State of Central Kalimantan

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State of Nooria


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State Flag

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State Song:
Ya Prophet Salam Alaik
Nur i les im (Ajnifayir)
The Light of Gems
Country Republic of Indonesia

Capital WAK Palangkaraya
Biggest City File:Sampit Flag.png Sampit City
Official language English, Arabic
Governor Abdul Nur Jafar
Prime Minister Ibrahim Afiq Razaq

Total 157,983 km2 (60,998 sq mi)

Population 12,202,599 (2020)

Currency New Rupiah (Rb.)

Time Zone UTC+7

Course Direction Left

Phone Code +62

Date Format Georgian calendar, Hijri calendar

Central Kalimantan is one of the provinces in Indonesia which is located on the island of Kalimantan. The capital is Palangka Raya City. Central Kalimantan has an area of 157,983 km² and a population of about 2,202,599 people, consisting of 1,147,878 men and 1,054,721 women (results Indonesian Population Census 2010).

The province has 13 districts and 1 municipality.


According to the legend Dayak tribe originating from Panaturan Tetek Tatum written by Tjilik Riwut tells the story of the first person who occupied the earth or set foot in Kalimantan was Raja Bunu.[1] In the 14th century Maharaja Suryanata, the governor of Majapahit ruled in The Kingdom of Negara Dipa (Amuntai) which is centered in The Great Temple with its mandala area from Tanjung Silat to Tanjung Puting with areas called Sakai, namely the Barito, Tabalong, Balangan river areas , Pitap, Alai, Amandit, Labuan Amas, Little Biaju (Kapuas-Murung), Big Biaju (Kahayan), Sebangau, Mendawai, Katingan, Sampit and Pembuang with their respective regional heads called Mantri Sakai ( Head of District), while the Kotawaringin area at that time was a separate kingdom.[2] The Kingdom of Negara Dipa was continued by Kingdom of Negara Daha with its first king Miharaja Sari Babunangan Unro [miharaja= maharaja ]. The king had brought one of his sons named Raden Sira Panji alias Uria Gadung [Uria= Aria] to hold the territorial power of Dusun Land [or Barito Raya] located in JAAR – SANGGARWASI.[3]

In the 16th century, Central Kalimantan was still included in the mandala region Banjar Sultanate, the successor of the Daha State which had moved the capital toe downstream of the Barito river, precisely in Banjarmasin, with its mandala area expanding to cover areas from Tanjung Sambar to Tanjung Aru. In the 16th century, reigned Raja Maruhum Panambahan whose wife was ’Nyai Siti Biang Lawai, a Dayak princess, daughter of Patih Rumbih from Biaju. Biaju soldiers were often involved in revolutions at the Banjar palace, even with the act of cutting off their heads (ngayau) for example, Nyai Biang Lawai's younger brother named Panglima Sorang who was given the title Nanang Sarang helped King Maruhum crush the children's rebellion Kiai In Podok. In addition, the Biaju people (as Dayaks in ancient times) had also helped Prince Dipati Anom (2nd) to seize the throne from Sultan Ri'ayatullah. King Maruhum assigned Dipati Ngganding to rule in the land of Kotawaringin. Dipati Ngganding was succeeded by his son-in-law, namely Prince Dipati Anta-Kasuma the son of King Maruhum as the first Kotawaringin king with the title Queen of Waringin. Prince Dipati Anta-Kasuma is the husband of Andin Juluk bint Dipati Ngganding and Nyai Tapu binti Mantri Kahayan. In Kotawaringin Prince Dipati Anta-Kasuma married a local woman and had children, namely Prince Amas and Princess Lanting.[2] Prince Amas, who holds the title Ratu Amas, became king of Kotawaringin, his successor continued until The current King of Kotawaringin, namely Prince Ratu Alidin Sukma Alamsyah. Kotawaringin's first contract with the Dutch VOC occurred in 1637.[4] According to the Radermacher report, in 1780 there were Indigenous governments such as Kyai Ingebai Suradi Raya, the head of the Mendawai region, Kyai Ingebai Sudi Ratu, the head of the Sampit region, Raden Jaya, the head of the Pembuang area and the Kotawaringin kingdom with a king with the title Queen Kota Ringin[5]

Based on the treaty 13 August 1787, Sultan Batu from Banjarmasin ceded areas in Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, parts of West Kalimantan and parts of South Kalimantan (including Banjarmasin) to the VOC , while Banjar Sultanate itself with its remaining territory along the Kuin Utara area, Martapura, Hulu Sungai to Pantai District, Sihoeng District and Mengkatip became a VOC protectorate area, the Netherlands. On 4 May 1826 Sultan Adam al-Watsiq Billah of Banjar reaffirmed the surrender of Central Kalimantan and other areas to the Dutch East Indies colonial administration. The de facto interior areas of Central Kalimantan were subject to the Dutch East Indies since the Tumbang Anoi Agreement in 1894. Furthermore, the regional heads in Central Kalimantan were under the Dutch East Indies.[6] Around 1850, the Dusun Land area (Barito Raya) was divided into several administrative regions, namely: Kiaij Martipatie, Moeroeng Sikamat, Dermawijaija, Kiaij Dermapatie, Ihanjah and Mankatip.[7][8]

Since 1845, the Dutch East Indies made a government structure for the zuid-ooster-afdeeling van Borneo area [covering the area Kahayan river, Kapuas Murung river, Barito river, Negara river and Tanah Laut] besides the Resident there is also Rijksbestierder alias Head of Government Prince Ratoe Anom Mangkoeboemi Kentjana. Within the government hierarchy are the names of Dayak chiefs such as Tumenggung Surapati and Toemenggoeng Nicodemus Djaija Negara.[9]

Based on the Staatsblad van Nederlandisch Indië in 1849, the areas in this region are included in the zuid-ooster-afdeeling according to Bêsluit van den Minister van Staat, Gouverneur-General van Nederlandsch-Indie, dated 27 August 1849, No. 8.[10] Regions in Central Kalimantan are classified as dependent states and districts within the Banjar Sultanate.[11]

Before the XIV century, the area of Central Kalimantan was an area that was still pure, there were no immigrants from other areas. At that time, the only means of transportation was a boat. In 1350 the Hindu kingdom began to enter the Kotawaringin area. In 1365, the Hindu Kingdom could be controlled by the Majapahit Kingdom. Several tribal chiefs were appointed Ministers of the Kingdom.

In 1520, when the coast in southern Kalimantan was controlled by the Demak Sultanate, Islam began to develop in Kotawaringin. In 1615 the Sultanate of Banjar founded the Kingdom of Kotawaringin, which covered the coast of Central Kalimantan. These areas are: Sampit, Mendawai, and Disposal. Meanwhile, other regions remain free to autonomously carry out Dayak-Kaharingan customary law, led directly by tribal chiefs, many of whom even withdrew into the interior. In Pematang Sawang, Kupang Island, near Kapuas, Bataguh City, there was a great war. A Dayak woman named Nyai UU played a role in the war. Nyai UU was accompanied by valiant knights, including Tambun, Bungai, Andin Sindai, and Tawala Rawa Raca. Later the name of the valiant hero Tambun Bungai became the name of the XI Tambun Bungai Military Command, Central Kalimantan.

In 1787, with the agreement between the Sultan of Banjar and the VOC, the area of Central Kalimantan, even almost the entire area, was controlled by the VOC. Around 1835 Christian missionaries began to work freely in southern Kalimantan. On 26 June 1835, Barnstein, the first evangelist of Borneo arrived and began to spread Christianity in Banjarmasin. The local Dutch East Indies government even hindered missionary efforts[12] On May 1, 1859 the Dutch East Indies government opened a port in Sampit.[13]

In 1917, the colonial government began to appoint local people to become government officials, with direct supervision by the colonizers themselves. Since the nineteenth century, the colonizers began to carry out expeditions into the interior of Borneo with the aim of strengthening their position. However, the indigenous population is not easily influenced and controlled. Resistance to the invaders they did until the twentieth century. Frontal resistance, ended in 1905, after Sultan Mohamad Seman died as the kusuma of the nation ini Sungai Menawing and buried in Puruk Cahu.

In 1835, Protestant Christianity began to enter the interior. Until the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, August 17, 1945, the colonialists were not able to control Kalimantan as a whole. The natives persisted and fought back. In August 1935 there was a battle between the Punan Dayak tribe, namely Oot Marikit, and the colonialists. The battle ended with peace in Sampit between Oot Marikit and his son-in-law Pangenan or Panganon with the Dutch government.

According to Hermogenes Ugang, in the 17th century, a Roman Catholic missionary named Antonio Ventimiglia came to Banjarmasin. With his persistent struggle and perseverance to and fro across the big rivers in Kalimantan in a boat equipped with an altar to sacrifice the Mass, he succeeded in baptizing three thousand Ngaju people into Catholicism. His work was centered in the upstream area of Kapuas (Manusup) and the influence of his work was felt in the Bukit area. However, on the orders of Sultan Banjarmasin, Father Antonius Ventimiglia was later killed. The reason for the murder was because Father Ventimiglia loved the Ngaju people very much, while at that time the Ngaju people had an unfavorable relationship with Sultan Surya Alam/Tahliluulah, because the Biaju (Ngaju) people supported Gusti Ranuwijaya, the ruler of the Dusun Land and his rival Sultan Surya Alam/Tahlilullah pepper trading.[14] With the death of Pastor Ventimiglia, thousands of Ngaju Catholics, whom he had baptized, returned to the original faith of their ancestors. All that remained were the signs of the cross-Father Ventimiglia had introduced them to. But the sign of the cross has lost its true meaning. The sign of the cross is only a fetish object (amulet) that has magical properties as a repellent against reinforcements which until now is known as lapak lampinak in Dayak language or cacak bird in Banjar language.

During the colonial period, the Dayak tribe in the Central Kalimantan area, even though they had socialized with newcomers, remained in their own environment. In 1919, the young Dayak generation, who had received formal education, sought progress for their tribal community by establishing the Dayak Union and Dayak Cooperative, which was pioneered by Hausman Babu, M. Lampe, Philips Sinar, Haji Abdulgani, Sian, Lui Kamis, Tamanggung Tundan, and many others. The Dayak Union and the Dayak Cooperative were active until 1926. Since then, the Dayak have become more familiar with the times and have started to move. In 1928, the two organizations were merged into Pakat Dayak, which was engaged in social, economic and political fields. Those who were actively involved in the activity were Hausman Babu, Anton Samat, Loei Kamis. Then continued by Mahir Mahar, C. Luran, H. Nangkal, Oto Ibrahim, Philips Sinar, E.S. Handuran, Amir Hasan, Christian Nyunting, Tjilik Riwut, and many others. Pakat Dayak continued the struggle, until the dissolution of the Dutch government in Indonesia.

In 1945, the Dayak Association, based in Pontianak, then had branches throughout Kalimantan, spearheaded by J. Uvang Uray, F.J. Palaunsuka, A. Djaelani, T. Brahim, F.D. Leiden. In 1959, the Dayak Association disbanded, then merged with the PNI and Partindo. Finally, Partindo West Kalimantan merged into IPKI. In East Kalimantan, Persukai or the Indonesian Kalimantan Tribe Association was established under the leadership of Kamuk Tupak, W. Bungai, Muchtar, R. Magat, and many others.

In 1942, Central Kalimantan was called Afdeeling Kapoeas-Barito which was divided into 6 divisions.[15]

Natural conditions and resources

Natural conditions

The North consists of the Muller Swachner Mountains and hills, the South consists of lowlands, swamps and marshes. It is bordered by three Indonesian provinces, namely East, South and West Kalimantan and the Java Sea. This region has a humid tropical climate which is crossed by the equator.


Many are unknown, with a variety of coastal areas, mountains / hills, lowlands and marshes, all kinds of tropical vegetation dominate the nature of this area. Orangutans are endemic animals that are still abundant in Central Kalimantan, especially in the Tanjung Puting National Park area which has an area of up to 300,000 ha in Kotawaringin Barat and Seruyan Regencies. There are bears, porcupines, gibbons, monkeys, proboscis monkeys, pangolins, crocodiles, slow lorises, freshwater whales (tampahas), arowanas, manjuhan, marine biota, turtles, bulus, hornbills, parrots and various other animals. high.

Natural resources

Forests dominate 80% of the area. The remaining primary forest is about 25% of the total area. The vast land is now starting to be dominated by oil palm plantations which reached 700,000 ha (2007). People's rubber and rattan plantations are still scattered in almost all areas, especially in the districts of Kapuas, Katingan, Pulang Pisau, Gunung Mas and East Kotawaringin.

There are many kinds of potential natural resources, including those that have been cultivated in the form of coal, gold, zircon, iron mining. There is also copper, kaolin, gemstones and others.

Social Society


The dominant ethnic groups in Central Kalimantan are Dayak Tribe, Banjar Tribe and Javanese. The Dayaks mainly live in the interior, the Banjar people mostly live-in urban areas and the Javanese live in the transmigration areas. Other transmigrant tribes found in Central Kalimantan are Madura Tribe, Sunda Tribe, Balinese Tribe and ethnic groups from East Nusa Tenggara. In addition, there are also Malays who live on the coast Kotawaringin Barat, Batak tribes and other tribes from various regions in Indonesia. According to Lontaan and Sanusi (1976: 2-3), there are 10 indigenous tribes who inhabit the West Kotawaringin area, and are based on the Ngaju Dayak Tribe. The ten tribes are the Mendawai Tribe, the Ruku Mapaan Tribe, the Darat Tribe, the Lamandau Tribe, the Bulik Tribe, the Mentobi Tribe, the Belantikan Tribe, the Batang Kana/Kawak Tribe, the Delang Ulu and Ilir Tribes, and the Banjar Tribe (Lontaan and Sanusi, 1976: 2- 3). The arrival of the Banjar Tribe (which is also a tribe of the Sultan) in the Kotawaringin area which is part of the Central Kalimantan region is related to the establishment of the Duchy of Kotawaringin about 5 centuries ago.[16]


Basically, the widely spoken languages in Central Kalimantan are Banjar language and Indonesian. The spread of Banjarese to Central Kalimantan is due to the large number of immigrants Banjar tribe from South Kalimantan so that Banjarese is used as a trade language and daily language.[17] Javanese people in transmigration sites generally speak Javanese as their everyday language.

The dominant Dayak language is used by the Dayak tribe in Central Kalimantan, including Ngaju language which is spoken in the Kahayan and Kapuas rivers. Bakumpai language and Maanyan language are spoken by residents along the Barito river basin and its surroundings and Ot Danum language is spoken by the Ot Danum Dayak tribe in the upper Kahayan and Kapuas rivers.



The State of Central Kalimantan is divided into several Level II Regions, namely:

Central Kalimantan Flag Arrangement

East Barito Flag North Barito Flag Mount Mas Flag Kapuas Flag Katingan Flag West Kotawaringin Flag East Kotawaringin Flag Lamandau Flag Murung Raya Flag Knives Home Flag Sukamara Flag Seruyan Flag Kapuas Flag File:WAKPR flag.png|Flag of the Special Administrative Region of Palangkaraya


Most of the population in the Katingan area, especially the Central Katingan sub-district, make a living as farmers and miners. The main mining products obtained are gold and puya (zircon sand) which is red. The community in mining is still traditional so that the results obtained are not optimal.

Arts and culture

Music art

File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Gezicht vanaf de Kahajan rivier op de Dajak village Toembanganoi Midden-Borneo. TMnr 60010391.jpg
Architecture Betang House (Huma Betang) in Tumbang Anoi merbuild a long house for the communal dwelling of the Ot Danum Dayak tribe at the upstream Kahayan river.
File:Rumah Balai Bini Kecamatan Kumai.jpg
Architecture Rumah Baanjung type Rumah Balai Bini in Kumai, which is the residence of the nuclear family in their own homes in the coastal communities of Central Kalimantan.
File:Rumah Betang Ba'anjung, Buntoi Village, Central Kalimantan.JPG
The combination of Rumah Betang with Rumah Baanjung produces Rumah Betang Ba'anjung (Humna Hanging) ) in Buntoi Village.

The art of music known in this area include:

  • Kacapi
  • Rebab
  • Different types of Gong
  • Kangana
  • Various types of Kendang (Gandang)
  • Katbung

Vocal arts

Popular vocal arts in this region are:

  • Sack
  • Kandan
  • Mansana
  • Negligent
  • Natum
  • Dodoi
  • Marung


The types of dances found in this area include:

  • Hugo and Huda dance
  • Malawen Princess Dance
  • Tuntung Tulus Dance from East Barito
  • Sleigh Dance
  • Manasai Dance
  • Balian Bawo dance
  • Balian Dadas Dance
  • Manganese

Craft Arts

Crafts that thrive in this region are:

  • Sculpture of Sapundu
  • Art painting
  • Rajah
  • Woven
  • The art of Nyatu Sap material

Traditional ceremony

  • Wadian
  • Tiwah ceremony (ceremony of removing the bones of deceased relatives)
  • Wara (removal of bones of deceased relatives)
  • Balian (ceremony or treatment procession)
  • Cut Pantan (inauguration ceremony or welcoming guests of honor)
  • Mapalas (ceremonies to get rid of bad luck or rid yourself of calamity)
  • Ijambe (removal of bones of deceased relatives)

Bridal outfit

The dress of the Central Kalimantan Dayak groom wears long pants to the knee, silver or belt strap and headgear. The jewelry used is inuk or long necklace, Cekoang or short necklaces and necklaces made of animal teeth. The bride wears a cloth in the form of a short skirt, vest, headband with feather decoration ivory hornbill, necklace and earring.

File:West Kotawaringin Traditional Dress.JPG
Karaton Traditional Dress Kotawaringin Sultanate, as a traditional dress of one of the tribes in Central Kalimantan.

Kotawaringin wedding dress is similar to Banjar bridal dress, but there are some differences.


  1. http:/ /
  2. 2.0 2.1 Template:MsRas, Johannes Jacobus (1990). Hikayat Banjar translated by Siti Hawa Salleh. Malaysia: Language and Library Council Printing. ISBN 9789836212405. ISBN 983-62-1240-X
  4. 20Cotawaringi&f=false Template:Nl LC van Dijk, Ne©erland's vroegste betrekkingen met Borneo, den Solo-Archipel, Camobdja, Siam en Cochin-China, Scheltema, 1862
  5. Template:En icon The New American Encyclopaedia (1 865). "The New American Encyclopedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge". 2. D. Appleton. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  6. English: {{{1}}}Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië (1861). =RA1-PA205#v=onepage&q=prince%20Rotoe-anom%20Irman-sjah%20(of%20Herman-sjah).&f=false "Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië" Check |url= value (help). 23 (1–2). Nederlandsch-Indië: 205.
  7. [ Borneo in 1850]
  8. Borneo 1800-1857
  9. Template:Nl Landsdrukkerij (Batavia), Landsdrukkerij (Batavia) (1849). Almanac van Nederlandsch-Indië voor het jaar. 22. Lands Drukkery. pp. 83. 
  10. Template:Nl icon Nederlandisch Indië. 20%20afdeelingen%2C%20onder%20de%20benaming%20van%20Wester%20afdeeling%20en%20Zuid%20en%20Ooster%20afdeeling.&pg=PA55-IA22#v=onepage&q=Verdeeling%20van%20het%20Eiland%20%Borneo%20 20tteee%20%20afdeelingen,%20onder%20de%20benaming%20van%20Wester%20afdeeling%20en%20Zuid%20en%20Ooster%20afdeeling.&f=false "Staatsblad van Nederlandisch Indië" Check |url= value (help). Unknown parameter |publishyear= ignored (help)
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  12. Template:Id icon Measure, Fridolin (2000). PA8&dq=Pulau%20KAlimantan&pg=PA9#v=onepage&q=Pulau%20KAlimantan&f=false The harvest is really big: the history of the Evangelical Kalimantan Church since 1835. BPK Gunung Mulia. pp. 42. ISBN 9789799290588. PA8&dq=Pulau%20KAlimantan&pg=PA9#v=onepage&q=Pulau%20KAlimantan&f=false.  ISBN 979-9290-58-9
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  15. Borneo in 1942
  16. -Islam_Bubuhan_Kumai_Chapter3.pdf
  17. read/2013/12/08/1846214/Soto.Mengalir.until.far. Soto Flows to Far... - Accessed January 28, 2014.

External links

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