Republic of Bir Tawil

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History of Bir Tawil

On 19 January 1899, an agreement between the United Kingdom and Egypt relating to the administration of Sudan defined "Soudan" as the "territories south of the 22nd parallel of latitude". It contained a provision that would give Egypt control of the Red Sea port of Suakin, but an amendment on 10 July 1899 gave Suakin to Sudan instead.

On 4 November 1902, the UK drew a separate "administrative boundary", intended to reflect the actual use of the land by the tribes in the region.[1] Bir Tawil was grazing land used by the Ababda tribe based near Aswan, and thus was placed under Egyptian administration from Cairo. Similarly, the Hala'ib Triangle to the northeast was placed under the British governor of Sudan, because its inhabitants were culturally closer to Khartoum.

Egypt claims the original border from 1899, the 22nd parallel, which would place the Hala'ib Triangle within Egypt and the Bir Tawil area within Sudan. Sudan, however, claims the administrative border of 1902, which would put Hala'ib within Sudan, and Bir Tawil within Egypt. As a result, both states claim Hala'ib and neither claims the much less valuable Bir Tawil area, which is only a tenth the size, and has no permanent settlements or access to the sea. There is no basis in international law for either Sudan or Egypt to claim both territories, and neither nation is willing to cede Hala'ib. With no third state claiming the neglected area, Bir Tawil is one of the few land areas of the world not claimed by any recognised state.



The political system of Qatar is a presidential republic with the president as head of state also a head of government. Under the Constitution of Bir Tawil, the partially-elected Consultative Assembly has a limited ability to reject legislation and dismiss ministers. The first general election was held in 2022.

The president of Bir Tawil (Muhammad Luqman) holds nearly all executive and legislative authority, as well as controlling the judiciary. He appoints the prime minister and cabinet. According to Freedom House, political rights are limited.


The Republic of Bir Tawil have soldiers or an army, but it has a Secret Service and a Border protection.

Foreign relations

The Republic of Bir Tawil are a youngest member of the United Nations also have foreign relations to other countries. The Republic of Bir Tawil is member of UN, OIC, Arab League and Pan-African.

Countries that unrecognize the Republic of Bir Tawil








•Central African Republic

•South Sudan



•Marshall Islands

National Symbols

The Bir Tawil symbols was refers to its flag

•White - Umayyad and founder of the nation.

•Black - Abbasid, Rashidun and strength of nation on economy, religion and culture.


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