New Finland (micronation)
|Motto: God bless the mothers, the fathers, and the children
|Smithton (by size)
|New Finlandic (rare)
Democratic presidential republic under a dictatorship
Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
|Upper Sters (Kingdom)
|Lower Sters (Kingdom)
• Declaration as the Republic of New Finland
|31 December 2017
• Monarchy established
|4 June 2018
|11 August 2018
|0.00062 km2 (0.00024 sq mi)
• Water (%)
|0.04/km2 (0.1/sq mi)
South African rand
Łight Net (24 June–12 July 2018)
|UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
The Republic of New Finland and Kingdom of New Finland were two successive micronations founded and de facto ruled by Zabëlle Skye that existed between 31 December 2017–4 June 2018 and 4 June–11 August 2018, respectively. The Kingdom was then succeeded by the now-erstwhile Principality of New Eiffel. Both the Republic and Kingdom of New Finland had an identical culture and British territorial claim to New Eiffel. Similar to New Eiffel, much of New Finland's laws were hypothetical or ill-defined—for both the Republic and the Kingdom; the majority were verbal-only or made up on the spot by the supreme court—the Official ZedCourt o' New Finland—and upon the decision of Skye, often for personal gain.
Skye became interested in micronationalism upon discovering the Republic of Molossia in late 2017, leading him to research the topic before eventually declaring the Republic of New Finland on 31 December 2017. Laying claim to territory in the macronation of South Africa, Skye declared himself President. On 4 January 2018, New Finland became principally based in Greater London, England—the location of Skye's residence. While the South African claimant was retained, Skye held no control over it. On 5 January, citizen Janus Smith lead a brief coup d'état attempt against Skye, which failed. The following weeks of early January saw Skye pursue the development of the culture, art and bicycle routes of New Finland. However, by mid-January, the micronation was inactive; thus, on 9 February, Skye reformed New Finland by dissolving the original claim in South Africa,[a] adopting several new national symbols, and enacting the legal provisions for democracy. Three cities were designated on 2 March, with Smithington (later renamed New Leeds in New Eiffel) becoming the capital.
However, New Finland became dormant yet again by May. Hoping to yet restore activity for a second time, Skye proclaimed the Kingdom of New Finland on 4 June. Introducing the position of prime minister, an armed forces was also established on 16 June, with Smith named as either the Minister of War, Supreme General, or both. However, by 20 June, he was suspended until 30 June for a reason which has since been lost. On 24 June, Łight Net—crudely drawn on pieces of paper—was adopted as the national currency. Light Net experienced significant use in the Kingdom until 12 July, when Smith burned all of his banknotes in protest against the proposed vehicle registration plating and ID system for bicycles. Around June or mid- to late July, controversy erupted when Skye abused his position as monarch by attempting to use loopholes in New Finland's law to claim ownership over Smith's property without his consent. Smith fought back by renouncing his participation in New Finland, subsequently returning New Finland to a state of dormancy. On 11 August, Skye created the Principality of New Temporary (renamed New Eiffel on 30 August) as the official successor state to New Finland.
Zabëlle Skye became interested in micronationalism upon discovering the Republic of Molossia via its national website in late 2017. Inspired by this, he soon began further researching micronationalism on Wikipedia before gaining the courage to proclaim the Republic of New Finland on 31 December 2017 on New Year's Eve—just minutes before New Year's Day. He declared himself President and laid claim to his cousins' house in a suburb of Pretoria, South Africa during a holiday to the macronation that he commenced on 9 December. He created the draft for New Finland's national flag, finalising it the following day alongside creating the coat of arms and digital currency—the Finlandic pound.
Skye also showed interest in claiming his residence in Greater London, England, but did not do so until three days later. The Republic was more simulationist than the eventual Kingdom; on 4 January 2018, Skye took photographs of the claimed property and began designating rooms and areas of rooms as companies—he declared the spare bedroom a hotel, the outdoors patio as a restaurant, and a bookshelf as a library. Additionally, the four residents of the property were probably unaware of the existence of New Finland, making his claim all the more imaginative.
Relocation and subsequent activities in the Republic
Skye returned to his home in Greater London that same day, and a new claim was made to his residence, totalling New Finland's population to nine residents. However, the concept of citizenship did not yet exist in the micronation's legal infrastructure. Upon his arrival to Greater London, Skye immediately faced a civil war; citizen Janus Smith briefly declared war on the micronation on 5 January, aiming a coup d'état, but surrendered after Skye hit him on the leg with a wooden sword. After this, Skye prioritised the culture, art and bicycle routes of New Finland. This resulted in the unintentional creation and later designation of the J16 road in the modern-day Plitvice. However, by mid-January, New Finland had become inactive.
On 9 February, Skye became interested in New Finland again and realised that, in order to revive the micronation's former activity, he would have to enact reforms. To achieve this, Skye likely dissolved the original claim in South Africa due to the long distance[a] and created a new flag and coat of arms for New Finland, alongside designating various other national symbols. He also formed legal provisions for the micronation by founding a supreme court. This formally enacted democracy in the micronation.
In March, a public referendum was held to determine the national animal, for which the red fox was selected; the cat was selected as the national domesticated animal. Skye designed a passport on 2 March—though it was never printed—and proclaimed three cities: Smithington—later New Leeds, excluding Seat Square—Smithton (Plitvice and Seat Square) and Hardwork Village Outback—Új Repülő. Smithington was the capital city. The Official New Eiffel Ratings Board (then unnamed) was created on 17 March, followed by the construction of Dead Tree Lane in April. However, overall activity within the micronation was likely still quite sporadic.
The Royal Archives—the erstwhile national archives of the Principality of New Eiffel (successor to New Finland) that now operate to preserve New Eiffelic history—suggest that New Finland was dormant during May. Photographs taken on Skye's tablet indicate that he was interested in New Finland between 19–24 May; he probably began considerations for a second reform for the micronation, hoping to yet again restore activity.
Kingdom of New Finland
On 4 June, Skye proclaimed the Kingdom of New Finland as the successor to the Republic. The reasoning behind his decision to transform the micronation into a monarchy is unknown. The Kingdom adopted a new flag and coat of arms, which were both designed by Skye the previous day. The names of the cities likely remained, while several new national symbols were declared. On 6 June, Skye shot a 4-minute long video commentating a tour of the micronation. He introduced himself as New Finland's prime minister. The video—the most complete artefact detailing the Kingdom of New Finland—is now regarded by the Royal Archives as among the most historically-significant primary sources relating to New Eiffelic history. An armed forces was established on 16 June, with Smith named as either the Minister of War, Supreme General, or both. However, by 20 June, he was suspended until 30 June; the reason for which has been lost.
On 24 June, Łight Net—more commonly known as ŁN—was adopted as the national currency. Drawn on pieces of paper, ŁN had five denominations in total—ŁN1, ŁN5, ŁN10, ŁN20 and a single ŁN50 note. Unlike the Finlandic pound, Łight Net experienced significant usage until 12 July, when Smith burned all of his Łight Net banknotes in protest against the proposed vehicle registration plating and ID system for bicycles in the kingdom. He was fined £20 by the supreme court, but the fine was later dismissed on the grounds that burning currency was not legally a crime in New Finland.
It appears that by June or July, Skye had become the king of New Finland, replacing George Smith. Sometime during these two months—most likely in mid- or late July—Skye abused his position as monarch by attempting to use loopholes in New Finland's law to claim ownership over Smith's property. Additionally, he also controlled the supreme court, which ruled in his favour. Smith fought back, however, by renouncing his participation in New Finland, which dismayed Skye who later begged to no avail for his return. Following backlash from several other citizens, the micronation subsequently returned to a state of dormancy.
After engaging in private geofiction, roleplaying on NationStates and running a plush toy micronation between 28 July–3 August, Skye became interested in concrete micronationalism yet again on 1 August; he envisioned the creation of New Eiffel by as early as 8 August. On 11 August, he created the Principality of New Temporary (renamed New Eiffel on 30 August) as the official successor state to New Finland.
Government and laws
The Republic of New Finland was a presidential republic, de facto a one man dictatorship under Skye who served as president-for-life. However, while there are no records indicating that any other government offices existed—nor were there general elections—citizens could vote in referendums since 9 February. There is only one referendum that is known to have been held, which occurred in March to determine the national animal. The Kingdom of New Finland was some form of a constitutional monarchy. George Smith was King as of 20 June, but by July, Skye had succeeded him. There were three other offices; the prime minister, held by Janus Smith, the "First Ster", Maria Smith, and the "Second Ster", Henry Smith. Parliament hypothetically consisted of two chambers; the upper house, named the Upper Sters, and a lower house, the Lower Sters. Janus Smith was also the Minister of War, and served as the Supreme General of the armed forces. However, by 20 June, he was suspended until 30 June; the reason for which has been lost. Janus Smith, who held an interest in military history, knew how to operate an air rifle and air pistole.
Like New Eiffel, much of New Finland's laws were hypothetical or ill-defined—for both the Republic and the Kingdom. Most were verbal or made up on the spot by the supreme court, the Official ZedCourt o' New Finland, and upon the decision of Skye. He often used this for personal gain, as in the case where he attempted to use the court to seize property from Janus Smith in June. It is not known whether the Republic of New Finland had any laws concerning marriage, although the Royal Archives believes that it is "likely" that the Republic did not. Conversely, the Kingdom of New Finland did theoretically allow marriages to take place—for both opposite-sex and same-sex couples—provided they were aged either 18 or 21 years or older (the precise age is uncertain). The Official New Eiffel Ratings Board (then unnamed), founded on 17 March, was responsible for the classification and censorship of videos works—films—within New Finland.
The status regarding the civil rights of citizens of the Republic of New Finland is unknown. In the Kingdom, both men and women were equal in the military; both could serve and hold the same positions. LGBT rights were equal to that of heterosexual persons, and transgender individuals could legally change their own gender. The Royal Archives believes that the civil rights of the Republic were probably similar to that of the Kingdom.
Terrain and boundaries
Upon its dissolution—and for the entirety of its history after dropping its South African claim—New Finland was a landlocked micronation, enclaved entirely within the United Kingdom in Europe. It had an area of about 618 square metres (6,652 square feet), sharing 156 meters (511 ft) worth of borders with the neighbouring macronation of England. New Finland's terrain was consistently flat, except for a slight elevation of 160 millimetres (6.3 inches) in the west of Hardwork Village Outback and a small depression on the J16 in the south of what would become the Rugbull Field, Smithton near the bomb shelter that regularly flooded after receiving rain. Most of New Finland's terrain consisted of lawn, the Rugbull Field about 160 square metres (1,722 square feet) in size, although areas like Dead Tree in Hardwork Village Outback seldom received sunlight and subsequently had no grass. New Finland had no natural bodies of water. The northern and southern border barriers were wooden walls with concrete supports, while the western border was a dilapidated and overgrown wooden fence. The eastern border was the principal border, immediately accessing the entrance to the Main Building and XCU Therapy (later XCUT Therapy).
Ecology and geology
New Finland was located entirely within the English Lowlands beech forests terrestrial ecoregion. The micronation had two gardens, most notably what would become known as New Eiffel Gardens. The flora of New Finland was undocumented, so its biodiversity is poorly understood. The Republic had several trees, most prominently the Malus domestica (apple tree) of the Granny Smith cultivar that was named New Finland Monument. Geologically, the oldest rocks beneath New Finland were Palaeozoic, which were between 538 and 251 million years old, consisting of mudstone and sandstone overlain by Old Red Sandstone, itself overlain by the London Clay Formation from the Palaeogene period between 66 and 24 million years ago. The subsoil was made up of deposits of alluvium, topped by sedimentary superficial deposits. The soil was mostly sandy and clay, causing issues for agriculture. Some areas of the eventual Rugbull Field experienced flooding due to poor water absorption.
New Finland had a "temperate oceanic climate" according to the Köppen climate classification; the climate was cool and often cloudy, and high temperatures were infrequent. New Finland was often rainy in autumn, spring and the winter, while summers were generally warm and sometimes hot. New Finland experienced light to moderate snowfall in February and March. The hottest temperature ever recorded was 34°C on 26 July during the 2018 British Isles heatwave, and the coldest was -6°C on 28 February during the 2018 British Isles cold wave.
|Climate data for New Finland
|Record high °F (°C)
|Daily mean °F (°C)
|Record low °F (°C)
|Source: TimeAndDate; Met Office
The Finlandic pound, named after the British pound sterling, was the official currency of the Republic of New Finland from 1 January until, most likely, 9 February. It was maintained by New Finland Bank, the central bank of the republic. The Finland pound was never utilised, however, and consisted solely of digital banknote designs. The banknotes were blue and white, featured security symbols like the Latin cross, and used an early version of the unity symbol—the capital letter Z with a tilde (~) centre-middle—as its currency symbol. This was despite the currency's name not featuring the letter. The banknotes had four denominations—Z1, Z10, Z50 and Z100, and the Royal Archives presume that the Finlandic pound was pegged to the sterling.
When the kingdom was established on 4 June, New Finland Bank was renamed as the Official ZedBank o' New Finland. The Kingdom of New Finland adopted Łight Net (sign: ŁN; code: SCU) as the official currency on 24 June, alongside using the sterling and South African rand. Łight Net was drawn on pieces of paper, and had five denominations in total—ŁN1, ŁN5, ŁN10, ŁN20 and a single ŁN50. Unlike the Finlandic pound, Łight Net experienced significant usage; ŁN5 was exchanged on 26 June, ŁN20 on 27 June, ŁN30 on 28 June and ŁN1 on 29 June, followed by ŁN5 on 2 July and 3 July, ŁN10 on 4 July and ŁN75 on 5 July. It was largely used for purchasing candy, art, films and services, like grinding in video games. It was cryptically nicknamed Hîgh1 (HÎ1; H1). Łight Net stop being used on 12 July when citizen Janus Smith burned all of his Łight Net banknotes in protest against the proposed vehicle registration plating and ID system for bicycles in the kingdom, which was thus not implemented.
Upon the Kingdom of New Finland's dissolution, it had three cities, each founded on 2 March in the Republic; the only-populated and capital city Smithington, the flat and undeveloped Smithton and the industrial Hardwork Village Outback. Designated by then-President Skye, the first two were named after the Smith surname which all five residents of the micronation possessed. The etymology of Hardwork Village Outback is obscure, but the name may have been associated with the labour industry of the area, and "outback" could be referencing the city as being the furthest city away from the only permanently populated city of Smithington. All three cities were renamed and remained nearly entirely unchanged when New Eiffel was established. However, unlike New Eiffel, the cities of New Finland were not entitled to have their own symbols, such as a flag or coat of arms.
|2 March 2018
|Hardwork Village Outback
Cycling and walking were the two principal methods of transportation in the micronation. The J16 was an unpaved, 23.6-metre long road in southern Smithton, spanning its entire length from east to west. The J16 connected what was to become Seat Square in Smithington to Dead Tree Lane and what would be retroactively known as Triple Junction in Hardwork Village Outback. Dead Tree Lane was 7-metres (23 ft) long and comprised two separate roadways. In contrast to New Eiffel, the pathway of the New Eiffel Main Route 1—which was constructed between 15 January and 20 March 1946—was not designated as a road; neither was the unpaved dirt track that would become Prince Zabëlle I Road. The Main Route 1, 43-metres (140 ft) long, was viewed instead as a walkway, while Prince Zabëlle I Road was seen as unworthy of designation. The micronation had three alleyways, each undesignated.
Society and culture
New Finland had five residents, all of whom were Afrikaners; all were bilingual, speaking English and Afrikaans. Three citizens spoke Afrikaans as their first language, while two spoke English as their first. All five residents were Christians. Four citizens were male, while one was female.
- Other sources indicate that this may also have been on 2 March.
- Merely retrospective estimates; each of the the sizes combined will not add up to New Finland's known territorial size.