Rashtradhyaksh

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Supreme Head of the Nation
Rashtradhyaksh
राष्ट्रध्यक्ष
Royal coat of arms
StyleHis Illustrious and Royal Majesty
TypeSemi-constitutional elective federal monarchy
StatusHead of state
ResidenceRashtra Niwas, Rajagriha
AppointerConference of Rulers
Term lengthFive years, non renewable immediately
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Vishwamitra, Article 23
Formation8 June 2020; 3 years ago (2020-06-08)
First holderTanishkaa Patranabish of Beltola
DeputyUparashtradhyaksh

The Rashtradhyaksh (lit: Supreme Chairman of the Nation, Hindi: राष्ट्रध्यक्ष), also known as the Supreme Head of the Nation, the Supreme Ruler, and unofficially as the King/Queen of Vishwamitra, is the semi-constitutional and executive monarch and head of state of Vishwamitra. The office was established in June 2020, when the Commonwealth of Friends Society (now Vishwamitra) transitioned into a monarchy. The Rashtradhyaksh is elected by the Conference of Rulers, comprising the six rulers of the Vishwamitran states, with the office de facto rotated between them, making Vishwamitra one of the few micronations with elective monarchies.

The 2nd and current Rashtradhyaksh is Maharaja Varuna Sriraya of Purvanchal, replacing Tanishkaa Patranabish of Beltola, who abdicated on 29 July 2020. Varuna was elected on the same day of his predecessor's abdication at a special meeting of the Conference of Rulers and his reign began three days later, on 1 August 2020. He was formally installed as the nation's second Rashtradhyaksh on 23 August 2020 at the Rashtra Niwas.

The Rashtradhyaksh's official style of address is His/Her Illustrious and Royal Majesty, abbreviated as H.Ill.R.M., to distinguish them as the nation's supreme ruler from the other constituent rulers of the states who are addressed as "His/Her Majesty", abbreviated as H.M.

Constitutional role

Article 23 of the Constitution of Vishwamitra describes the position of the Rashtradhyaksh as that of the Supreme Head of the Nation. The Rashtradhyaksh is one who takes precedence over all persons in the State and shall not be liable to any proceedings whatsoever in any court within the nation. The Rashtradhyaksh's role is that of the head of state and a semi-constitution. The Constitution vests the executive power of the federal government over the Rashtradhyaksh who shall exercise their functions in subject to the provisions of the federal laws and through the various institutions of the nation, the Privy Council, the Prime Minister and the Ministers of the union who shall collectively report the Rashtradhyaksh on the general policy of the government and the nation.

The discretionary powers of the Rashtradhyaksh include the performance of their several functions as the nation's head of state which includes the appointment of the prime minister, withholding of consent to a request for the dissolution of the Lok Sabha, requisition of a meeting of the Conference of Rulers concerned solely with the privileges, positions, honours and dignities of Their Majesties, and any action at such a meeting, and in any other case mentioned in the constitution.

As the constitutional monarch, the Rashtradhyaksh is also responsible for making any decision concerning diplomatic relations and treaties with other nations, which also includes the power to appoint, summon and recall diplomats accredited to foreign missions and organizations.

The Rashtradhyaksh also has the power to refuse to grant assent to any law as passed by the Lok Sabha and presented to them. The Rashtradhyaksh also has the right to direct the members of the Lok Sabha to reconsider any law which in their opinion may not be as effective to as the law of the land.

Appointments

The Rashtradhyaksh appoints numerous high-ranking office holders in the Federation under the terms of the Constitution and various Acts passed by Lok Sabha. The constitution established procedures for such appointments.

The Council of Ministers

  • Prime Minister, to preside over the Cabinet, appointed at his discretion from among the elected members of the Lok Sabha who in his judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that house – usually the party or coalition leader.
  • Deputy Prime Ministers, Senior Minister, Cabinet Ministers and Ministers of State, while acting on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Commissions and committees

  • The Election Commission, on the advice of the Conference of Rulers.
  • The Armed Forces Council, on the advice of the Conference of Rulers and the cabinet.

Judges

Administrators of overseas territories

The Rashtradhyaksh appoints the Administrators of the overseas territories, at his discretion, in consultation with the Privy Council and the Cabinet.

Diplomats

The Rashtradhyaksh appoints the diplomats of the nation accredited to foreign missions and organizations.

Commander-in-Chief

In accordance with Article 32 of the Constitution, the Rashtradhyaksh is Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Vishwamitran Defence Forces. As such, he is the highest-ranking officer in the military chain of command.

As the Commander-in-Chief of the Vishwamitran Armed Forces, the Rashtradhyaksh appoints the Chief of the General Staff, on the advice of the Minister of National Defence and the Armed Forces Council. The Rashtradhyaksh holds the highest non-service and ceremonial rank of the Marshal of the Forces.

History

On 2 June 2020, having rejected the suggested title of Yang di-Pertuan Agong in favour of Rashtradhyaksh, then Council of State of the Commonwealth of Friends Society elected the first occupant of the throne. By seniority, former president and national leader Varuna Sriraya, later the Rajpramukh of Purvanchal was first in line, but he declined the offer. The throne, thereupon passed to the next in line, then incumbent president Tanishkaa Patranabish, later the Rajpramukh of Beltola. She was formally elected by the members of the council of state, the highest decision-making body during the republic, on 4 June 2020 and her reign began on 8 June 2020.

The first Conference of Rulers, then the Council of State comprised:

Election

Article 52 of the Constitution mentions about the election of the Rashtradhyaksh. The Rashtradhyaksh is formally elected to a five-year term, originally a fixed term of a year, by and from the six rulers of the Vishwamitran states, who form the Conference of Rulers. After a ruler has served as the Rashtradhyaksh, he may not stand for election until all rulers of the other states have also stood for election.

In the event of a vacancy of the office (by death, resignation, or deposition by a majority vote of the rulers), the Conference of Rulers elects a new Rashtradhyaksh as if the previous term had expired. The new Rashtradhyaksh is elected for a full five-year term. After their term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-elected.

The position de facto rotates among the six rulers. The selection of the Rashtradhyaksh initially followed an order based on the seniority (calculated by length of service) of each ruler in 2020, following the nation's transition to a monarchy. The Conference of Rulers, which has the power to disqualify a candidate, has sometimes varied the original seniority order, as noted above. Since then, the states have followed a de facto established rotation order.

The Conference of Rulers has met regularly since 2020.

Qualifications

  • Only a ruler may be elected.
  • Only the rulers may vote.

The Constitution provides that a Ruler is not eligible for election as Rashtradhyaksh if:

  • The ruler has notified the Keeper of the Rulers' Seal that they do not desire to be elected
  • The Conference of Rulers by a secret ballot resolves that the ruler is unsuitable by reason of infirmity of mind or body, or for any other cause, to exercise the functions of the Rashtradhyaksh. The resolution requires at least three members of the Conference to vote in favour of it.

Election proceedings

The election is carried out by a secret ballot. The ballot papers used are not numbered, but marked with the same pen and ink, and are inserted into a ballot box. Only the Rulers participate in the election.

A ruler may appoint another ruler as their proxy to vote on their behalf if they are unable to attend the election meeting.

During the election process, the Keeper of the Rulers' Seal distributes the ballot with only one candidate. Each ruler is requested to indicate whether the candidate is suitable or not to be elected as Rashtradhyaksh.

The most junior ruler, who is not listed as nominee for the office of the Rashtradhyaksh, or the outgoing Rashtradhyaksh is appointed to count the ballot papers together with the Keeper of the Rulers' Seal.

The nominee must have obtained three votes before the ruler presiding over the Election Meeting offers him the office of Rashtradhyaksh. If the successful nominee declines the offer or the nominated ruler fails to secure the required majority votes, the voting process is repeated with the nomination of the second most senior ruler based on the list of seniority of states. Rulers are named and stand for election in turn.

The process is completed only after a ruler has accepted the offer of the office of Rashtradhyaksh. The Conference declares the ruler as the Rashtradhyaksh to hold office for a term of five years. The ballot papers are destroyed in the presence of the rulers as soon as the result of the election is announced.

On taking office as Rashtradhyaksh, they appoints a regent for the duration of their five-year term for the state which they rule. Usually, the regent is the heir to the throne or a close relative. The regent acts as the head of state in that state for every purpose.

Order of seniority of states

The order of seniority of states has been mentioned under Article 48 of the constitution:

  1. Purvanchal the Rajpramukh of Purvanchal
  2. Beltola the Rajpramukh of Beltola
  3. Uttaranchal the Rajpramukh of Uttaranchal
  4. Madhya Prant the Rajpramukh of Madhya Prant
  5. Kamrupa the Rajpramukh of Kamrupa
  6. Basistha the Rajpramukh of Basistha

This cycle of seniority has been established after the election of the second Rashtradhyaksh in July 2020. Originally, the state of Beltola preceded over the state of Purvanchal as the Rajpramukh of Beltola was elected as the first Rashtradhyaksh in June 2020 while the Rajpramukh of Purvanchal was the next in line.

Oath

Upon election as the Rashtradhyaksh, an oath is needed to be subscribed which is mentioned in Article 26 of the constitution:

I, (name), Rashtradhyaksh of Vishwamitra do hereby swear in the name of the Supreme Lord and by virtue of that oath do solemnly and truly declare that I shall justify and faithfully perform my duties in the administration of Vishwamitra in accordance with the Constitution which have been promulgated or which may be promulgated time to time in the future. Further I do solemnly and truly declare that I shall at all time protect the interests of my people and uphold the rules of law and order in the Nation.

Immunity

Article 23 of the constitution mentions that the Rashtradhyaksh shall not be liable to any proceedings whatsoever in any court within the nation. In Article 31, it mentions that the Rashtradhyaksh as the head of state shall be immune and inviolable.

Residences

Since the federal government does not hold the ownership of the residences of the citizens, there is no de jure official residences of the Rashtradhyaksh and the rulers of the state. Their private residence act as their principal residence and workplace. The residence of the current Rashtradhyaksh is Rashtra Niwas (the National House) located in Rajagriha in the state of Purvanchal.

The residence of the first Rashtradhyaksh and the Rajpramukhs of Beltola and Basistha is the Rajya Niwas (the State House) located in Brikshasthana in their home state of Beltola.

Titles and style

Styles of
The Rashtradhyaksh
Reference styleHis Illustrious and Royal Majesty
Spoken styleYour Illustrious and Royal Majesty


The Rashtradhyaksh's full style and title in Malay is His Illustrious and Royal Majesty Rashtradhyaksh of Vishwamitra.

Common English terms used in the media, by the general public and in foreign correspondance include "Supreme Ruler", "Supreme Monarch", "Head of State", "Head of the Nation" and "Head of State of the Federation". The very common term "King" has also been conveniently used by the media, the public and in foreign correspondance, although incorrectly as it is not an official or legal title of the Rashtradhyaksh.

In formal English correspondence, the Rashtradhyaksh is referred to as "His Illustrious and Royal Majesty The Rashtradhyaksh". The official style of address of the Rashtradhyaksh is His Illustrious and Royal Majesty which is different from His Majesty, the style of address used by the Rajpramukhs of the states.

Formal address to the Rashtradhyaksh is taken seriously in Vishwamitra. There are two ways of addressing the Rashtradhyaksh:

Official Birthday

There is no fixed date to mark the official birthday of the Rashtradhyaksh. The date changes during the reign of the Rashtradhyakshs. Between June and July 2020, during the reign of the first Rashtradhyaksh Tanishkaa Patranabish, the official birthday of the Rashtradhyaksh was scheduled on 17 April, two days after the National Day. Following the installation of the second Rashtradhyaksh Varuna Sriraya, the official birthday is now observed on 11 January.

The official birthday of the Rashtradhyaksh is a gazetted national holiday throughout the nation. Customary congratulatory speeches are made by the senior officers of the state - the Prime Minister, the President of the Privy Council, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the Chief Justice, the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps and the Chief of the General Staff. The Rashtradhyaksh also confers federal honours on distinguished citizens and foreigners in recognition of their services to the nation.

List

The following rulers have served as the Rashtradhyaksh:

# Portrait Title
Name
(Lifespan)
Home state Tenure of office
Duration in years and days
Installation
1 File:Portrait of Tanishkaa Patranabish (2021).jpeg Rajpramukh of Beltola
Tanishkaa Patranabish
(born 2004)
 Beltola 8 June
2020
29 July
2020
None
51 days
Tanishkaa Patranabish, the outgoing president of the republic was elected as the first Rashtradhyaksh on 4 June 2020 and formally took over the throne on 8 June 2020. Abdicated after a brief reign on 29 July 2020.
The Uparashtradhyaksh Varuna Sriraya of Purvanchal discharged the functions of the Acting Rashtradhyaksh between 29 and 31 July 2020.
2 File:Birthday Portrait of Rashtradhyaksh Varuna Sriraya (2023).jpeg Maharaja of Purvanchal
Varuna Sriraya
(born 2002)
 Purvanchal 1 August
2020
Installation of Rashtradhyaksh II
(23 August 2020)
3 years, 212 days
Varuna Sriraya of Purvanchal, the Uparashtradhyaksh and Rajpramukh of Purvanchal was elected as the second Rashtradhyaksh on 29 July 2020 following the abdication of Rashtradhyaksh Tanishkaa Patranabish. He formally took over the throne on 1 August 2020 and was formally installed on 23 August 2020.
The Uparashtradhyaksh Bishnu Chetry discharged the functions of the Acting Rashtradhyaksh between 22 February and 4 March 2023.

Timeline

Varuna Sriraya of PurvanchalTanishkaa Patranabish

See also