Anpan

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Republic of Anpan
安本共和國
Ānběn Gònghéguó

Flag of Anpan
Flag
 
National Emblem
Motto: "Benefit the Enlightened Path"
受益開明道
Anthem: "Patriotic Song"
愛國歌
 
Capital
and largest city
Nan'an
Official languagesStandard Mandarin
Official scriptsTraditional Chinese
Ethnic groupsNo official statistics
DemonymAnpanese
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
Li Dewei
Cheng Yunpeng
LegislatureNational Diet
Independence from Japan
19 June 2016
Area
• Total
487.8 km2 (188.3 sq mi)
Population
• 2016 estimate
128
CurrencyAnpanese dollar ($) (ASD) (ASD)
Time zoneAnpan Standard Time (UTC+9)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+9)
Date format yyyy年m月d日
Drives on theleft
Calling code+81
Internet TLD.an
.安本

Anpan (Traditional Chinese: 安本; pinyin: Ānběn), officially the Republic of Anpan (Traditional Chinese: 安本共和國; pinyin: Ānběn Gònghéguó), is a self-proclaimed sovereign state in East Asia, lying off the south-eastern coast of the Hokkaido Island. Neighboring states include Japan surrounding Anpanese territory, Russia to the northwest, China, South Korea and North Korea to the southwest. Anpan is considered one of the populous micronations in East Asia.

Prehistorically, Anpan was mainly inhabited by Yamato and Ainu before Han Chinese began immigrating to the area in the 21st century and declared the Republic of Anpan. The country was part of Imperial Japan and post-war Japan for over a century, from 1868 to 2016. An independent Anpanese self-proclaimed micronation was formed in 2016, following a Anpanese victory in the Bloodless Revolution. Successive governments flourished as the state expanded geographically and politically into southwest of Hokkaido Island. 

Anpan's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from mountains, lakes and forests to urban areas in the capital city of Nan'an. It exercises jurisdiction over three districts and one direct-controlled municipality. The Republic of Anpan is a unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic with a unicameral legislature, the National Diet. The Kunghetang and the Social Democrats has dominated the National Diet since the declaration of independence in 2016. Anpan is one of the founding members of East Asia Summit of Micronations and the Asia-Pacific Micronational Economic Cooperation (APMEC). The country ranks high on its national social policies, on the Human Development Index (micronations), notably on key measures of education, healthcare, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing. Although population is low due to most uninhabited areas, Anpan has one of the medium per capita incomes, with low taxes. The country has cultural influences from the Tang dynasty and is considered as part of the East Asian cultural sphere.

The first written mention of Anpan is in Ezo history texts from the 21st century AD. Political influence from other regions, mainly Nationalist China, followed by periods of modern technology, particularly from Western Europe, has characterized Anpan's history. Before the establishment of the Republic of Anpan, the country was governed by Japan under the Hokkaido Prefecture. In 2016; President Li Dewei proclaimed the Republic of Anpan, the entity constituted the area claimed following the bloodless Liuyue Revolution.

Etymology

Anpan is popularly known as Peace Origin

The modern-day Mandarin word for Anpan is 安本, which is pronounced Ānběn. The English word Anpan possibly derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 安本; the Old Mandarin or possibly early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Anpan.

The official name of the modern state is the "Republic of Anpan" (Chinese: 安本共和國; pinyin: Nánběn Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "Anpan" Ānběn (安本), from Ān ("peace") and běn ("origin"); literally "Peace Origin".

History

Prehistory

Ainu, Nivkh and Orok first settled where Anpan now is when it was part of Hokkaido before recorded history. During the Nara and Heian periods (710–1185), people in Hokkaido conducted trade with Dewa Province, an outpost of the Japanese central government. From the Middle Ages, the people in Hokkaido began to be called Ezo.

During the Muromachi period (1336–1573), the Japanese created a settlement at the south of the Oshima Peninsula. As more people moved to the settlement to avoid battles, disputes arose between the Japanese and the Ainu. The disputes eventually developed into a war. The victory of the Japanese Matsumae clan result to authority over the south of Ezochi until the end of the Edo period in 1868.

Hokkaido was known as Ezochi until the Meiji Restoration. Shortly after the Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island, but the rebellion was crushed in May 1869. Hokkaido became a prefecture of the Empire of Japan after 1869.

Chinese settlement

A group of settlers from Mainland China settled in Anpan and built a Chinese themed city in 1992; present-day Nan'an. Due to high entry fees and lack of visitors, the city was closed down and emptied in 1999. Since then, Nan'an was abandoned until the second Chinese settlement from Taiwan and Mainland China which declared the Republic of Anpan in 2016.

Republic of Anpan (2016-present)

The two-months bloodless Liuyue Revolution ended with the independentists' victory with no major combat; Anpan was occupied. On 19 June 2016, Li Dewei proclaimed the establishment of the Republic of Anpan with his faithful companions: Cheng Yunpeng and Han Tsao-chi. Li was proclaimed president.

Geography

Less than 10% of Anpan's landmass is developed, and about 80% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves

The total area of Anpan is 487.8 km² (188 sq mi), making it one of the smallest countries in the world, smaller than Guam and larger than Andorra. The country is landlocked lying off the south-eastern coast of the Hokkaido Island, with Japan surrounding its territories.

Less than 10% of Anpan's land area is urbanized, while the majority is grassland, woodland, shrubland, lakes and agricultural land. As much of the country's terrain is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, less than 10% of Anpan's landmass is developed, and about 80% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves. High altitude vegetation in Anpan is dominated by primary forests, as the primary forest was mostly left undisturbed, and most altitudes are also dominated by grasslands. Most of the country's urban development exists in Nan'an.

Climate

Anpan is one of the few countries in the world with heavy snowfall

Anpan has a humid continental climate, with a wide range of temperature between the summer and winter. Summers are generally warm but not humid, and winters are cold and very snowy. With an average snowfall of 5.96 m (19 ft 7 in), Anpan is one of the few countries in the world with such heavy snowfall. The heavy snow fall is due to Siberian High developing over the Eurasian land mass and the Aleutian Low developing over the northern Pacific Ocean, resulting a flow of cold air southeastward across Tsushima Current and to west Hokkaido. Anpan's annual average precipitation is around 1,100 mm (43.3 in), and the mean annual temperature is 8.5 °C (47.3 °F).

Politics

Government

The government of the Republic of Anpan was founded on the Constitution of the Republic of Anpan, which states that the ROA "shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people." The government is divided into three administrative branches: the Executive Branch (cabinet), the National Diet and the Judicial Branch. The Pan-Blue and Pan-Red coalitions are presently the dominant political blocs in the Republic of Anpan.

The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president. The president has authority over the National Diet. The president appoints the members of the Executive Branch as his cabinet, including a prime minister, who is officially in charge of the Executive Branch; members are responsible for policy and administration.

The main legislative body is the unicameral National Diet with 27 seats. Members serve four-year terms.

The prime minister is selected by the president without the need for approval from the legislature, but the National Diet can pass laws without regard for the president, as neither he nor the prime minister wields veto power. Thus, there is little incentive for the president and the diet to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing parties.

The Judicial Branch is the highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The president and vice-president of the Judicial Yuan and additional thirteen justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated and appointed by the president, with the consent of the National Diet. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding judge and four associate judges, all appointed for life. there is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.

Political parties

Party Name Logo Initials Leader Position Colours Seats
National Diet
Kunghetang
(Republican Party)
Kunghetang of Anpan.png KHT Li Dewei Centre-right Blue
14 / 27
Social Democrats QinSD.png SD Luo Xuefang Centre-left Red
11 / 27

Administrative divisions

Map Name Chinese Pinyin Area
180px Direct-controlled municipality
Nan'an 南安市 Nán'ān Shì N/A
Other cities
Kaihua 開花市 Kāihuā Shì N/A
Chingnei 清內市 Qīngnèi Shì N/A
Districts

Foreign relations

Military

File:AnpanHonourGuard.jpg
Republic of Anpan Honour Guard is a separate branch in the armed forces

The Anpanese military consists of the Army (ROAA), the Navy (ROAN), the Air Force (ROAAF), the Marine Corps (ROAMC), the Military Police and reserve forces. Many of these forces are concentrated near the Anpan-Japan border. The first line of defense against an invasion is the ROA's own armed forces. Current ROA military doctrine is to hold out against any possible invasion or blockade by Japan until the Japanese authorities recognize the Republic of Anpan; this has been reported unlikely to happen since Anpan is a micronation and has no recognition from any UN member-states.

All Anpanese males are constitutionally required to serve in the military, typically 2 years. However, only males over the age of 18, who have not gone through reserve training of the Army Reserve Force Students, are given the option of volunteering for the armed forces, or participating in the random draft. The candidates are subjected to varying lengths of training, from six months to two years of full-time service, depending on their education, whether they have partially completed the reserve training course, and whether they volunteered prior to the draft date (usually 19 February every year).

Economy

File:Anpan currency.jpg
The Anpan dollar serves as the country's national currency

Anpan has a dynamic, capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade. In keeping with this trend, some government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized. Real growth in GDP has averaged about 3%. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. The trade surplus is substantial. Anpan has its own currency, the Anpan dollar.

The Anpan Stock Exchange has a market capitalisation of $5,000 as of December 2016. The Anpanese Government has traditionally played a mostly passive role in the economy, with little by way of industrial policy and almost no import or export controls. Market forces and the private sector were allowed to determine practical development. Under the official policy of "positive non-interventionism", Anpan is often cited as an example of laissez-faire capitalism. Following the founding of Anpan, the micronation industrialised rapidly as a manufacturing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a rapid transition to a service-based economy in 2016.

Demographics

File:Anpan races chart.png
A pie chart showing the vast majority of races in Anpan

Anpan is a multi-racial country, with Chinese and Japanese peoples historically making up the majority of the population. The vast majority of Anpanese descend from the people of Mainland China, Taiwan and the Japanese Archipelago.

Religion

Anpan has full religious freedom based on its Constitution. Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Anpanese population subscribe to Taoism, Confucianism, Folk religion, Buddhism or Christianity, including a large number of followers of a syncretism of these four religions. However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. Other studies have suggested that only 30 percent of the population identify themselves as belonging to a religion.

The "three teachings", including Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, historically have a significant role in shaping Anpanese culture. 

File:Nan'an Buddha bell.jpg
The Fanchung (梵鐘, "Buddhist Bell") located outside the Huangwatai Tower, is used to summon the monks to prayer, to welcome the start of the new year and on Remembrance Day to mark the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month to start two minutes' silence

Demographically, the most widespread religious tradition is the folk religion, which overlaps with Taoism, and describes the worship of the Shen (神), a character that signifies the "energies of generation". The Shen comprises deities of the natural environment, gods representing specific concepts or groups, heroes and ancestors, and figures from Anpanese mythology.

Among the most popular folk cults are those of Mazu (goddess of the seas), Huangdi (one of the two divine patriarchs of the Han race), Guandi (god of war and business), Caishen (god of prosperity and richness), Pangu and many others.

Education

Anpan's education system used to roughly follow the system in England, although international systems exist. The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction" (Chinese: 母語教學) in which the medium of instruction is Mandarin, with written Chinese and English, while some of the schools are using English as the teaching language. In secondary schools, 'biliterate and trilingual' proficiency is emphasised, and Japanese-language education has been increasing.

Anpan's public schools are operated by the Anpanese Education Bureau. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, a compulsory three-year junior secondary education, a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Anpan Certificate of Education Examinations and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Anpan Advanced Level Examinations. Under the national curriculum, there is only one public examination, namely the Anpan Diploma of Secondary Education.

Science and technology

Robotics

NXT Miniature Humanoid, programmed by AAIST

Robotics has been included in the list of main national R&D projects in Anpan during the early 21st Century. The government announced plans to build and program NXT robots, eventually to improve automatic system programs to make them more useful.

In December 2016, the Anpan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AAIST) programmed the walking NXT Miniature Humanoid. The first Anpanese-made NXT Miniature Humanoid were developed by Lego Mindstorms, built and programmed by a group of technicians from AAIST. The AAIST built and programmed many other kinds of robots, such as the NXT Robotic Artist and the NXT Portable Crane. The robotic technology relies on various of sensors that is programmed using codes, therefore a robot can self-control without a remote.

Plans for robotics are also incorporated in the entertainment sector as well; the Robot Game Festival has been held every year to promote science and robot technology.

Culture

A musician playing a Kuchin

Anpan shares its traditional culture with China, but the both countries have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since Anpan seceded Japan. Historically, while the culture of Anpan has been heavily influenced by that of ancestral China, it has nevertheless managed to develop a unique cultural identity. The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in Anpan, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. Anpanese culture has long emphasized a sense of inward-looking national perspective. The Anpanese Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism actively encourages the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs.

Concepts like feng shui are taken very seriously, with expensive construction projects often hiring expert consultants, and are often believed to make or break a business. Other objects like Ba gua mirrors are still regularly used to deflect evil spirits, and buildings often lack any floor number that has a 4 in it.

Cuisine

Most of Anpan's cuisine comes from China, which is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history. In Anpan, food is viewed as crucial to national identity and a unifying cultural thread. Anpanese literature declares eating a national pastime and food a national obsession. Food is a frequent topic of conversation among Anpanese people. People from different communities often eat together, while being mindful of each other's culture and choosing food that is acceptable for all.

Anpan's staple food is rice, wheat based breads and noodles. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein. South-eastern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across northern Anpan.