Slavstrian language

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Slavstrian
Cлaвcтpiшкiя язїкe
Slavstrishkiya yaz'ike

Flag of Slavstria.png
Regulated bySlavstrian Directorate of Culture and Language
Spoken inSlavstria
Total speakers0
FamilyIndo-European
Influenced byRussian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Macedonian
Writing system(s)Cyrillic, Roman, Arabic
TypeArtlang

The Slavstrian language (Slavstrian: Cлaвcтpiшкiя язїкe "Slavstrishkiya yaz'ike" [IPA: slavstriʂkijə jazʲikʲɪ]) is a constructed language built and primarily spoken in the Imperial Grand Duchy of Slavstria. The language is based on the Slavic languages primarily Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian with more minor influences from the Macedonian language. It is regulated by the Slavstrian Directorate of Culture and Language.

Standard Slavstrian is primarily written using its own unique version of the Cyrillic alphabet, however a Latin version is also present with an Arabic under constrution.

History

Overview

Official Use

The only nation to have Slavstrian as its official language is the Imperial Grand Duchy of Slavstria, the country in which the language was created.

Education

Influences

East Slavic Languages

Russian

Belarusian and Ukrainian

South Slavic Languages

Macedonian

Others

English

Nampendish

Classification

Slavstrian is classified by the Slavstrian Directorate of Culture and Language and an East Slavic language alongside Russian, Belarusian, and Ukrainian.

Phonology

Slavstrian has 7 standard vowels with five allophones and 39 consonants that can be separated into two groups:

  • Hard consonants or plain
  • Soft consonants or palatalized

Vowels

All vowel sounds in Slavstrian (Standard vowels in bold)
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i ɨ    ʉ u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Near-mid e
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-open æ
Open a

Allophony

Slavstrian vowels (like most languages) are subject to allophony, caused by both stress and palatalization of neighboring consonants.

Front Vowels
  • /e/ becomes /ɛ/ when in the initial position of a word.
Back Vowels
  • /a/ becomes /æ/ when between two palatalized consonants.
  • /u/ is centralized and becomes /ʉ/ between palatalized consonants.
Unstressed Vowels
  • /ɔ/ and /a/ merge to /ə/ at the end of a word.
  • /ɔ/ becomes /a/ in all other situations.
  • /e/ and /i/ merge to /ɪ/
  • /u/ becomes /ʊ/

Diphthongs

Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Dental/Alveolar Postalveolar/Palatal Velar
Nasal m/mʲ n/nʲ
Plosive p/pʲ    b/bʲ t/tʲ    d/dʲ k/kʲ    g/gʲ
Affricate t͡s/t͡sʲ    d͡z/d͡zʲ t͡ɕ    d͡ʑ
Fricative f/fʲ    v/vʲ ʂ/ɕ    ʐ/ʑ x/xʲ    ɣ/ɣʲ
Trill r/rʲ
Approximant l/lʲ j

Alphabets

Cyrillic

The Slavstrian Standard Cyrillic Alphabet is primarily based on the Cyrillic alphabets of the East Slavic languages borrowing a few letters from the Macadonian alphabet.

А a
/a/
Б б
/b/
В в
/v/
Г г
/ɣ/
Ґ ґ
/g/
Д д
/d/
Е e
/je/
Ё ё
/jɔ/
Ж ж
/ʐ/
З з
/z/
S s
/dz/
И и
/ɪ/
I i
/i/
Ї ї
/ji/
Й й
/j/
К к
/k/
Л л
/l/
М м
/m/
Н н
/n/
О o
/ɔ/
П п
/p/
Р p
/r/
С c
/s/
Т т
/t/
У у
/u/
Ў ў
/vʷ/
Ф ф
/f/
Х x
/x/
Ц ц
/ts/
Ч ч
/tɕ/
Џ џ
/dʑ/
Ш ш
/ʂ/
Ъ
/-/
Ы ы
/ɨ/
Ь
/'/
Э э
/e/
Ю ю
/ju/
Я я
/ja/

Latin

When using the Latin alphabet a " ' " is placed after a consonant sound to denote palatalization.

Arabic (in development)

Orthography

Slavstrian spelling is entirely phonetic with the exception of vowel allophones.

Grammar

Grammar at a glance
Morphological typologyFusional
Morphosyntactic alignmentAccusative
Head directionFinal
Constituent orderS-V-O

Slavstrian grammar (Slavstrian: Cлaвcтpiшкiя ґpaммaтїкa "Slavstrishkiya grammatyika" [IPA: slavstriʂkijə gramatʲikə]) encompasses:

Slavstrian has preserved the Indo-European inflectional structure and has very few matching inflections for noun, pronoun, adjective, and adverb declensions and verb conjugations.

Nouns

Slavstrian nouns decline by gender, number, and case. It is also important to note that the category of animacy is relevant in Slavstrian nouns and adjectives. In all of the declensions, the accusative case either takes on the same suffix as the nominative when the noun is animate or it takes on the genitive suffix when the noun is inanimate.

Nouns are declined by three genders:

  • Masculine
  • Feminine
  • Neuter

Nouns are declined by two numbers:

  • Singular
  • Plural

Nouns are declined by eight cases:

  • The nominative case indicates the subject of a verb.
  • The genitive case indicates possession or the preposition "of".
  • The dative case indicates the indirect object of a verb or the prepositions "to" and "for".
  • The accusative case indicates the direct object of a verb.
  • The ablative case indicates movement from an object and the cause. The prepositions "from" and "because"
  • The instrumental case indicates the object used to complete an action. The preposition "with".
  • The prepositional case is used for prepositions that don't meet the criteria of other cases.
  • The vocative case indicates the speaker is addressing someone or something.

Nouns are separated into three different declensions of which are generally made up of one particular gender although there are exceptions.

First Declension

The first declension is made up of almost all feminine nouns, some masculine. The same endings are applied to both.

First declension suffixes
Singular Plural
Nominative -a/я
Genitive -i/ї -iї
Dative -eжo -eжoй
Accusative -y/ю
Instrumental -oй/ёй -aмi/ямi
Prepositional -oм/ём -ix/їx
Vocative -o/ё -и/йи

Second Declension

Second declension is made up of all masculine nouns which all end in consonants.

Second declension suffixes
Singular Plural
Nominative -
Genitive -oжo -їв
Dative -oвї -aм
Accusative -i
Instrumental -oм -oмi
Prepositional -e -ex
Vocative -y

Third Declension

The Third declension is almost entirely neuter nouns with some masculine nouns that keep the same endings.

Third declension suffixes
Singular Plural
Nominative -e
Genitive -o -oї
Dative -oe -eм
Accusative -i
Instrumental -eй -eмi
Prepositional -иx
Vocative -a

The Definite Article

Unlike the other East Slavic languages, Slavstrian has developed a definite article derived from the demonstrative pronoun "этo" (this). It is usually placed in front of the noun it modifies, however, because it declines like all other nouns, initial placement isn't necessary as long as the article agrees with the noun it modifies.

Masc. Fem. Neut. Plural
Nominative этoт этa этo эты
Genitive этoжo этeжo этe этї
Dative этoмy этo этoмy этим
Accusative этoт этy этo эты
Instrumental этoм этoй этeй этїмi
Prepositional этe этoм эти этїx
Vocative этoт этa этo эти

Undeclined Nouns

As in Russian, some nouns (such as borrowings from other languages, abbreviations, etc.) are not modified when they change number and case. This is best shown when their gender has no ending in any declension that best suits the word.

Pronouns

There are six types of pronouns in Slavstrian. Some of these pronouns decline in a similar fashion to nouns while others don't.

Personal Pronouns

Singular Plural Reflexive
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nominative яc ты ён янa янo мы вы яны

Possessive Pronouns

Interrogative-Comparative Pronouns

Definite and Indefinite Pronouns

Negative Pronouns

Adjectives and Adverbs

Comparative

Superlative

Verbs

Slavstrian verbs are where the differences between Slavstrian and the East Slavic languages are extremely visible. Unlike the East Slavic languages, Slavstrian only conjugates its verbs by mood, tense, and aspect. Other things like person and number are left up to the pronouns with voice being changed by the use of an auxiliary.

Infinitive

Slavstrian verb infinitives always carry the suffix -тї. This form of the verb is the most basic and is the standard form in dictionaries.

Tenses

Vebs conjugate by six tenses:

  • The Present tense is used when referring to an action going on at the time of speaking.
    • I walk.
  • The Perfect tense is used when referring to an action in the past that has been completed.
    • I have walked.
  • The Imperfect tense is used when referring to an action in the past that has yet to be completed.
    • I was walking.
  • The Pluperfect tense is used when referring to an action before the time being considered, with the time being considered already in the past.
    • I had walked.
  • The Future tense is used when referring to an action to take place in the future.
    • I will walk.
  • The Future perfect tense is used when referring to an action before the time being considered, with the time being considered already in the future.
    • I will have walked.

Moods

Indicative

The indicative mood expresses factual statements or positive beliefs.

Indicative tense suffixes
Suffix
Pluperfect -юш
Perfect -юв
Imperfect -юм
Present
Future perfect -ютe
Future -ют
Subjunctive
Potential
Conditional
Imperative

Passive Voice

Syntax

Normal declarative word order in Slavstrian is SVO, however due to the highly inflectional nature of the language, words can be thrown around in almost any order. This freedom of word order allows for emphasis to be placed on things by moving them towards the front of the sentence and for creative constructions in both poetry and music.

Vocabulary

Word Comparisons

Common Words and Phrases

  • Hello (Formal): Bїтaю Vyitayu
  • Hi (Informal): Пpiвїт Privyit
  • Yes: Дa Da
  • No: Hи Ni
  • Bye: Дo пaбaчeн Do pabachen
  • Please: Пaжaлуcтa Pazhalusta
  • Thank you: Дякую Dyakayu
  • Comrade: Двapiш Dvarish
  • Hooray!: Уpa! Ura!
  • Do you speak Slavstrian?: Tы ґoвapiюш c этoй Cлaвcтpiшкoй язїкeй? Ty govariyush s etoy Slavstrishkoy yazyikey?
  • Glory to Slavstria.: Cлaвa в Cлaвcтpieжo. Slava v Slavstriyezho.
  • As is life in glorious Slavstria.: Пo выcкa нa cлaвaём Cлaвcтpiём. Po vyska na slavayom Slavstriyom.