Parallel plane theory

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The parallel plane theory is a micropatriological position within new secessionism that states that micronations exist on a separate, parallel plane of sovereignty to macronations, and that their territorial claims are therefore not mutually exclusive. The theory was laid out in the Resolution on Micronational Sovereignty, which was drafted by a joint delegation from nations including the Karno-Ruthenian Empire, and was developed by the joint effort of Tom McMillan and Will Campbell during December 2017 and January 2018. Micronations that endorse the theory include the Karno-Ruthenian Empire, the Commonwealth of Deseret, and the Republic of West Who; it was also briefly endorsed by the Second Republic of Glastieve.


The parallel plane theory in micropatriology began in 2017 with the Resolution on Micronational Sovereignty, which was written by a joint delegation from micronations including the Consulate of Delvera and the Karno-Ruthenian Empire, and attempted to define micronations in opposition to macronations by making reference to the idea that they "exist on separate, parallel planes":

Whereas micronations and macronations exist on separate, parallel planes whereby their duties and responsibilities do not overlap; and

Whereas micronations have sovereign power which is exerted in the social, cultural, and economic realms; and

Whereas micronational authority is entirely based on the consent of the governed rather than a monopoly on force; and

Whereas micronational laws are enforced through the implementation of punishments agreed to via consensus ad idem and pursuant to macronational restrictions on violence; and

Whereas all micronational citizens hold macronational citizenship; and

Whereas macronations generally do not tolerate challenges to their authority in the manner of true secessionism or separatism; and

Whereas micronational governments, as true servants of the people, should protect their citizens from unnecessary hardship and persecution at the hands of macronations in relation to movements of secession;

Therefore, micronational sovereignty and macronational sovereignty do not preclude one another; and

Micronations which seek macronational status alter their basis of authority, and therefore their national character; and

Micronational governments do not hold a monopoly on force to the exclusion of separate, macronational authorities where such authorities claim jurisdiction in a given case; and

Micronations should not identify as a movement which seeks to usurp the macronational monopoly of force.

However, despite defining the ways in which micronations are not macronations, the Resolution failed to expand upon its practical observations about the nature of micronational governments to provide a theoretical basis for micronational sovereignty. It could also be read as simulationist in nature, as it directly challenged the idea that micronations should seek to become macronations, which is the basis for conventional secessionism. Finding this interpretation of the Resolution unsatisfying, in December 2017 and January 2018, Tom McMillan and Will Campbell developed the parallel plane theory within the theoretical framework of new secessionism. McMillan advanced a theory that applied the principle of tribal sovereignty in the United States to the sovereignty that new secessionism assigns to cultural groups, while Campbell aimed to ground the parallel plane theory in Confucian ethics and international law.

When the Second Republic of Glastieve was declared, McMillan and Campbell successfully lobbied for the inclusion of the parallel plane theory in the Micronations Act 2017, section (3) of which read:

(3) The sovereignty of micronations and non-micronations should be understood to exist on separate, parallel planes, such that:—
(a) Micronations that have declared independence from the Republic of Glastieve should be treated as equals and as secessionist movements, not as subordinate entities, and
(b) Micronations that have declared independence from a non-micronation should not be taken to undermine the integrity of that state and both may be recognised by the Republic of Glastieve without any legal contradiction.

However, the Second Republic