacy: 10–20 March 2010.
- Angador: 11 March - 2 April 2010.
- NottaLotta Acres: 13 March - 2 April 2010.
- Empire of New Europe: 7–10 March 2010. Originally supported the Carolinians on the grounds of "traditional monarchism", but soon changed sides to support the lawful government once shown proof that Act 105 was passed lawfully.
- Kingdom of Sterling: 8 March - 2 June 2010. Withdrew support after the claim passed to HIH Princess Christine, specifying that their support had only ever been for Caroline as an individual.
- Republic of Secundomia: 8 March - 2 June 2010. See Sterling.
- Democratic People's Republic of Eniarku: 8 March 2010. Withdrew support after only a few hours, and declared war on the Carolinians instead the next month.
- Kingdom of Angador: 11 March - 25 May 2010: Withdrew from the war, but still believed that Caroline should be Empress. Withdrew support after the claim passed to Crown Prince Jonathan.
- Decracy of Yunivers: 11 March 2010 - 14 November 2011. Withdrew support after a request from Crown Prince Jonathan, thereby ending the last official political support for the Carolinian claim by a foreign micronation.
- NottaLotta Acres: 13 March - 13 September 2010. NottaLotta Acres continuously supported the Carolinian claim until calling a parley with the Austenasian government, in which NottaLotta Acres agreed to withdraw support for Carolinianism in favor of diplomacy with Austenasia.
- Aegis Alliance: 21 March - 2 April 2010. Declared support for the ACC during the Coalition's existence, but did not declare war.
- The PED BlueSkies: 20 May - 2 June 2010. Stated that there was "no reason for support any more" after the Carolinians lost the war.
- Democratic Republic of Cliff Island: 12–22 July 2010. The DRCI announced that they would give political support "and if war was to come again, would gladly give military support". They withdrew their support after being requested to by the Midget Master.
There has been no military support for the Carolinian claim since 24 May 2010 when the Austenasian Civil War ended, and no foreign military support since 2 April 2010.
There has been no foreign political support for the Carolinian claim since 14 November 2011 when the Decracy of Yunivers withdrew their support.