New Florence

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New Florence
NewFlorenceFlag.png

Capital cityAmerston
Largest cityVirginia an Ear
Official language(s)English (de facto, unofficial)
DemonymFlorentine
GovernmentRights-based anocracy
- ChancellorAnthony Clark
- PresidentNot appointed
LegislatureNational Council
Established1 January 2019
Area claimedc.40 sq km
Populationc.90
As of March 2021.
Does not include honorary citizens. Population and citizenship (both full and non-residential) vary significantly.
Time zoneGMT (Esperer)

New Florence is a territorial micronation in Europe. It was founded by micronational lawyer Anthony Clark.

New Florence declared independence from the United Kingdom in January 2019. The capital is Amerston and the largest city by population is Virginia an Ear (East Virginia).

New Florence is governed by a form of rights-based anocracy. The most senior government official is the Chancellor, who is head of state and de jure head of government. The current Chancellor is Anthony Clark. The President is the de facto head of government. The country has two unusual features to its system of government: it has an uncodified constitution, and it has six branches of government, instead of three. By the number of separate bodies, the Florentine government is one of the largest in the MicroWiki community; it has over 300 different institutions and agencies, divided between the six branches. New Florence follows a common law legal system.

Culturally, New Florence is influenced by both Scottish and Scandinavian culture. Its Scandinavian roots originate with its predecessor state, the Nordkavn Federation. Clark has publicly stated that he wants New Florence to have much more of a 'real-world' presence than many other modern micronations.

Etymology

The name New Florence comes from the name of Florence Clark, a cat owned by the Chancellor, who was in turn named after the English musician Florence Welch. The name is also inspired by the Italian city of Florence.

History

New Florence was founded on 1 January 2019 by Anthony Clark. The early days of the country have been dominated by the release of three pieces of legislation - the Territories Decree 2019, the Citizenship Decree 2019 and the Expansion and Government Decree 2019 - and the expansion of the government's internet presence.

On 2 January, Florence Clark, a Norwegian Forest Cat belonging to the family of Chancellor Clark, become the first Chief Ambassador (although the Department of Foreign Affairs was not officially founded until 7 January).

Also that day, the National Expeditionary Society completed its first expedition, in Esperer.[1]

On 7 January, the Expansion and Government Decree 2019 was issued, which created over 300 different governmental bodies. Horatio Eden was appointed Secretary of Defence, Secretary of Intelligence and Security, head of the GUM Relations Office and General Prosecutor. On 10 January, Superintendent Milaw Oakforrest of City Cowslip was appointed Secretary of Justice and Secretary of Interior.

The same day, Chancellor Clark signed the Treaty of Comprehensive Partnership between New Florence and the Amissopian Federation.

On 9 January, the Department of Foreign Affairs began negotiations with the Palatinate of Uberquiesenberg regarding the potential establishment of diplomatic relations. The Treaty of Long-Standing Cooperation was signed two days later.

On 11 January, Chancellor Clark declared some of his future plans for the nation. These included appointing a president and electing a National Council, as well as establishing two new national parks in Esperer, building new diplomatic relations and expanding the Amerston Post.

In June 2020, New Florence became a crown dependency of the Abeldane Empire. The government briefly and unsuccessfully campaigned for statehood when the new Abeldane constitution was drafted.

On 2 March 2021, New Florence relinquished its claims to City Cowslip and Esperer. Chancellor Clark also dismissed the entire serving government, assuming all powers for himself. The government began an application for membership of the Grand Unified Micronational, led by the GUM Relations Office with assistance from the state branch's International Organisations Bureau, the Office of the Counsel for Treaties, and the International Communications Directorate. The application is being overseen by the General Inspectorate's offices for diplomacy, foreign aid, and intelligence and security.

Also in March, given that the Abeldane Empire is defunct, the Departments of Justice and Foreign Affairs jointly advised the Chancellor that New Florence's crown dependency was void. There was no way for New Florence to be removed as a crown dependency without the Reichsversammlung's agreement, and the RVS hadn't met for months. Therefore, the Advocate-General's Office advised the Florentine government to act as though it was a sovereign independent state. On 4 March 2021, the Abeldane Emperor used emergency powers to amend the Constitution, allowing crown dependencies to secede unilaterally. New Florence immediately submitted notice of secession to the Kronrat.

Society

New Florence has a population of around 90, although it has only 9 full or non-residential citizens. The majority of Florentines are white British. There are also innumerable cats and horses. There are two types of Florentine citizenship: full and non-residential. Honorary citizenship is also available, but is honorary only and carries no particular formal rights.

Health

The AED device in Virginia an Ear

The Department of Health has jurisdiction for public health on Florentine territory. Amongst other things, it monitors the AED device installed in Virginia an Ear.

In January 2019, there was a brief health scare over an outbreak of flu.

Though there has likely been cases of COVID-19 in New Florence, none have yet been reported to public health authorities.

Geography, climate and wildlife

A map of New Florence (Esperer only), created by Uberquiesenberg Cartographers Co-Op. The caption dates from New Florence's time as a crown dependency of the Abeldane Empire

The region of Esperer, the main claim of New Florence, is surrounded by the territory of Scotland.

The territorial extent of Esperer is established by the Territories Decree 2019, while the New Florence's further land claims of City Cowslip and Hobart are set out under the Expansion and Government Decree 2019.

The cairn on Crag Brigh

Rising to 300 metres, New Florence's highest point is the summit of Mt Vraiment Grand. Just below it is Crag Brigh, a national heritage site. The National Expeditionary Society has begun a tradition that society members add a stone to the cairn on Crag Brigh on 2 January each year.

Esperer is situated in a rift valley, largely underlain by Paleozoic formations, affected by extinct volcanic features and glaciation.

Climate

Esperer's climate is temperate and oceanic, with mild winters and cool summers. Temperatures are usually lower than elsewhere in Great Britain, but heavy snowfall is relatively uncommon. Esperer is often extremely windy.

Wildlife

The wildlife of Esperer is of limited diversity. Most habitat is either moorland or farmland, although there are also areas of coniferous forest. Mammals in Esperer include red foxes, badgers, grey squirrels and roe deer. There is a large population of buzzards, kestrels and songbirds.

Regions

New Florence's claims were originally divided into three regions. However, in March 2021, Clark formally relinquished New Florence's claims to the regions of both City Cowslip and Hobart, citing the inactivity of their local governments.

Mt Vraiment Grand, in Rystaden Province, Esperer

Esperer is the original and now sole territory of New Florence. Its most senior government official is the Governor of Esperer. It is divided into three cities and two provinces. Amerston is the capital city and is governed by Amerston City Council, led by the Mayor of Amerston (this office is held ex officio by the Chancellor). Virginia an Ear is the largest city by population and land area and is governed by Virginia an Ear Municipal Council. Lindeborg is the second-largest city, and is governed by Lindeborg Municipal Council.

The two provinces, Aarhavn and Rystaden, are each governed by a provincial directorate.

City Cowslip (no longer a region of New Florence)

Both City Cowslip, surrounded by Stockholm county, Sweden, and Hobart, situated north of Austin, Texas, consisted solely of their capital cities. City Cowslip was governed by Superintendent Milaw Oakforrest and Hobart was governed by Superintendent William Efton. Both superintendents lost contact with central government between 2019 and 2021, which led to New Florence relinquishing its claims to both regions.

Government

New Florence is a unitary state governed by a rights-based anocracy. The Florentine government is unusual as it has six branches of government, as opposed to the more conventional three, and an uncodified constitution.

By a number of constituent bodies, New Florence has one of the largest governments in the MicroWiki community. The Expansion and Government Decree 2019 created over 300 different institutions and agencies.

The Chancellor is head of state and de jure head of government. They have absolute power, limited only by customary human rights protections. The Chancellor exercises the powers of all vacant offices.

The President, appointed by the Chancellor, is de facto head of government. The Cabinet of New Florence consists of Secretaries appointed by the Chancellor on the recommendation of the President.

Most executive power is exercised by the Grand Chamber, which consists of the Chancellor, the President, the Cabinet and any other individuals appointed by the Chancellor or President.

State branch

The state branch consists of the offices of the Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor, the National Advisory Council, the Diplomatic Office, the National Security Council, the National Expeditionary Society, various bodies responsible for the administration of awards, decorations and prizes, and several other smaller agencies.

Executive branch

The executive branch consists of the office of the President, Advocate-General, the Leader of the National Council and 25 departments.

The departments of the executive branch are the Departments of Interior, Justice, Foreign Affairs, International Development, Finance, Peace, Defence, Intelligence and Security, Immigration, Commerce, Labour and Pensions, International Trade, Health, Environment and Wildlife, Food and Agriculture, Infrastructure and Transportation, Local Government, Culture and Heritage, Sports and Leisure, Religion, Media and Journalism, Education, Science, Technology and Innovation, Land and Housing and Equalities.

Most departments have multiple subsidiary agencies.

National Council

The legislative branch theoretically consists of the National Council and the Office of the Legislative Counsel. However, the National Council has never been elected.

Judiciary

The judiciary is split across both the judicial and executive branches, and consists of the judicial branch, several executive tribunals, the Court-Martial and the Military Court of Appeals.

The judicial branch consists of the Court of Cassation, the Court of Appeal, the Criminal Cases Review Board, the High Court, the Environmental Court, the Tax Court, the Insolvency Court, the Government Claims Court, the International Trade Court, the Regional Court, the Municipal Court and the Provincial Court. All of these courts sit across different regions.

Prosecutorial branch

The prosecutorial branch is responsible for criminal prosecutions. It is led by the General Prosecutor, but also includes the offices of the Electoral and Voting Fraud Prosecutor and the Environmental Prosecutor.

Auditory and oversight branch

The auditory and oversight branch is responsible for overseeing the other branches of government and providing politically independent services. It consists of the Statistics and Research Council, the General Inspectorate (which contains 42 different specialised offices), the Information Commissioner, the Electoral Commission and several other agencies.

Foreign affairs

On 7 January 2019, Chancellor Clark signed the Treaty on Comprehensive Partnership between New Florence and the Amissopian Federation. The treaty established the Council on Florentine-Amissopian Affairs and provided for cooperation on matters of criminal law, intelligence, territory and intellectual property. It also created a customs union between the two states.

On 9 January, the Department of Foreign Affairs entered into negotiations with the Palatinate of Uberquiesenberg with the aim of establishing diplomatic relations. The Treaty of Long-Standing Cooperation was signed on 11 January.

In March 2021, New Florence applied for membership of the Grand Unified Micronational.

Sovereignty disputes

States with which New Florence has signed a treaty

Other states which New Florence recognises

Organisations

New Florence is a member of the following organisations:

Defence

Base страховит

Florentine defence, security and intelligence is the joint responsibility of the Department of Interior, Department of Defence and Department of Intelligence and Security.

The Department of Interior is responsible for the National Bureau of Investigation (a body independent of the New Florence Central Policing Authority), which is tasked with major criminal investigations.

Military

The Department of Defence maintains the nation's military, which consists of five branches: the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Coastguard and Special Forces. The Department of Defence is also responsible for the military police and the Military Intelligence Directorate.

The Florentine Military is headquartered at Base страховит, in Lindeborg Municipality.

Intelligence and security

The Department of Intelligence and Security is responsible for a number of different agencies: the Foreign Intelligence Agency, the Domestic Intelligence Agency, the Signals Intelligence Agency, the Security Directorate and the National Border Force, amongst others. The National Bureau of Investigation is also part of the Florentine intelligence community.

Law and order

New Florence follows a common law system with an uncodified constitution.

There are currently two forms of legislation:

  • Decrees, which are the highest form of legislation, issued by the Chancellor, and
  • State Orders, also issued by the Chancellor to exercise various subsidiary powers.

Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Department of Interior. The New Florence Central Policing Authority is responsible for law enforcement across the nation, and the National Bureau of Investigation is responsible for all major criminal investigations.

Each region is policed by a separate police department, each of which come under the jurisdiction of the Central Policing Authority.

Culture

Rocky track in north Lindeborg

New Florence has strong Scottish roots. It succeeds the Nordkavn Federation, and has also inherited much of the Federation’s Scandinavian heritage.

New Florence is a founding member of the Micronational Heritage Association.

National holidays

New Florence celebrates the following national holidays:

Date Name Notes
1 January New Year's Day and Independence Day A celebration of the new year and the founding of New Florence
2 January Expedition Day A celebration of the explorers and the National Expeditionary Society
25 January Burns Night Celebrating the life and works of the poet Robert Burns
25 December Christmas Day Celebration of the birth of Christ

Media

The Amerston Post's old homepage

The main news source of New Florence is the state-owned Amerston Post. The Amerston Post is a subsidiary company of the Florentine Media Corporation, which is controlled by the Department of Media and Journalism. The Amerston Post holds archived posts dating back to November 2015 from the previous news sites, themicronational and the Eskhavn Guardian.

Gallery

References

  1. Clark, Anthony. 'National Expeditionary Society founded; completes first expedition' Amerston Post. Retrieved 9 January 2019.