Shah (Persian: شاه), known Imperially as Shahanshah (Persian: شاهنشاه) is a royal title of Persian origin. The title is used most commonly to denote the monarch of a country and is comparable in rank to that of a King. Alternatively, the title can be used to denote a sovereign of equivalent rank to that of an Emperor though this is rarer and often is accompanied by the changing of the title from Shah to Shahanshah (literally translating to "King of Kings") or Padishah (translating to "High King" or more literally to "Master King").
Currently, no macronational state uses the titles of Shah or Shahanshah with the last macronational Shah, Mohammad Reza Shah, passing away in 1980 and since then, the only individual that could be theorretically considered a Shah being Crown Prince of the Iranian Imperial State Reza Pahlavi would be eligible for the title of Shah should he ever return to the throne of Iran.
- Iran - From the nation's founding until 1979, the title of Shahanshah (usually shortened to just Shah) was used to denote the nation's monarch.
- Ottoman Empire - During the existence of the Empire, the term Padishah was also used by the Sultan occasionally to denote imperial status.
- Kingdom of Georgia - The Kings of Georgia used the title of Shahanshah along with their other titles.
- Mughal Empire - The title of Padishah was the official name for the Emperors of the Mughal Empire.
In a micronational context, the title is incredibly rare and as such, very few micronations utilize the title or any derivative thereof.
Micronations currently using the title
- Desert Realm of Raphistan - Ruled by a Shah since September 2021.
- Hasanistan - Ruled by a Shah since 2011.
- Shahdom of Monsaltay - Ruled by a Shah since 2021.