President of Roscamistan

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President of the Roscami Federation
Uachtarán Chónaidhm Roscami (Irish)
Presidential standard
Incumbent
Thomas Jacobs

since 6 August 2023
Executive branch of the Government of Roscamistan
StyleMr. President (informal)
His Excellency the Most Honourable (formal)
TypeHead of state
Head of government
Commander-in-chief
Member ofCabinet
Defence Staff
College of Governors
AppointerDirect popular vote
Term length1 year, renewable infinitely
Constituting instrumentSupreme Constitution of the Roscami Federation
Inaugural holderThomas Jacobs
Formation18 February 2021
First holderThomas Jacobs
DeputyVice President of the Roscami Federation

The president of the Roscami Federation[a], sometimes styled as the president of Roscamistan[b] or the president of the Federation[c], is the head of state and head of government of the Roscami Federation. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the National Armed Forces.

The president is directly elected every year by citizens of the nation, which are monitored by the Election Commission and the Supreme Court. The current constitution of the nation grants sweeping powers to the president. Therefore, the president has de facto oversight of the entire political system, which may be further strengthen if they are also the Chairperson of the ruling Roscami Democratic Patriotic Front (RDPF). The constitution stipulates a strict eligibility criteria for the presidency including citizenship of Ireland, Polish residents of the aforementioned country and Irish or Polish lineage.

The incumbent president is Thomas Jacobs since 6 August 2023.

History

The presidency was established on 18 February 2021, and is one of the two oldest political positions in the nation alongside the vice presidency. At the time of creation, then commander of the Roscam Liberation Front became the nation's inaugural president and close aide Connor Barrows assumed office as vice president. The constitution adopted at the time of independence stated:

...the Head of State shall be titled President and shall be concurrently the head of government as well Commander in Chief of the Military.

In May 2021, then Chief of Defence Staff Anthony Hanlon removed Jacobs from office due to alleged non-compliance with the independence constitution in the May 2021 Roscamistan coup d'etat. The Vice president was also replaced as Kayden Conboy took office. This transfer of power ultimately ended the hiatus of the Roscami war of independence. In June 2021, Hanlon resigned from office which returned Jacobs to power due to a power struggle between the both of them, and Kayden Conboy.

Jacobs did not run for re-election in the February 2022 Roscamistan presidential election and was succeeded by election victor Doros Patusky, who was the then vice president. Due to uncertainties of Patusky's inauguration date, Connor Barrows was sworn in as acting president on 19 March 2022. However on 26 March 2022, Barrows was removed from power due to "incapacity to run the republic" by the then vice president Jacobs and the then transportation minister Jan Kotoński. Kotoński was installed as the provisional president until 8 April 2022. President-elect Patusky assumed office on the same day.

Patusky was overthrown on 11 May 2022 by Jacobs due to inactivity. Jacobs returned to power and commenced his third term. Jacobs was re-elected in the June 2022 Roscamistan snap presidential election. Then vice president Ludwig Collins was acting president from late June to 2-3 July 2022.

Ali Farrokhzad was vested with presidential authority as acting president from 16 to 17 January 2023 midst a coup. The coup consisted of two attempts, the first one resulted in Farrokhzad's acting presidency, but the second attempt succeeded and Jacobs assumed presidential authority.

Jacobs stepped down on 17 May 2023 and was succeeded by vice president Falcone de Los Santos. However, Jacobs became president for the fourth time on 6 August 2023. Incumbent vice president Nyck Bradaten currently acts as acting president since 9 November 2023 after Jacobs transmitted a text declaring his temporary incapacity.

Powers and duties

The current constitution adopted in 2023 grants various powers and delegates various duties to the president. These powers and duties can be found in articles 28, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, and 43 of the constitution.

Legislative authority

The president is empowered to promulgate or veto legislation passed by the National Congress "without consequence" unless when they are obliged to choose between the other by the constitution.[1] Legislation passed by the National Congress constitutionally require presidential approval to become law within ten days.[2] The president has the authority to submit bills for a public referendum at their discretion.[3]

The president also has the authority to submit bills (draft legislation) to the National Congress. They may submit bills to become legislation[4], or any "decree, proposal or law for a mandatory hearing in the supreme court".[5]

Executive authority

The president nominates ministers for confirmation by the National Congress[6], chairs cabinet meetings[7], issues executive orders (decrees)[8], exercise the authority of vacant cabinet positions[9], declare war or a state of emergency[10] and grant or remove honours.[11]

The president's authority to issue decrees is limited in scope. The president may not issue decrees that apply to the National Congress, judiciary, dissolve any political parties or organisations, remove judges or electoral commissioners, unless they are found to be unconstitutional or have been convicted of crimes.[12] The president may also issue directives to guide ministers in their work.[13]

During periods of instability, the president may declare a state of emergency and apply existing legal provisions.[14] The president may also declare war but only if attacked or facing a threat of imminent attack. They may only do so at the request of the Secretary of State for Defence if the nation or its "constitutional order" is under threat.[15]

The president nominates the ministers of their cabinet subject for legislative approval[16]. If their candidates are rejected, and the alternative candidate suggested by the National Congress is rejected by the president, the president is then empowered to provide an alternative candidate to the original proposal and Congress' proposal. Should Congress disagree with said candidates, the president is constitutionally required to resign, accept Congress' proposal or organise a referendum. The failure of such referendum would also then require the president to resign.[17]

The president may exercise the authority of any vacant cabinet positions[18]. However, the president (and vice president) is constitutionally barred from assuming office as Defence Secretary in concurrent capacity even though the constitution provides that the president (and vice president) may lead not more than three ministries.[19] Moreover, the president may order the removal of ministers or reshuffle cabinet at his discretion.[20]

Eligibility criteria

The constitution states the eligibility criteria for the presidency in article 27(3)[21] To be able to be nominated as president, one must:

  • be a citizen of Roscamistan;
  • be aged fifteen or older; and
  • submit three sponsored written nominations to the electoral commission.

Additionally, one would also have to fulfil at least one of the following:

Election

Results of the February 2022 presidential election

Under the constitution, presidential elections are scheduled to be held annually. The president (and vice president) are to be elected directly by the people in "an instant run-off". The constitution limits the period of elections to no less than twenty-four hours but no more than forty-eight hours.[22]

In Roscami history, three presidential elections have been held. The first two occurred in 2022, in February and June, with a third happening in December 2023.

Early elections may be held under extraordinary circumstances. This includes an elected president's intra-term death or resignation[23], and when if the vice president and the majority of cabinet members declare the president unable to exercise his office and they remain as acting president for more than two weeks or after three appeals by the president regarding their incapacity which have all been rejected by the National Congress (whichever is sooner).[24] In such special cases, a presidential election must be held within sixty-days.

Latest election

Presidential candidate
(running mate)
Party Votes %
Thomas Jacobs
(Marco Hasse)
National Catholic League Elected unopposed 100.00
Total Unopposed 100.00

Incumbency

Term limits

Each presidential term constitutionally lasts for a year[25], after which the president (and vice president) may be constantly re-elected.

Oath of office

Before executing the powers of the president, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office stated in article 43 (4a) of the constitution. The oath is as follows:

I solemnly promise to be wholly loyal to God, the Constitution and the People of Roscamistan, to respect the Office I am about to serve and prevent harm to the sovereignty of the people that have elected me and which I must now serve. I will execute my duties to the best of my ability and I will do my utmost to uphold this oath, for if I do not, God and the People will hold me to it. So help me God.

The office is required to be taken within a week since a presidential election. The phrase "So help me God" is constitutionally mandatory in order for the oath to be valid.[26] The president shares the same oath as the vice president.

Declaration of inability

The Presidential Succession Act 2023 allows both the president to voluntarily declare their incapacity to exercise presidential functions, and the vice president and the majority of cabinet members to declare the president to be incapable of exercising presidential functions.

In section 4, should the president wish to declare themselves unable to exercise the office of president, they would be required to transmit a written declaration to the vice president stating so. In this case, the vice president or the next available person in the order of succession becomes acting president until the president transmits to them a written declaration stating that they are able to assume presidential functions.[27]

In section 5, it provides the situation where the vice president and the majority of cabinet members may declare the president unable to exercise the office of president. In this case, they are required to transmit a written declaration declaring that the president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office to the president of the National Congress. As soon as the latter receives the written declaration, the vice president becomes acting president.

The president may transmit to the president of the National Congress that no incapacity exists and they shall be allowed to resume presidential functions. However, this will not be possible if the vice president and the majority of cabinet members transmit within four days to the president of the National Congress their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. In this case, the National Congress shall decide on the issue within forty-eight hours if not in session. If within twenty-one days of the receipt of the latter's written declaration or when Congress is due to assemble, decides by two-thirds majority that there is an incapacity, the vice president shall continue as acting president. Otherwise, the president resumes office.

Moreover, a presidential election must be called within sixty-days if the acting president continues in office for more than two weeks or if there has been three appeals by the president regarding their incapacity which Congress has decided that there is an incapacity (whichever is sooner). During the meantime, the vice president shall be acting president.[28]

Since the passage of the Act in 2023, only section 4 has been invoked once. Section 5 has yet to be invoked.

Removal

The president may be removed from office by expiration of their term, death in office, resignation, impeachment, or a vote of no confidence. The process of impeachment and no confidence votes are stipulated by the constitution.

A president may be impeached by the National Congress of they commit impeachable offences, which the constitution states are corruption, and disobedience to the constitution (acting against the constitution). An impeachment can be proposed by any three congressmen, which will then be voted on by secret ballot during a session of the National Congress. If during the session the National Congress votes by two-thirds majority to accept the charges for impeachment, the Supreme Court meets to discuss the validity of the charges. The Supreme Court is empowered to call witnesses which include the president and vice president to assist them in making their judgement.

Should the Supreme Court find the president not guilty of the charges, such charges may not be put out again for a month. However, should the Supreme Court find the president guilty of the charges, they shall cease to hold office. Persons found guilty in this category may be interdicted from voting for thirty days by a sentence of the Supreme Court, however are still allowed to stand for election.[29]

Secondly, any three congressmen can table a no confidence motion in the government. If in a session, the majority of the members of the National Congress votes in favour, the government shall be dissolved by the president (or jointly with the vice president).[30]

Succession

During a vacancy of office, the president is succeeded by the vice president or the next available officer in the order of succession. The person who then assumes the presidency becomes acting president until an election is held within sixty-days.

Order of succession

The current order of succession is set out in article 29(4) of the constitution[31] and the schedule of the Presidential Succession Act 2023.[32] The order consists of congressional officers, followed by secretaries of state and ministers.

No. Position Current officeholder
1 Vice President Marco Hasse
2 President of the National Congress Joseph Trick
3 Prime Minister Adam Nagajek
4 Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs vacant
5 Secretary of State for Defence Eryk Pilarski
6[d] Secretary of State for the Interior Thomas Jacobs
7 Secretary of State for Finance Joseph Montgomery
8 Minister of Labour Furkan K. Altay
9 Minister of Culture and Arts Connor Barrows
10[d] Minister of Justice Joseph Trick
11[d] Minister of Transportation Eryk Pilarski
12[d] Minister of Development Connor Barrows

Acting President

The Presidential Succession Act 2023 provides for the existence of an acting president.

Any person in the line of succession who succeeds a president due to their removal (early termination of presidency) or is empowered to exercise presidential authority becomes acting president. The authority of the acting president is limited by the aforementioned legislation.

The acting president is vested with the authority granted to a president by the constitution. However, they may only exercise their powers subject to the said act.[33] An acting president may only exercise their authority to maintain the status quo of the situation in which they assumed presidential authority. As commander-in-chief, they may declare war but should only do so if the nation is under threat and in defence.[34]

An presidential election must be held within sixty-days of an early termination of a presidency.

The following people have served as acting president:

Acting President Tenure President Reason
Connor Barrows 19 March 2022 – 26 March 2022 Doros Patusky President-elect Patusky unable to take office.[e]
Ludwig Collins late June 2022 – 3 July 2022 Thomas Jacobs President Jacobs was in England.[e]
Ali Farrokhzad 16 January 2023 – 17 January 2023 Thomas Jacobs President Jacobs transferred presidential authority to Farrokhzad.[e]
Nyck Bradaten 9 November 2023 – 25 November 2023 Thomas Jacobs President Jacobs voluntarily declared his temporary inability to exercise presidential functions.
25 November 2023 – 7 December 2023
7 December 2023
Joseph Trick 25 November 2023 Thomas Jacobs President Jacobs and acting president Bradaten voluntarily declared their temporary inabilities to exercise presidential functions.
7 December 2023

List of presidents

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Party Term Election Vice President (s)
Term Duration
1 Thomas Jacobs
(born 2008)
Freedom 18 February 2021

18 May 2021
89 days
None
Connor Barrows
2 File:Portrait of Anthony Hanlon.png Anthony Hanlon
(born 2008)
Independent 18 May 2021

23 June 2021
36 days
None
Kayden Conboy
Thomas Jacobs[f]
3 Thomas Jacobs
(born 2008)
Freedom 23 June 2021

19 March 2022
269 days
None
Connor Barrows[g]
Doros Patusky[h]
Liberal-Democratic
United
Connor Barrows served as acting president from 19 March 2022 to 26 March 2022
Thomas Jacobs
Jan Kotoński served as "provisional" president from 26 March 2022 to 8 April 2022
4 Doros Patusky
(born 2008)
United 8 April 2022

11 May 2022
33 days
February
2022
(1st)
5 Thomas Jacobs
(born 2008)
Republican Bloc 11 May 2022

17 May 2023
1 year, 6 days
None
June
2022
(2nd)
Ludwig Collins[i]
Ali Farrokhzad[j]
Jan Kotoński[k]
Falcone de Los Santos[l]
United Front
6 Falcone de Los Santos
(born 2008)
National Catholic League 17 May 2023

6 August 2023
81 days
None
Connor Barrows
7 Thomas Jacobs
(born 2008)
National Catholic League 6 August 2023

Incumbent
311 days
None
2023 (3rd)
Nyck Bradaten[m]
Marco Hasse[n]

Notes

  1. Irish: Uachtarán Chónaidhm Roscami
  2. Irish: Uachtarán an Roscamistan
  3. Irish: Uachtarán na Cónaidhme
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Skipped in line of succession as officeholder currently holds other positions higher up in the order of succession.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Before the Presidential Succession Act 2023
  6. between 8 and 20 June 2021 alongside Kayden Conboy
  7. until 18 November 2021
  8. from 22 November 2021
  9. until 11 February 2023
  10. until 21 May 2022
  11. 11-15 February 2023
  12. after 11 February 2023
  13. from 11 August 2023 until 1 January 2024
  14. After 1 January 2024

References

  1. Supreme Constitution
    "28(J): The President: Promulgate or veto laws without consequence except when regulated in this Constitution." (as at 15 November 2023)
  2. Supreme Constitution
    "34(1): The President of Roscamistan promulgates the bills passed by the national congress, which gives them force of law." (as at 15 November 2023)
  3. Supreme Constitution
    "34(2): The President can, before promulgating a law, submit it to the people in a referendum, if the people approve the law it shall be promulgated or submitted to the supreme court within 24 hours, if it is disapproved it cannot be promulgated." (as at 15 November 2023)
  4. Supreme Constitution
    "28(L): The President: Can submit a bill to the national congress for approval to become a law." (as at 15 November 2023)
  5. Supreme Constitution
    "28(M): The President: Can submit any bill, decree, proposal or law for a mandatory hearing in the supreme court." (as at 15 November 2023)
  6. Supreme Constitution
    "28(C): The President: Nominates the ministers for confirmation by the National Congress." (as at 15 November 2023)
  7. Supreme Constitution
    "28(E): The President: Chairs meetings of the cabinet." (as at 15 November 2023)
  8. Supreme Constitution
    "28(F): The President: Pass executive decrees." [sic] (as at 15 November 2023)
  9. Supreme Constitution
    "28(G): The President: Exercise the powers of vacant cabinet minister positions." [sic] (as at 15 November 2023)
  10. Supreme Constitution
    The President:
    • "28(H): Can declare a state of war if Roscamistan is attacked or under threat of attack." (as at 15 November 2023)
    • "28(I): Can declare a state of emergency if appropriate." (as at 15 November 2023)
  11. Supreme Constitution
    "28(N): The President: Grants honours and revokes them." (as at 15 November 2023)
  12. Supreme Constitution
    "33(2): No decree can apply to the national congress or judiciary or dissolve any political party or organisation or remove any judge or electoral commissioner, unless they are found to be unconstitutional or are convicted of a crime, respectively." (as at 15 November 2023)
  13. Supreme Constitution
    "32(1): The President can issue directives to the ministers to guide their work." (as at 15 November 2023)
  14. Supreme Constitution
    "35(1): The President can declare a state of emergency and can apply legal provisions, if they exist, to ensure the emergency is mitigated." (as at 15 November 2023)
  15. Supreme Constitution
    "36(1): The President may only declare a state of war on the request of the minister of defence and only if Roscamistan, or its Constitutional Order, is being attacked or faces imminent attack." (as at 15 November 2023)
  16. Supreme Constitution
    "28(C): The President: Nominates the ministers for confirmation by the National Congress." (as at 15 November 2023)
  17. Supreme Constitution
    • "38(4): If the National Congress provides an alternative candidate, or slate of candidates, who is then denied by the president, the President must provide an alternative to both the original proposal and the candidate (or candidates) proposed by the National Congress, if the National Congress disagrees with the presidential proposal the president must either resign, accept the proposal of the chamber or call a referendum." (as at 15 November 2023)
    • "38(5): If a referendum is called due to disagreement on the confirmation of the ministers, the people are asked whether or not they approve the candidates proposed by the president, if they do not the president must resign, if they do the ministers are considered elected. (as at 15 November 2023)
  18. Supreme Constitution
    "28(G): The President: Exercise the powers of vacant cabinet minister positions." [sic] (as at 15 November 2023)
  19. Supreme Constitution
    • "31(3): The President and Vice President may only lead up to three ministries at once." (as at 15 November 2023)
    • "30(1): There shall be a Secretary of State for Defence, which neither the President nor the Vice President may be elected to, or in any other way become." (as at 15 November 2023)
  20. Supreme Constitution
    "42(1): The President of Roscamistan can order the removal of an individual minister, or group of ministers, without approval of the legislative chambers." (as at 15 November 2023)
  21. Supreme Constitution
    "27(3): Any Roscami citizen of Irish citizenship, including resident Poles and people of Irish and/or Polish descent, up to at least the great grandparents, is eligible to be nominated by the Front (referring to the Roscami Democratic Patriotic Front) for President so long as they are aged fifteen (15) or older and submit three sponsored written nominations to the electoral commission." (as at 15 November 2023)
  22. Supreme Constitution
    "27(2): The President is the Head of State and Head of Government of Roscamistan and is elected directly by all the Roscami citizens every year in an instant run-off election held for no less than twenty four and no more than forty eight hours." (as at 15 November 2023)
  23. Presidential Succession Act 2023
    "Section 2 (as amended): Article 29(4) of the Supreme Constitution: "In the case of early termination of a presidency the Vice President becomes president until an election is held, in the Vice President's absence the President of the National Congress becomes President." shall only be deemed to be invoked in the case of a President's intra-term death, resignation or removal from office by the National Congress (early termination) and a presidential election must be held in sixty days."
  24. Presidential Succession Act 2023
    "Section 5 (paragraph 3): Should the Acting President be in office under this circumstance for more than two weeks or after three appeals by the President, and for which the National Congress decides that the President is unable to exercise the powers and duties of his office; whichever is sooner; a presidential election must be held within sixty-days. In the meantime, the Acting President shall remain in office." (as at 15 November 2023)
  25. Supreme Constitution
    "27(2): The President is the Head of State and Head of Government of Roscamistan and is elected directly by all the Roscami citizens every year in an instant run-off election held for no less than twenty four and no more than forty eight hours." (as at 15 November 2023)
  26. Supreme Constitution
    "43(3): The phrase ‘So help me God’, is not optional and is mandatory for the elected person to receive office." (as at 15 November 2023)
  27. Presidential Succession Act 2023
    "Section 4: Whenever the President transmits to the Vice President his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to him a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President." (as at 15 November 2023)
  28. Presidential Succession Act 2023
    "Section 5: Whenever the Vice President and a majority of members of Cabinet or of such other body as the National Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President of the National Congress their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President of the National Congress that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of members of Cabinet or of such other body as the National Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President of the National Congress their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon the National Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the National Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if the National Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after the National Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. Should the Acting President be in office under this circumstance for more than two weeks or after three appeals by the President, and for which the National Congress decides that the President is unable to exercise the powers and duties of his office; whichever is sooner; a presidential election must be held within sixty-days. In the meantime, the Acting President shall remain in office." (as at 15 November 2023)
  29. Supreme Constitution
    "40:
    • (1): Impeachment may be brought against the President, Vice President or any Minister for any of the following: (as at 15 November 2023)
      • (a): Corruption; (as at 15 November 2023)
      • (b): Acting against the Roscami Constitution. (as at 15 November 2023)
    • (2): Impeachment can be proposed by any three congressmen and is voted on in a secret ballot in the Common session. (as at 15 November 2023)
    • (3): If the charges are accepted by the common session, by a two thirds majority, the supreme court meets to decide whether the charges are valid. (as at 15 November 2023)
    • (4): The supreme court may call witnesses, including the President, Vice President or minister, to assist them in making their final judgement. (as at 15 November 2023)
    • (5): If the supreme court finds in favour of the President, Vice President or minister, the same charge/s, cannot be put again for thirty (30) days. If they find the charges to be valid and the Court rules so, the President, Vice President or minister is removed from office. (as at 15 November 2023)
      • (a): People found guilty in this category may be interdicted from voting for thirty (30) days by a sentence of the Courts, however are still allowed to stand for election." (as at 15 November 2023)
  30. Supreme Constitution
    "41:
    • (1): A motion of no confidence may be made by any three congressmen. (as at 15 November 2023)
    • (2): If a majority votes, in a secret ballot, in the congress in which the no confidence motion was proposed that they have no confidence in the whole government the government is dissolved by either or jointly the President and/or the Vice-President of the Federation." (as at 15 November 2023)
  31. Supreme Constitution
    "29(4): In the case of early termination of a presidency the Vice President becomes president until an election is held, in the Vice President's absence the President of the National Congress becomes President." (as at 15 November 2023)
  32. Presidential Succession Act 2023
    "Schedule (Order of seniority of statutory presidential successors):
    a. Vice President
    1. Prime Minister
    2. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    3. Secretary of State for Defense
    4. Secretary of State for the Interior
    5. Secretary of State for Finance
    6. Minister of Labour
    7. Minister of Culture and Arts
    8. Minister of Justice
    9 Minister of Transportation
    10. Minister of Development
    Should there be an addition of a new portfolio, the new portfolio shall be added to the bottom of the list of Secretaries of State or Ministers respectively." (as at 15 November 2023)
  33. Presidential Succession Act 2023
    "Section 7: The Acting President may exercise all powers and duties vested in the President of the Roscami Federation by law subject to Section 8." (as at 15 November 2023)
  34. Presidential Succession Act 2023
    "Section 8: The Acting President shall only exercise his authority to maintain the status quo of the situation in which he assumed the authority of President. He may exercise his power as Commander-in-chief to declare war, but can only do so should the Roscami Federation be under threat of a foreign power and such act shall only be done in defence. During the period of the Acting President's tenure, the Cabinet shall be deemed to be in an acting capacity and all cabinet members shall hold their portfolios in acting capacity until the appointment of a new Cabinet after a presidential election held in sixty-days of the Acting President's assumption of the presidency in the case of situations stated under Article 29 (4) of the Supreme Constitution or Sections 2 or 5 of this Act." (as at 15 November 2023)

Legislation

See also