Nissiian language

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Nissiian
Niyīmal, Niyimēī malhwan
Native toKMV2.png United States of Mekniy
EthnicityMekniyans
Latin script (Nissiian alphabet)
Ssalba
Official status
Official language in
 Mekniy
Regulated byMekniyan National University of Nākal Hanunkx
SMSA 2004-1ns
SMSA 2004-2nsm
CSO 20A01-2ns_FE
CSO 20A01-3nsm_FE

Nissiian (in nissiian Niyīmal) is a Boyoheum languages semi-inflective language that is one of the official languages of the United States of Mekniy. It is one of the most advanced languages in Central European micronational space. The language is standardized by the Mekniyan National University of Nakāl Hanunkx.

History of Nissiian

Modern Nissian language is based on the new Nissian language, a language that dates back to protoboyoheum, a theoretical language that is ancestor to, in addition to Nissian, Radoslavic Jesenian. Praboyoheumian was referred as the language of proto-Mekniyans in the legend of Ojineo. The language was strongly related to Celtic languages. In the legend, the language is referred to as "mōdnumida", linguists assume that the word mōdnu comes from Korean 모듬 (modeum - mixed), the word "mida" was used to refer to proto-Mekniyans. The language was then separated from proto-Jesenian in approximately the 1st century AD. Further development meant the separation of the Niyi and Esagitiyeo branches, which, however, died out and was replaced by Niyi-Esagitiyeo branch. The new, Niyi-influenced, Esagitiye branch separated again later. The Niyi branch was divided into two sub-branches, the Tyormyar and Niyimyal (Thornian and Nissian). In modern times there are two languages in the esagitiyeo branch, lower and higher esagitian and three languages in the Nissian branch, Nissian, Thornian, Konissiian and Nissian-dialect Bobanian.

Origin

Nissian, as already mentioned, is based on the theoretical boyoheumian language. According to linguists fro the University of Nākal Hanunkx, the boyoheum language mōdnumida (sometimes written módejda in the Radoslavic context) was a Celtic language that could have been strongly influenced by the old Korean language, especially in the Ilbunila and Beurgila lands.

Celtic theory

The Celtic ground theory is based on the strong similarity of Nissian to today's insular Celtic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Manx, Breton, etc.). Linguists assume that when the retinue of Hanunkx arrived, Bohemia and Moravia were inhabited by the original inhabitants - Celts - Boii tribe. This could mean that today's Nissian, Jesenian, Loryngian, etc. can be direct descendants of the original Boii language. Also noteworthy is the similarity to Latin, which is related to Celtic languages.

English Jesenian Nissiian Thornian Gaulic* Welsh Scottish Gaelic Irish Latin Greek
friend komerád āmeiko ameiko caranđ ffrind caraid cara amicum fílos
horse ekvoj ejo / kahyain / marko ejho / kahain / mhalho epos ceffyl each capall equo álogo
white alpoj / kjikodoj alveo alwo abel gwyn alba bán alba lefkó
mother in law sejkús sveokxoru sobekoru - chwegr màthair-chèile máthair mo chéile socrus ekurā
beard parto bbarddo bardo grenon barf feusag féasóg barba geneiáda
one oiraj iino iinho oinos un aon ceann unum éna
two dvou deobo doboii dum dau dhà beirt duo dýo
three trejes teareyes trehes tri tri trì triúr tribus tría
four kodrijes cherabaes herabus petri pedwar ceithir ceathrar quattuor téssera
power galraj galno / kūbeao galnho galno pwer cumhachd cumhacht imperium ischýos
fish harujoruj pisteukiseoyeot pisoho ēscos pysqodyn iasg iasc piscis psária
teeth zupen lintinnae / dantinnae lintisoho / dantisoho dant dannedd fiaclan fiacla dentes dóntia
milk glakti galaktū / molgea hapakti melgos llaeth bainne bainne lactis gála
house dáraj dol dohol tigern ty taigh teach domum spíti
lip ćilnán kxelgyeu kelghu - gwefus bile liopa labia cheíli
* dead language

Phonology

Ejivoyo - vowels

Standard (standard) Nissiian distinguishes between 15 + 3 basic vowel phonemes, 4 diphthongs and 8 glottalized diphthongs. These sounds include:

  • Vowels: a, e, i, o, u, ea, ae, eo, eu
  • Long vowels: ā, ē, ī, ō, ū
  • Soft (patalized) vowels: yae (ye), yeo, yeu
  • Diphthongs: ai, ei, ao, oa (today replaced by hwa)
  • Glotalized diphthongs: aa, ee (aee), ii, oo (eoo), uu (euu)

In closed vowels (e, o, u), the form of voices is often applied in ordinary speech, where closed vowels are pronounced openly (eg the word jon - jeon, du pessae kloreuNi - deu paessae kleoreuNi). In modern Nissian, glottalized diphthongs, which are pronounced unglotalized with an accent, also undergo assimilation. Glotalized pronunciation is required in Sacred Nissian.

Pxangavoyo - consonants

In modern standard Nissian, consonants are divided into the so-called ssalmeol (table of characters). Each line corresponds to the phonological attributes of the given phoneme.

Ssalmeol
px tx kx
p t k pp tt kk
b d g bb dd gg
m n ng mm nn
s c h ss cc
sh ch j
sx cx x
r l y rr ll yy
rh v hw vv

Ssalmeol roughly resembles the classical division of vowels used by linguists.

Location of Nissiian pxangavoyo in the IPA table
Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Patalal Velar Labio-velar Glottal
Nasal m n ng
Plosive aspirated px tx kx
voiceless p t k ea
voiced b d g
Affricate aspirated cx
voiceless c ch
voiced j
Fricative aspirated sx
voiceless s sh x
voiced v (ss) h
Vibrant standard r
fricative rh
Approximant l y hw

Ortography

Nissian is officially written in the Nissian alphabet (alpabaeta, formerly ababeba). It is written in ssalba in traditional and spiritual documents, some states (Niyi, Esagitia) still use ssalba.

Alphabet Pronounciation Couplings Pronounciation Diacritics
A ah / bAth Ae eh / mEn Ā
B b / Bob Eo oh / lOch Ē
C ts / leTS Eu u / nEW Ī
D d / Do Yae yeh Ō
E eh / Eleanor Yeo yoh Ū
(F)

Not used

p / Pass Yeu yuh
G g / George Sh sh
H h / y / Honey / Yes Sx aspirated sh
I i / mE Ch ch / muCH
J j / Jain Cx aspirated ch
K k / looK Ss z
L l / Look Hw wh / WHite in Texan dialect
M m / Me Rh Czech Ř
N n / Noon Px aspirated P
O o / mÜsli Tx aspirated T
P p / Place Kx aspirated K
R r / single tap R
S s / See
T t / Took
U u / mOOn
V v / Vent
(W)

Only in Hw

w
X kh / loCH
Y y / You
Ʌ uh / UH oh

Two Nissiian orthographies

Nowadays, Nissian is written in two ways, an old orthography (gerleuNi eokxeivaeNun / ē gerlūī Eokxaeivaen) and a reformed new orthography that seeks to capture Nissian as it is spoken (ē shieobōī Eokxeivaen). Officially, only the old orthography is used, the movement ma hwanida merōī N ad Antōn (I want a simple N at the end) is trying to enforce a reformed orthography next to the old one, which corresponds to the notation of ssalba.

New orthography often brings the use of more accents, such as dots above and below letters and the reduction of graphemes.

Grammar

Nissiian is a semi-inflected language (partly flective) that expresses sentence structure through flexion and many conjunctions. Its syntax is partly reminiscent of, for example, German, or a close language, Irish. The word order is similar to Czech.

Word order

The word order of Nissian is, similarly to Czech, free. Nissian is a so-called pro-drop language, which means that in a sentence it is enough to be just a verb, another sense clarifies the prefixes and suffixes of the verb.

  • Mānnnoseon ākgyeuixan mēmsōmeun - The man ate meat
  • Mānnnoseon mēmsōmeun ākgyeuixan - The man ate meat (man meat ate)
  • Mēmsōmeun ākgyeuixan mānnnoseon - The man ate meat (the meat was eaten by a man)
  • Mēmsōmeun mānnnoseon ākgyeuixan - The man ate meat (meat man ate)
  • Ākgyeuixan mēmsōmeun mānnnoseon - The man ate meat (ate meat man)
  • Ākgyeuixan mānnnoseon mēmsōmeun - The man ate meat (ate man meat)
  • Ākgyeuixan mānnnoseon mēmsōmeun? - Did the man eat meat?


Nissian hwanida-kii onda-tti daekvvang-eun yoddei Suvulin leiyae-kau
Gloss want-3.PL to visit-INF university-SG.NOM where Suvulin go-3.SG
English I want to visit the university, that Suvulin attends

Word types

Nissian distinguishes 10 word types,

  • flective
    • inflect - noun (ē nyaaneul), pronoun (ē kxonol)
    • inflecting and escalating - adjectives (ē boonyaaneul)
    • tense - verbs (ē kosemidal)
  • non-flective – numerals (ē aritōl), adverbs (kxahyessal), prepositions (antīmidal), conjunctions (ē seryemidal), particles (prsiyaetōmeul) and interjections (eoxesoyael)

Noun gender

Nissian distinguishes two genders, masculine (hard, kreumli) and feminine (soft, nyaeli), the middle gender occurs only in pronouns. The genus can be recognized by the last vowel of the root, in the case of a vowel it is feminine, on the contrary it is masculine, ie: shilo - feminine, ddēmon - masculine, etc. The gender in Nissian is not very important, as it is in Czech, for example.

Inflection

Nissian distinguishes 4 noun cases, nominative, genitive, dative and vocative, which are used in the declension of nouns, pronouns and, in part, adjectives. The basic form of names is the nominative of the singular number, in rare cases the basic form can also be the root.

Skloňování podstatných jmen
Number Case Feminine Masculine Feminine own name Masculine own name Noun case question Kxeoda Old

ortography

New

ortography

*shilo (water) *jinā (woman) *polisoyeot (town) *ddēmon (faith) *Shinsegye (Mekniy) *Voijin (Christopher)
Singular Nominative shilon jinān polisoyeoteun ddēmoneun Shinsegye Voijin kxan? pxiseon? Nun / Eun n / eun
Genitive shilēī jinānēī polisoyeotēī polisoyēī ddēmonēī ddēmēī Shinsegyeēī Shinsegyēī Voijinēī ineu kxanēī? Ei ēī
Dative amShilo anJinā anPolisoyeot anDdēmon AmShinsegye AnVoijin amKxa? amPxiseo? am am
Vokative (standard) shilonim jinānim polisoyeotim ddēmonim Shinsegyenim Voijinim kxahyeon kxanim? Nim nim / im
Vokativ (sacred) ō shilo ō jinā ō polisoyeot ō ddēmon ō Shinsegye ō Voijin kxahyeon ō kxa? ō / ooh ō
Plural Nominative shilol jināl polisoyeoteul ddēmoneul Shinsegyeē Voijinē kxal? pxiseol? Lul / Eul l / eul
Genitive shilēī jinānēī polisoyeotēī polisoyēī ddēmonēī ddēmēī Shinsegyeēī Shinsegyēī Voijinēī ineu kxanēī? Ei ēī
Dative amShilo anJinā anPolisoyeot anDdēmon AmShinsegye AnVoijin amKxa? amPxiseo? am am
Vokative (standard) shilonai jinānai polisoyeotai ddēmonai Shinsegyenai Voijinai kxahyeon kxanai? Ai ai
Vokativ (sacred) ō shilo ō jinā ō polisoyeot ō ddēmon ō Shinsegye ō Voijin kxahyae ō kxa? ō / ooh ō
Declension of pronouns
Number Noun case Personal pronouns
1st person 2nd person 3rd person
I You He She It
Singular Nominative ma du kreos nyaes nney
Genitive maa sēobio noli nēī
Dative me du nneyden nneyna nney
Vokative (sacred) ō daema ō du ō kreos ō nyaes ō nney
Plural Nominative inbae du sa
Genitive insereu sa
Dative asx du ney

Verbs and verb tenses

Nissian verbs express 3 tenses: past, present and future. The infinitive consists of the ending -tt

English Past tense Present Future tense
I bear pxaermitteg p'ermiteg pxaermitt p'ermit pxaermittai p'ermitaj
You bear pxaermaepot p'ermepot pxaermesi p'ermeš pxaermaepii p'ermepi
He, She, It bears pxaermaexan p'ermechan pxaermekau p'ermekau pxaermexoīī p'ermechojí
We bear pxaerminneg p'ermineg pxaerminn p'ermin pxaerminnai p'erminaj
You (all) bear pxaermaebod p'ermebod pxaermete p'ermete pxaermaebii p'ermebi
They bear pxaermaexen p'ermechen pxaermekii p'ermekí pxaermexoīī p'ermechojí

Examples of words

Numerals

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 25 100 0
iino deobo teare chera pinpxe sēk seshaa oktya shieobin dekaa deobata deobatapinpxe kasseoso / seot nura

Days and months

Czech Nissiian Ssalba Origin
January Kxeiman 二丿丨亍卜눈 From the word kxeimea - winter
February Jerssean 人丿己孖丶눈 From the word jervve - to shout
March Caatinen 又不刀丨昍厶눈 From the word yyoreu, formerly caricireu - fresh
April Apxrīlean 卜汀己亻乚丶눈 From the word April
May Māyeun 亍卞大눈 From the word may
June Derkxean 久丿己二丶눈 From the word derkxeuae - to obtain
July Dessilan 久丿孖丨乚卜눈 From the Esagitian word desre - burn
August Sxīsan 孓亻了卜눈 From the word shisai - shisai harvested herbs
September Lēkesseon 乚厂丰丿孖中눈 From the Tiornian word lekehoku - lazy
October Kōssesseon 丰回孖丿了中눈 From the word koseka - work
November Nyeonesseon 日丫日丿孖中눈 From the word svnyeo essea - celebration of pigs
December Noyīsseon 日囗大亻孖中눈 From the word noyī essea - Christmas celebration
Czech Nissiian Ssalba Origin
Monday Honan 刂囗日卜눈 Formerly byona - the beginning
Tuesday Dileun 久丨乚눈 is not known
Wednesday Shipekean 子丨斗丿丰丶눈 From the word shipxinalleo - an endless week
Thursday Nokin 日囗丰丨눈 is not known
Friday Norisoyeon 日囗己丨了囗丫눈 Norisoyeo holiday celebration
Saturday Sabeuteun 了卜丁幵刀눈 Sabbath celebration
Sunday Idilan 丨久丨乚卜눈 Formerly ideula - from the word teuryae - beginning

Example text

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Nissiian ara galmmaLul bae nguoteu lēudderoNun i someuNi ineul pxelloNun i dekeuteroNiSeamnida.  sa baeSe dekersoShea kaati rtinnaeNun i kōmvisoyeoteutinnaeNun i omseo mojiNun ineul baNun ovvae brotearianEunSeamnida.
English All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

From HaeriNim PotearNim i vikkoGalNi praahnaNun (Harry Potter and Sorcerers Stone)

gd. i gn. DursleyNim, ka bae oneul aritō chereabaeNun, Privet Drive, bae borsoNi oneul koMal sa bae nohmalNi, daeMyonSeamnida. sa bae ōpitoNi galLul du baeSheaae koBealpyae ssae ineul koPxisoyeot minseoNi atta pxalNi, atta sa siBae minseoNiSeamnida. gd. DursleyNim baeSheaae namulGal oneul siyeaNun on solemaNun GrunningsNim, ka kosega oneul lhyokaflleoLulSeamnida. nneyDen bae metNi, myoyunaDenNi gd. siKaati monhwaNun, ita nneyDen habu daeMetNi norhisoyeotbardōNunSeamnida. gn. DursleyNim baeSheaae kerkyae i flaehokxūtoNi i habuSheaae shisso taNi monhwaNun miit yeareabeanNun, ka baeSheaae oneul nneyNa baeSheaae nadahkxeusyae oneul kxortoNi seopisoyeotLulSeamnida. DursleyNimNi ukxlidNun habu ketNi i laoNi putuGal oneul solemaNun on DudleyNim i sa shintea oneul nneyDen baeSheaae daeHadanNi putuGal oneul maeulaNunSeamnida. DursleyNimNi ukxlidNun habu aruiyoLul on sa hwanaSheaae, atta sa habu i ronoNun, i saNi daePibeaaNun baeSheaae on keapopxodGal baeSheaae onhwana soleNunSeamnida. sa siShintea dora oneul keapopxodGal onhwana oneul PotearNimLulSeamnida. gn. PotearNim baeSheaae gn. DursleyNimNi sveosyaerGn., atta sa siEokyaeSheaae oneul totyeo nyeonLul, fakeatNi, gn. DursleyNim todora oneul nneyNa siHabu sveosyaerGn., yod pxiyo nneyNi sveosyaerGn. i nneyNi hadaninadahNi ukxlidGd. siBae „DursleyNimNi“ oneul sa hwanaSeamnida. DursleyNimNi ukxlidNun bae daeOkxarNi oneul shinteaiyoNun ovvae PotearLul ingneumi oneul ūtiikxeaNunSeamnida. ka shirhāiteriGalLul baeJuae shintea oneul PotearNimNi ingneumiNunSeamnida. 1 DursleyNimLul hwana oneul metNi pūtu ovvae PotearNimLul ka solemaNun bae HaeriNim, DursleyNimLul siDeaktinnae oneul nneyDen shipxomSeamnida. soleNi pūtuGal baeSheaae hadanNi rtinnaeNun oneul nnaekxeuae on PotearNimLul yyocomi, sa siHwana on modeum kaati soleNi minseoNi pūtuDenGalSeamnida. kaYor gd. i gn. DursleyNimLul boddeyae oneul kachoNi deobosalNun asNi kleuteasNun onbae, totearyaed baeSheaae nada oneul soleNi minseoNi salyoNun ineul hwagesGugSeamnida. gd. DursleyNim gukka on nneyNi eobolea oneul tayNun, ka siBae bilisoyeotNi on kosegaNun, i gn. DursleyNimNa kadssae oneul DudleyNim on nneyDenNi ateusedloNunSeamnida. nyaeinoGal ongeanoba on ketNi kāeobonoNya myaeko oneul loēkoNunSeamnida. oneul oktyaisēmiYor, gd. DursleyNim lesyae nneyNi portoyaeNun, subiyeo oneul gn. DursleyNim oneul nneyNi inīpxoNun i numāi oneul subiyeo on DudleyNim, atta nneyDen gyeu shi, atta DudleyNim habu shisotinnaeNun i cele oneul cerealiyeoLul dea mokesyeoLul. „smeruNi pūtuGal“, domal gd. DursleyNim oneul nneyDen eokeuvae oneul dolNunSeamnida. nneyDen hwageu on nneyNi seumNun i eokeuvae on aritō cheareabaeNunSeamnida. nney baeSheaae oneul pxeisoyeoteutinnaeNun ovvae ūtiikxeaNun, oseo nneyDen dekaye kaetNya ka bae eoryeolea ineul mappōNunSeamnida. on saekeondNun, gd. DursleyNim siHana pxo nneyDen dekayeSheaae, oseo nneyDen ssaeyeapmin oneul nneyNi kxefoNun on dekaye oneulSeamnida. otearyaed baeSheaae minseoNi kaetNya sīūoseoi on ūtiikxeaNun dea Privet Drive, atta nneyNa siHabu mappōNunSeamnida. gd. DursleyNim eobami i ūtelpyae oneul kaetNunSeamnida. nney ūtelpyaeSheaae retearyaedSeamnida. pxom gd. DursleyNim seumSheaae ambī ūtiikxeaNun, nneyDen dekayae oneul kaetNya ineul seopxyaeNunSeamnida. nney baeSheaae opxmal on nolituNun dea Privet Drive, shiyo, dekayae oneul nolituNun, kaetNyaLul siHana ka opxmal oneul nolituLul i mappōLulSeamnida. gd. DursleyNim kxeibbayae i siShintea oneul kaetNyaSeamnida. pxom nneyDen seumSheaae anta kamiNun, nneyDen shintea on shiiyoNun, atta lhyokafflleoLulSeamnida.


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