Empire of Choseon
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|Empire of Choseon|
(English: Let the land be enlightened)
|Official language|| • Korean|
|Official scripts|| • Hangul|
• Latin alphabet
|Ethnic groups||60% Choseonese|
|Government||Constitutional monarchy under Authoritarian Single Party State|
|- Emperor||Choi Yung-keun|
|- Prime Minister||Disputed|
|- Upper house||- House of Peers|
|- Lower house||- House of Representatives|
|Formation||Independence from South Korea|
|- National Foundation Day||18 July 2014|
|- Independence||14 September 2014|
|- Constitution||19 September 2014|
|Population||40 (2014 Estimate)|
|Currency||Choseon won (₩) (ECW)|
|Time zone||KST (UTC+8)|
|Date format||yyyy년 mm월 dd일 yyyy/mm/dd (CE)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||KC|
Choseon (Hangul: 초선국; hanja: 焦線國), officially the Empire of Choseon (Hangul: 초선의제국; hanja: 焦線帝國), is a micronation in East Asia located on the Korea Strait, constituting Hoenggando-gil and the islands that surrounds it. Choseon has neighboring states include the Republic of Korea (South Korea) to the North and Japan to the east. Hanseong is the executive capital city located in Hoenggando-gil and Jejuyang is the legislative capital, seat of government located in Choseong County, Island of Jeju. The country's government is a Constitutional monarchy under Authoritarian Single Party State
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Government and politics
- 4 Foreign relations
- 5 Military
- 6 Geography
- 7 Economy
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Culture
- 10 External links
The English word Choseon derives from the pronunciation of the Korean name, 초선, which in Korean is pronounced Choseon-ui. The pronunciation Choseon is more formal, and is in used for most official purposes. Formerly, Choseon was named Kangcho until a few weeks after the country's independence. The full title of Choseon is Choseon-ui Jegug (초선의제국), meaning "the Empire of Choseon".
Prehistory and Gojoseon
|This article is part of a series on the|
|History of Choseon|
The Korean Academy of North America discovered ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000 bc in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000 bc. The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000 bc and the Neolithic period begins around 6000 bc.
Gojoseon's founding legend describes Dangun, a descendent of Heaven, as establishing the kingdom in 2333 bc. The original capital may have been on the present-day Manchurian border, but was later moved to what is today Pyongyang in North Korea. In 108 bc, the Chinese Han Dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed the Four Commanderies of Han in the area of the northwestern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula, leaving many smaller kingdoms and confederacies in the southern and eastern parts of the peninsula. By 75 bc, three of those commanderies had fallen, but the Lelang Commandery remained as a center of cultural and economic exchange with successive Chinese dynasties until 313, when it fell to Goguryeo.
The Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje) dominated the peninsula and parts of Manchuria at beginning of the 1st century AD. They competed with each other both economically and militarily. Goguryeo united Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye and other states in the former Gojoseon territory. Goguryeo was the most dominant power; it reached its zenith in the 5th century, when reign of the Gwanggaeto the Great and his son, Jangsu expanded territory into almost all of Manchuria and part of inner Mongolia, and took the Seoul region from Baekje. Gwanggaeto and Jangsu subdued Baekje and Silla during their times. After the 7th century, Goguryeo was constantly at war with the Sui and Tang Dynasty dynasties of China. Founded around modern day Seoul, the southwestern kingdom Baekje expanded far beyond Pyongyang during the peak of its powers in the 4th century. It had absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as part of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government. Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through contacts with the Southern Dynasties during the expansion of its territory. Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language was strongly influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself. Although later records claim that Silla, in the southeast, was the oldest of the three kingdoms, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state, occupying and influencing nearby city states. Silla began to gain power when it annexed the Gaya confederacy in AD 562. The Gaya confederacy was located between Baekje and Silla. The three kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla often faced pressure from Baekje and Goguryeo but at various times Silla also allied with Baekje and Goguryeo in order to gain dominance over the peninsula. In 660, King Muyeol of Silla ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin (Gim Yu-sin), aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje. In 661, Silla and Tang moved on Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year.
The country Goryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. "Goryeo" is a short form of "Goguryeo" and the source of the English name "Korea". The dynasty lasted until 1392. During this period laws were codified, and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished, and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industry flourished in 12th and 13th century. The publication of Tripitaka Koreana onto 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world's first movable-metal-type printing press in 13th century attest to Goryeo's cultural achievements. Their dynasty was threatened by Mongol invasions from the 1230s into the 1270s, but the dynastic line continued to survive until 1392 since they negotiated a treaty with the Mongols that kept its sovereign power. n 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform a Goryeo government. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars.
In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) with a largely bloodless coup. He named it the Joseon Dynasty in honor of the previous Joseon before (Gojoseon is the first Joseon. "Go", meaning "old", was added to distinguish between the two).
King Taejo moved the capital to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. In 1394 he adopted Confucianism as the country's official religion, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy was Neo-Confucianism. Joseon experienced advances in science and culture. King Sejong the Great (1418–50) promulgated hangul, the Korean alphabet. The period saw various other cultural and technological advances as well as the dominance of neo-Confucianism over the entire peninsula. Slaves, nobi, are estimated to have accounted for about one third of the population of Joseon Korea. Between 1592 and 1598, the Japanese invaded Korea. Toyotomi Hideyoshi tried to invade the Asian continent through Korea, but was completely defeated by a Righteous army, Admiral Yi Sun-sin and assistance from Ming China. This war also saw the rise of the career of Admiral Yi Sun-sin with the "turtle ship". Japanese warriors brought back to Japan as war trophies an estimated 100,000–200,000 noses cut from Korean victims. In the 1620s and 1630s Joseon suffered invasions by the Manchu. After invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty. However, during the last years of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the name the "Hermit Kingdom", primarily for protection against Western imperialism before it was forced to open trade beginning an era leading into Japanese colonial rule.
Beginning in the 1871s, Japan began to force Korea out of the Manchu Qing Dynasty's traditional sphere of influence into its own. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), the Qing Dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (1897–1910). This brief period saw the partially successful modernisation of the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries, influenced by the political encroachment into Korea of Russia, Japan, France, and the United States. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on October 26, 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, Itō Hirobumi for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation.
In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin. There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes. Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military. The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia. Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939, and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan's military. Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died. Approximately 200,000 girls and women, mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named "comfort women". During the Japanese Colonial rule, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Sōshi-kaimei. Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed or taken to Japan. To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections. One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan. Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date this has not occurred. Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Liancourt Rocks, islets located east of the Korean Peninsula. There was a significant level of emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese colonial period, including Korea. By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea. After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan.
With the surrender of Japan in 1945 the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea. In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (1950–53) more than one million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities. The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line.
Division of Korea
The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic, was established in the north while the Republic of Korea, a Western-style regime, was established in the South. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remains divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states.
Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957 South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana, and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana's. North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a single-party state, now centred around Kim Il-sung's Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history. According to R.J. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987; others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone. Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008. Tensions continue to this day, but the political arena is a far more complicated one. Recently the U.S. has expressed concerns over North Korea's provocation of South Korea by carrying out shelling of the island of Yeonpyeong, which itself lies on a disputed sea border between the two countries.
Independence from South Korea
Won Jong-yul has claimed that Kangcho has authority over Hoenggando-gil and the islands that surrounds it by informing the Government of the Republic of Korea about the micronation's claim of independence. The date of the proclamation of the new state entity was 18 July. This claim was denied by the South Korean Authority, however, the Kangchonese government ignored South Korea's denial.
On 24 August 2014, Kangcho became annexed dependency of the Greater Beiwanese Empire. Kangcho was annexed by force under the Beiwanese government in order to expand the territory of Beiwan, Kangcho's defense forces where replaced with the Beiwanese Imperial Military and Police. Many human rights where creased during the Beiwanese rule, many of Kangchonese citizens where forcibly worn Chinese clothing to prove loyalty to Beiwan. On 13 September 2014, the Greater Beiwanese Empire collapsed, on the next day Kangcho became independent.
Establishment of the Empire of Choseon
On 14 September 2014, Emperor Jong-yul proclaimed the establishment of the Empire of Choseon, three days after the Empire's establishment, Jong-yul was enthroned as Emperor. By the constitution of the Empire of Choseon, it is a Constitutional monarchy under Authoritarian Single Party State.
Government and politics
|Houses||House of Peers|
House of Representatives
|Political groups||Conservative Party|
|Political groups||People's Alliance|
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Politics of Choseon|
|* Emperor Choi Yung-keun|
|*House of Councillors|
The politics of Choseon takes place in a Constitutional monarchy under Authoritarian Single Party State where the Emperor has very limited power. As also a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people." Power is also held chiefly by the Prime Minister and other elected members of the Joongchuwon, while sovereignty is vested in the people. Choseon's legislative organ is the Joongchuwon, a bicameral parliament. The Joongchuwon consists of a House of Representatives, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and a House of Peers, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. The Joongchuwon is dominated by the Conservative Party . The Prime Minister is the head of government and is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the Joongchuwon from among its members. The Prime Minister is also the head of the Cabinet, and he appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State. Although the Prime Minister is formally appointed by the Emperor, the Constitution of Choseon explicitly requires the Emperor to appoint whoever is designated by the Joongchuwon.
|House of Representatives||House of Peers|
|Conservative Party||CP||Collective leadership||right-wing||blue|
The Empire of Choseon is recognized by a few micronations, EOC maintains diplomatic relations with those countries, as well as unofficial relations with other countries via its representative offices and consulates.
- United Nations
- Republic of China
- Republic of Singapore
- Serene and Independent Principality of Tatsumiya
- Republic of St. John
- Federal Republic of Los Bay Petros
- Republic of Molossia
- Principality of Sealand
- Hutt River Province Principality
Choseon's military (the Imperial Choseonese Military) is restricted by the Constitution of Choseon, which renounces Choseon's right to declare war or use military force in intermicronational disputes. Accordingly the Imperial Self-Defence force is a usual military that has never fired shots outside Choseon. It is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Imperial Army (IA), the Imperial Navy (IN) and the Imperial Air Force (IAF).
Choseon has a total of 21 islands extending the Korea Strait. The mainland island is Hoenggando-gil, with all islands together; they are often known as the Choseonese Archipelago. About most of Choseon's landscape is mountainous, hilly, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use.
Choseon tends to have a humid continental climate and a humid subtropical climate, and is affected by the East Asian monsoon, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma (장마), which begins end of June through the end of July. Winters can be extremely cold with the minimum temperature dropping below −20 °C (−4 °F) in the inland Korea: the average January temperature range is −7 to 1 °C (19 to 34 °F), and the average August temperature range is 22 to 30 °C (72 to 86 °F). Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior. Summer can be uncomfortably hot and humid, with temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F). Choseon has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring usually lasts from late-March to early- May, summer from mid-May to early-September, autumn from mid-September to early-November, and winter from mid-November to mid-March. Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds and heavy rains.
|Climate data for Hanseong, Choseon|
|Average high °C (°F)||2
|Average low °C (°F)||-6
|Average Precipitation mm (inches)||20.8
|Source: Weather Channel|
The quick agriculture and services and growth of Choseon during the latter half of 2014 has been called the "Big Choseon Bang". The Empire of Choseon has a export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment.
| Choseonese Won |
|Coins||₩1, ₩5, ₩10, ₩50, ₩100, ₩500|
|Banknotes||₩1000, ₩5000, ₩10,000, ₩50,000|
|Central bank||Imperial Bank of Choseon|
The won (원) (sign: ₩; code: ECW) is the currency of Choseon. A single won is divided into 100 jeon, the monetary subunit. The jeon is no longer used for everyday transactions, and appears only in foreign exchange rates. The won is issued by the Imperial Bank of Choseon, based in the capital city, Hanseong.
A new central bank, the Bank of Choseon, was established in 2014, and assumed the duties of the former South Korean Bank of Joseon. Notes were introduced in denominations of 5, 10 and 50 jeon, 100 and 1000 won. 500 won notes were introduced in 2014. A series of banknotes was issued which, although it gave the denominations in English in won, were, in fact, the first issues of the hwan.
|This article is part of a series on the|
|* Public Health|
Choseon faces a number of important health-care issues. Foremost is the impact of environmental pollution on an increasingly urbanized population. According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare, chronic diseases account for the majority of diseases in Choseon, a condition exacerbated by the health care system's focus on treatment rather than prevention. Many Choseonese doctors encourages their patients to drink more healthy traditional Korean teas such as Omija hwachae (or Green teas) to keep healthy. Most Choseonese doctors uses ancient Korean medicines depending on the patients's illness.
Just under quarter of the Choseonese population expressed no religious preference. Of the rest, most are Confucian, Korean shamanism, Buddhist or Christian. The earliest religion practiced was the Korean shamanism. Today, freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitution. Confucianism, Korean shamanism and Buddhism are Choseon's largest religions, accounting for more than half of all Choseonese religious adherents.
Choseon shares its traditional culture with North Korea and South Korea. Historically, while the culture of Choseon has been heavily influenced by that of Korea neighboring China, it has nevertheless managed to develop a unique cultural identity that is distinct from its larger neighbor.
Choseonese art has been highly influenced by Buddhism and Confucianism, which can be seen in the many traditional paintings, sculptures, ceramics and the performing arts. The Choseonese tea ceremony, pansori, talchum and buchaechum are also notable Choseonese performing arts.
Choseonese cuisine, has evolved through centuries of social and political change. Ingredients and dishes vary by province. There are many significant regional dishes that have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day. The Choseonese court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Meals consumed both by the royal family and ordinary Korean citizens have been regulated by a unique culture of etiquette. Choseonese cuisine is largely based on rice, noodles, tofu, vegetables, fish and meats. Traditional Choseonese meals are noted for the number of side dishes, which accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice.