Free Republic of Bir Tawil

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Free Republic of Bir Tawil
Flag of Free Republic of Bir Tawil
Motto: Working Towards a Brighter Future.
Anthem: "Land of Hope and Glory"
Location of Free Republic of Bir Tawil
and largest city
Bir Tawil
Official languages
Recognized languages
GovernmentFree Republic
• President
Jami Kiiskinen
LegislatureTawilian Parliament
• Independence Declared
27 January 2022
• Constitution Written
27 January 2022
• Total
2,060 km2 (800 sq mi)
• Estimate
Time zoneEET
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideright
Today part ofFree Republic of Bir Tawil

Bir Tawil, officially the Free Republic of Bir Tawil or the Free Republic of Bi'r Tawīl, is a landlocked country located in Northern Africa. It is located between Egypt and Sudan.

Bir Tawil is a region without a permanent population. Bir Tawil is sometimes described as the only piece of habitable land that is not claimed by a recognized entity. Bir Tawil is considered to be terra nullius. This status results from a discrepancy between the straight political boundary between Egypt and Sudan established in 1899, and the irregular administrative boundary established in 1902. Egypt claims the political boundary, and Sudan claims the administrative boundary, with the result that the Hala'ib Triangle is claimed by both and Bir Tawil is claimed by neither.[1]

Bir Tawil is a minor power and a de facto least developed country (LDC). Its economy is considered the lowest in the world, which harbours no national export or income in any way. Bir Tawil derives from the Egyptian Arabic word بير طويل which means "well water tall".


On 19 January 1899, an agreement between the United Kingdom and Egypt relating to the territory that Sudan should administer was signed. The agreement stated that the land Sudan would administer would be the "territories south of the 22nd parallel of latitude." It also stated that it would give Egypt control of the port of Suakin, but a later amendment on 10 July 1899 gave Suakin to Sudan instead.[1]

On 4 November 1902, the United Kingdom drew a separate boundary, which was intended to fix the previous border that did not show the land according to the true use of the tribes. Bir Tawil was used as grazing land by the Ababda people based in the region around Aswan, and thus was placed under the administration of the Egyptians. The Hala'ib Triangle was placed under the British governor of Sudan’s control, since the inhabitants were culturally closer to Khartoum.

Today, Egypt claims the 1899 border which would give Egypt the Hala'ib Triangle and give Sudan Bir Tawil. Sudan claims the 1902 border which would give Sudan the Hala'ib Triangle and would give Egypt Bir Tawil. This results with neither Egypt nor Sudan claiming Bir Tawil and both claiming the Hala'ib Triangle. Bir Tawil is viewed to be less valuable since it does not have access to the sea, it is about a tenth of the size of the Hala'ib Triangle, and has no permanent population.[2]

On 27 January 2022 Bir Tawil declared its independence. Since the region was previously unclaimed, there were no nations to declare independence from. Bir Tawil’s provisional government was organized by the National Unitary Republican Party (NURP) with a minister and vice-minister. The provisional council was finalized on 14 June 2022.


Bir Tawil consists of mostly desert and sandstone hills. There are not any streams or lakes anywhere in the nation and has very little rain. The nation has minor biodiversity with its national animal being the Corn Crake.

Government and politics

Bir Tawil is a free republic within a multi-party system. The provisional constitution was approved by referendum in 2022, which determines the provisional government's structure until a complete government is organized. In the Tawilian unitary system, the people are subject to three levels of government: national, regional, and local. The local government's duties are split between the regional and the provincial, in which legislative officials are voted on for the local council. Bir Tawil is subdivided into two provinces to organize votes. Each province is divided into voter districts, for a total of 12 voter districts.

In Bir Tawil, the government is regulated by a separation of powers defined by the provisional constitution, list two branches:

The National Council is comprised of three members who each serve a one year term. The council determines the laws and the direction of relations to other nations. The National Council hold most of the power above the local councils, deciding on most of the restrictions on local laws. The council's goal is to hold relations with other nations and organize laws the people must follow. The council is responsible that the local councils hold their people's needs first, and the government's needs after.

Parties and Elections

Elections in Free Republic of Bir Tawil are held for four functions of government: ministerial elections (national), national council elections (national), local council (local), and provincial leader (local).

Every Tawilian citizen who has turned 18 has the right to vote and stand as a candidate at elections. Universal suffrage for all sexes has been applied since the independence of the nation. In Bir Tawil, turnout rates of both local and general elections stand higher than 95 percent. The national council can strip financing of political parties that it deems having ties to terrorism, or ban them altogether. Presently, the Free Republic of Bir Tawil houses three major political parties, them being the Progressive Socialist-Capitalism Party, the Democratic-Socialist Party of Bir Tawil, and the Christian Democratic Libertarian Party. The PSCP is a left-wing political party that pushes towards a republican system of government. The PSCP currently holds the ministry and a seat in the national council. The DSPBT advocates for a left-wing, socialized system. The DSPBT holds one seat in the National Council. The CDLP is a right-wing nationalist political party who holds one seat in the National Council.


Free Republic of Bir Tawil has a unitary structure in provincial administration. When two powers (executive and legislative) are taken into account as the main functions of the nation, local councils have little power over the national government. Tawilian provinces have local legislative bodies (provincial councils) for decision-making on provincial issues. The subdivisions are Upper Bir Tawil, who holds most of the nation, and the Capital District, which only holds the capital area.


Bir Tawil has no standing armed forces. Bir Tawil’s Neutrality Act prohibits the nation from having a formal military and prohibits the government to run or fund paramilitaries. Bir Tawil's neutrality is of its most importance, so much so that the constitution makes it extremely difficult to declare war, with the national, regional, and local governments all voting for the declaration of war, to declare war.

Foreign Relations

Bir Tawil recognizes all UN member states, Taiwan, Vatican City, Palestine, and Northern Cyprus.

Map of Recognised States of Bir Tawil

A major aspect of Bir Tawil’s diplomacy is having friendly relations with the United States. Bir Tawil hopes to get recognition from the United States by strengthening relations with other UN member states.


  1. 1.0 1.1 "International Boundary Study: Sudan – Egypt (United Arab Republic) Boundary" (PDF). Bureau of Intelligence and Research. 27 July 1962. pp. 2, 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  2. "Egypt". CIA World Factbook. CIA. 2010. ISBN 978-1602397279. 

Template:The Free Republic of Bir Tawil