State of Sandus
State of Sandus
État de Sandus
|Motto: '''Populo Sande|
For the People of Sandus
Pour le Peuple sande
Song of Seikilos
and largest city
|Official languages||English, French, Latin|
|Government||Socialist Classical Republic with an elective monarchy|
|Gaius Soergel Publicola|
|Adam von Friedeck|
|Establishment||26 May 2009 (founded)|
13 April 2011 (constitution established)
State of Sandus Web Portal
Sandus, officially the State of Sandus, (pronounced [sɑːndɔːs]) is a micronation that was created on 26 May 2009, by Gaius Soergel Publicola. Sandus is a classical republic led by the Sôgmô, the monarch of the state, along with the Citizens' Party of Sandus and the Council. The Founding Law of the current government was ratified on 13 April 2011 and created the monarchy that exists today. From 2011 until 2015, the State of Sandus evolved into a republican government by having three equal but separate branches of government, one of which includes the Sandum monarchy. Sandus is a socialist country with a focus on a national philosophy comprised of elements of Buddhism, Socialism, and multiculturalism and pluralism known in Sandus as Sancta. It has previously used two constructed languages, Sandum Latin and Sancta, but today Sandus's three official languages are English, French, and Latin. Sandus is known for its work in the foreign affairs sphere, where it is rather critical of conservatism, and for its cultural work. Sandus has over 300 holidays and traditions associated with dozens of them.
The History of Sandus has seen various shifts and changes over the years both in terms of politics and culture. French, Roman, and Tibetan culture have vied in former times for what Sandum culture is, though, since the establishment of the State of Sandus in 2011, Sandus has integrated all cultural impulses and honed them into a singular Sandum culture. In Sandus's early years, the country saw brief forms of government followed by abrupt changes in the country's constitution.
Sandefreistikhan (May–July 2009)
The Grand Lamate of Sandefreistikhan seceded from la République de Trénois on 26 May 2009 and was founded by William Soergel. At the time, the Grand Lamate significantly copied portions of the American constitution to attempt to create the basis of its own government that included a monarchy, under the lama, and rule by the then Citizens' Communist Party of Sandus. A French, Native American, and Tibetan inspired micronation, the young government floundered in its handling of various micronational and macronational incidents, one of them being the Neda War. Sandefreistikhan fought several wars during this time, a practice Sandus no longer does, including the Micronational War on Communism and the New Euro-Erusian War. The early antagonism was fruitful in determining what political ideology Sandus would develop over its first few years of existence. However, during this time, nearly all power was vested in the Grand Lama, though more power was delegated to the Politburo of the Party (as the legislature was then called) towards the end of its government's life. Sandefreistikhan, eventually, become a more Roman-based micronation, prompting constitutional changes to a direct democracy in July 2009.
People's State of Sandus (July–December 2009)
The People's State of Sandus was a direct democratic state founded in July 2009 and that lasted until December 2009. At first, it was a stable nation that was based on Sandum ideas about Roman culture, and it was the first Sandum nation to adopt direct democracy. Its legislature was known as the National People's Congress and elected a Speaker of the House, who served as the country's executive and, during times of war, became the "dictator of Sandus." The position was only ever filled by Will Sörgel.
Due to inflammatory propaganda that Sandus and Sandefreistikhan had published during the New Euro-Erusian War, Sandus began to develop enmities with New Europe and Pristinia, culminating in the Insola War and souring relations with Sandus's long-time ally then, Nemkhavia. The war would later be the pretence for a fake civil war that occurred from 15 to 24 November 2009 and would lead to a month of inactivity until the reëstablishment of the monarchy. After the conclusion of the so-called civil war, Soergel drafted laws to regulate Sandum citizenship for the first time. The country later admitted to the fabricated nature of the civil war, concluded never to fight another micronational war, and signed the Treaty of Universal Peace. The beginning of the civil war is still commemorated in Sandus as the National Day of Truth, referring to the war's fabrication and a holiday that would begin to sow the seeds of Sandum Realism. Similarly, the end of the war is still commemorated in Sandus as the National Day of Truth.
Barony of Sandus (December 2009–April 2010)
The Barony of Sandus was founded on 21 December 2009, though the idea had been floated since the end of the Sandum Civil War. Due to the momentous shift in Sandum government, the establishment of the barony led to a breakdown in Sandum-Erusian relations, the country's closest and oldest ally at the time. The first citizen, Cameron Falby, joined Sandus since the beginning of the civil war, and Falby formed the autonomous region of New Scireland in the country in January 2011. Later that month, however, New Scireland declared independence from Sandus, souring relations between Sandus and New Scireland as well as with other countries, such as Francisville and Landashir. By the end of the month, Sandus experienced a large growth of 3 citizens as the Baroness Consort Christina and her family joined the nation and a détente between Sandus and Erusia was under-way. The problems with New Scireland would lead to months of reduced activity within Sandus, which would be even further emphasised by the departure of the Baroness Consort and her family from Sandus in March 2011. These events would give rise to the April Revolution when Sandus formed the furthest left government of any Sandum government under the guise of a socialist state. Baron Sörgel chose to abdicate in order to lead a socialist republic, the Democratic People's Republic of Sandus.
The issues with New Scireland resulted in a political crisis in Sandus. The baron had several options to how to respond to New Scireland's decision to become independent: should Sandus try to forcibly restore New Scireland to Sandus, or should Sandus let New Scireland to become independent but be potentially hampered in the future? At first, Sandus chose the latter and recognised New Scireland's independence, but decided to try Falby for treason. Falby accepted the charges and a trial was underway briefly before the court became bogged down and the charges against Falby were dropped.
Democratic People's Republic of Sandus (April–July 2010)
The Democratic People's Republic of Sandus was Sandus' first hardline socialist state, founded in April 2010. Its national politics were driven by communist policies on both domestic and foreign scales. As the close ally of Erusia, a country that was increasingly subject to controversy in 2010, Sandus at the time was subject to controversy too given the closeness of both the two countries and their leaders as friends. Sandus' government existed provisionally during the entire life of the DPRS, however, with the hope that a future constitution would be written when Sandus would have become larger and with a definite territory. Its provisional government consisted of a single chamber, the Revolutionary Council, and a higher tier of that chamber that served as the executives, the Central Committee of the Revolutionary Council. A Chairman of the Central Committee was elected, who served as the nation's president. Sandus' political structure at the time passed a few laws and large amounts of public policy were carried out by the Central People's Government, a moniker for the national government that exists in Sandus to this day. On the international front, however, it became difficult for the state to carry out its foreign policy because of the Great Ideological Conflict and increased animosity with micronations in the OAM.
In July 2010, after the publication of the Lethler Dossier, the Democratic People's Republic of Sandus collapsed on 29 July 2010, a day before the Democratic People's Republic of Erusia. The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Revolutionary Council resigned from their first chairmanship of the GUM, only three days into the term, and the country no longer had a government until September 2010, a month long hiatus.
Great Ideological Conflict
The Great Ideological Conflict was begun by the Intermicronational Conservative Alliance in April 2010. Sandus's socialist politics and culture prompted the state to respond to the ICA's "conflict against Communism," a characterisation that alarmed many in Sandus and in the broadly leftwing in the MicroWiki community. As the first micronation to raise the alarm, Sandus was embattled in this ideological conflict with the ICA, and later with Bradley of Dullahan directly. Despite most hostilities ending in June 2010, Sandus and the ICA member states were still at odds with each other, which prompted Sandus and several other socialist-bloc states to leave the OAM. Despite two socialist-bloc states rejoining the OAM, Egtavia and Nemkhavia, Sandus refused to return to the OAM on any grounds.
To some extent, the conflict exists still in the frigid relations between Sandus and Wyvern and with Sandus's relations with other prominent conservative micronations over the years.
Kremlum Sandus (September–October 2010)
The Barony of Kremlum Sandus was created as a response to the destruction of Sandus. Its constitution was based of the Principality of Liechtenstein's and, although it created a government that was too large, it was one of Sandus' premier constitutions. And, because of Sandus' government becoming too large, this prompted the government to become inactive for a few months in the later parts of the 2010 year. However, it was during this time that Sandus' current national symbol, the Sovereign Eagle, became entrenched once more in the nation's symbolism and even became its own order. Along with this new order, Sandus began to expand and recreate its medal system to where it is today.
The Post Lethler Era is the time after Erusia was disgraced by an OAM report against him. It was a time of much uncertainty as the community was not sure of where to go or what to become. The community's very own state was on shaky terms as it ventured to three new sites and the administration expanded their power, all of which effected the foreign policy of Sandus.
Territory of Sandus, St.Charlie (October 2010–February 2011)
The Territory of Sandus was created on 19 October 2010 after several months of inactivity from the Barony of Kremlum Sandus. The country at the time was proud and devoted to becoming more St.Charlian, however, after the first and only election of the governor of the territory, the country began to desire sovereignty once more and on 21 February 2011, Sandus declared independence from St.Charlie.
Time without a Government (February–April 2011)
Sandus began to create its new constitution by the means of the State Caucus that was set up in the Territorial Law, should Sandus have wished to return to being a sovereign state. The State Caucus was headed by Will Sörgel and was a provisional government. At first, a socialist republican constitution was created, however it was not ratified at the national referendum. Over the next few weeks, the Caucus decided if the state should become either a monarchy or a direct democratic state. This question was pushed to referendum, and the people unanimously chose monarchy. The new constitution was ratified on 13 April 2011.
State of Sandus
The State of Sandus was created on 13 April 2011, when the State Caucus ratified the new constitution. The first public policy enacted by the Sôgmô, Abenaki for chief, was to nationalise the national newspaper, Veritum Sandus, so that it became the national register of the nation as well. In April and May, Sandus was involved in diplomatic issues between itself and Zealandia where, eventually, the Sôgmô would create a policy of non-involvement. On 9 May, Sandus celebrated Remembrance Day and, on 26 May, Sandus celebrated its second anniversary. On 27 May 2011, the Sôgmô created the Collegio Sacerdae, Sandus' first cooperative, which is tasked with the education of philosophy, religion and politics in Sandus. By the intent of the law, the Collegio Sacerdae serves as Sandus' first and only centre of education. Currently, the Collegio Sacerdae is working on documenting a total collection of the Orphic Hymns and other sacred texts, as well as creating a code of the Sandum philosophy as it is commonly called. In the latter months of 2011, the Sôgmô created policies in foreign affairs so as to limit the State into an isolationist policy with its recognition and foreign communications. On 7 until 12 November, the Citizens' Communist Party of Sandus celebrated its first formal congress, which included hopes for a future constitution and more activity for the CCPS. The Sôgmô, as well, created the State's first major goal with the establishment of an agrarian economy in Sandus by 2015. The Sancta Calendar, which is based off both Gregorian and Romulan Calendars, was incorporated more into government as it superseded the Gregorian calendar in official capacities; the introduction of an 8-day administrative week also means that weekly goals are made by the Office of the Sôgmô.
However, with the departure of Blesbí from the State, the Sôgmô has declared hopes of a broad act to reconsolidate the Sandum state after Blesbí and its leader, André Sammut, leave the State formally on 20 March 2012. In his New Year's address, as well, the Sôgmô expressed hopes to begin work on a proto-agrarian economy for Sandus in the 2012 year as well as creating a broad law on citizenship, amending the Libera policy, drafting and enforcing new treaties in Foreign Affairs, reforming the Collegio Sacerdae to pursue academic research and discussion, and creating more cooperatives for the State such as the cooperativisation of the CCPS.
On the 3rd of January 2019, the Sôgmô released a long-awaited edition to the Constitutional Project, this first edition includes how the three branches of Sandum government work and the divisions of power, information on Sandus's command economy and its relationship with the Central People's Government (CPG), heir election process, and it also includes tables of Sandum Noble ranks, healdry, and decorations.
Early Years of the State of Sandus (2011-2014)
Beginning of the Sandum Republic (2015-2020)
Sandus Today (since 2020)
Since the foundation of the State of Sandus in 2011, Sandus has developed a cohesive and clearly defined national philosophy that forms the foundation of the country's civil contract. At the heart of the Sandum philosophy lies a deep concern about human suffering and an incisive philosophical view that interrogates the causes of suffering on a multitude of levels, but especially personal and social. The Sandum philosophy has significantly influenced not just the politics of the country but even the lives of Sandum citizens who have joined the State of Sandus either because of the Sandum philosophy or at least in agreement with it. In order to become a Sandum citizen, citizens must make a series of affirmations that attest to their belief that—among other things—all people suffer, that workers should own the body of production where they work, that the public should own the means of production, that Sandus ought to be free, liberal, and tolerant. Past or future disagreement with these principles is grounds for a citizenship application to be rejected or for a citizen to be stripped of their citizenship.
Buddhism rests at the heart of the Sandum philosophy because of its epistemological focus on the cause of suffering and also its solution to the causes of suffering. Though some prominent Sandum citizens are religiously Buddhist, Sandum Buddhism is largely secular and is considered, as a philosophy, to not be an official religion, though some Sandum citizens have argued that it has been raised to a civic religion.
The Four Noble Truths explain that all sentient existence is suffering, characterised by three types of suffering: the suffering of suffering (e.g., pain), the suffering of change (e.g., financial upheaval or the deterioration of health), and the all-pervasive suffering of conditioning that is made up of the five aggregates (form, sensation, perception, cognition, consciousness). The root cause of all this suffering is attachement or desire (Pali: taṇhā) that occurs as fear, ignorance, ego, and hatred and that can be characterised as desire for pleasure (kāma-taṇhā), for existence (bhava-taṇhā), and for non-existence (vibhava-taṇhā) or as the three poisons (ignorance, desire, and hatred). Since suffering has a cause and an origin, however, it can be extinguished by letting go of attachment through what is known as the Eightfold Path:
- Right View: the law of karma (cause and effect)
- Right Intention: renunciation and compassion
- Right Speech: no lying, rude speech, or speech that causes discord
- Right Conduct: no killing, stealing, sexual activity, material desires
- Right Livelihood: life of the ascetic, possessing only what is necessary
- Right Effort: preventing the five hindrances and cultivating the seven wholesome states
- Right Mindfulness: attention to the present, focus on the nature of reality
- Right Meditation: namely, to train the mind to withdraw from automatic processes
Buddhist traditions have their own interpretations of the soteriological meaning of each element of the Eightfold Path, but in Sandus each takes a largely secular and cultural meaning. Emphasis is placed of course on karma (cause and effect), compassion, conduct and livelihood, but it is taboo in Sandus to prescribe one action or another to address another's suffering. An individual citizen's way that they respond to suffering is a matter of cultural, religious, and philosophical conditioning and cognition, and is therefore protected by personal freedoms in Sandus.
Buddhism in Sandus is largely limited to the epistemological foundations of Buddhist philosophy. Little emphasis is placed on the so-called "emptiness" traditions or Buddhist soteriological methods, including major doctrinal teachings such as dependent origination or tantra. Little discussion is made of the major schools of Buddhist philosophy, such as Abhidharma, Mādhyamaka, or Yogācāra schools, and only passing references are made to Theravāda, Mahāyāna, or Vajrayāna. These are considered to be too religious and esoteric to require them to be canonical in Sandum philosophy, though they are still understood to be foundational to Buddhist knowledge.
Sandus is divided into four provinces, which are loosely based on geography. Since Sandus follows the Sovereign Gradient Condominium Theory, most provinces do not have distinct borders but are rather considered "bounded territories." According to the theory, Sandum land extends out as a gradient from the citizen based on where they live and work and this land is seen as being shared in condominium with the macronation it is a part of. There are three provinces in North America and one in Europe.
|Kremlum Sandus||26 May 2009||2||none|
|Further Sandus||24 January 2014||10||none|
|Sandus Europāi||3 September 2016||4||none|
|Quercus Candida||21 September 2017||5||none|
Government and politics
The Central People's Government of the State of Sandus was established by the Founding Law of the State of Sandus ratified on 13 April 2011 and has changed overtime according to subsequent laws, decisions, plans, and customs in the State of Sandus. Sandus has an unwritten constitution, apart from the Founding Law, meaning that much of Sandum government and Sandum policy is decided by ad hoc decisions and reference to existing law.
Sandus is historically an absolute monarchy under the Sôgmô with Socialist rights and liberties embedded within its Founding Law, but over the years Sandus has developed a republican form of government. Ever since the foundation of Sandus, Sandum Philosophy has accepted the role of Socialism and Buddhism within the state, but Sandus also includes a number of political theories that guide the underlying principles of its government. The current government is created in recognition to the age-old leadership of the current Sôgmô and has grown over the years to include several branches and organs, significantly redefining Sandus into a republican form of government with three main branches and other branches that include their own checks and balances.
As a republic, the State of Sandus counts its three branches as the Sôgmô, the Citizens' Party of Sandus, and the Council of the State of Sandus. The Sôgmô has called the country a "classical republic," referring to the theories of government in Polybius and in Aristotle's Politics, with the Sôgmô corresponding to a monarchy, the Party to an aristocracy (in the technical meaning), and the Council to a democracy. However, at times, the Sôgmô has also referred to economic cooperatives and Sandus's socialist economy, as well as a planned branch for litigation, as being further checks on power in Sandus and as their own branches.
Plans to slowly transform the Central People's Government into a republic began in 2013 with the publication of the Building Democracy, Building the Council Plan. In November 2014, the Citizens' Party of Sandus approved the Sôgmô's plan to establish the council as a direct democratic assembly in Sandus, and the proposal was unanimously approved by national referendum at that year's Winter Solstice election. The Council was established on 4 January 2015.
The "dual definition" of the Sandum government refers to the ambiguity in how to define Sandus's government, quite literally the two definitions that are acceptable. Historically, the government has been seen as an absolute monarchy since the Founding Law declares that "All power is to the Sôgmô," but over the years the unwritten Sandum constitution has developed into a republican form of government with separate branches and a rudimentary system of checks and balances on powers. That said, at the same time as references to the division of powers is made, reference can still be made to the Sôgmô's absolute powers according to the Founding Law, meaning that the two definitions are not mutually exclusive. Reference can be made to them at the same time and the question is more about which is appropriate at the time. Rather than seeing this as contradictory, Sandum citizens tend to see this as part of a historical development, one that is not necessarily dissonant, and it helps the Sandum government resolve ad hoc decisions.
Due also to the slow development of the division of powers in Sandus, too, the division of powers is less about types of powers (e.g., executive, legislative, and judicial) and rather more about methods of power (e.g., monarchic, aristocratic, and democratic) found in classical republics. Different branches in Sandus can perform complementary functions, meaning that the dual definition helps to resolve conflicts about the appropriateness of which branch exercises what power. For example, historically the Sôgmô has had both exclusive powers over the economy and over diplomatic affairs. Over the years, however, custom has changed both to involve the Party in the management of the Sandum economy, since the Party represents Sandum workers and advocates for Socialism in the country. Today, both the Party and the Sôgmô may issue plans and decide on changes to the economy. In terms of diplomatic affairs, custom is now to have the Council ratify significant treaties and agreements, though the Sôgmô reserves day-to-day diplomatic powers and power over minor agreements (such as mutual recognition treaties). In both cases, the powers are moderated through a form of polite deference to the other branches, rather than power exclusive to one branch.
In the early years of the State of Sandus, the Central People's Government was hesitant to have a top-heavy micronational government due to its Realist stance. Only in July 2013, more than two years after the foundation of the State of Sandus's constitution, did the Sôgmô establish the first governmental body under the Office of the Sôgmô with the Bureau of the Treasury. At the time, Veritum Sandus noted that it created precedent in that in the future Sandus may see future ministries, though the Bureau of the Treasury was an independent sub-ministerial organ.
The current director of the Bureau of the Treasury is Adam Camillus von Friedeck.
The first ministry to be established in the country was the Ministry of Diplomatic Affairs, established on 18 August 2016. The ministry is responsible for responding to diplomatic requests, advising the Sôgmô on diplomatic policy, and engaging with Sandum partners and allies in the intermicronational world at large. Artemis Baca is the current minister.
The Ministry of Human & Environmental Health was the second ministry to be established on 6 August 2019. It is responsible for advising the Sôgmô on environmental policy, climate change, as well as on healthcare policy in the State of Sandus. The current minister is Jacob Barnet.
Three Grand Officers of State & the Junior Officers
The Sandum cabinet, also known by its long name the Three Grand Officers of State & the Junior Officers of State, includes the governing Sôgmô and the Party Secretary and Facilitator of the Council ex officio. Junior Officers of State include all ministers, directors of cooperatives, and leaders of other State organs. Adjuncts of State include all former leaders who have a tentative role in the cabinet.
The cabinet currently includes:
- Sôgmô Gaius Soergel Publicola
- Party Secretary Adam Camillus von Friedeck
- Facilitator of the Council Hatsu Ryuuhou
- Minister of Diplomatic Affairs Artemis Baca
- Minister of Human & Environmental Health and Director of Tellus Horticultural Coöperative Jacob Barnet
- Homard Gaius Flavius Ithacus
Citizenship in the State of Sandus is differentiated into three types: civis or full citizenship, socialis or social citizenship, and peregrine or auxiliary citizenship. All three types enjoy the basic rights set forth in the Founding Law of the State of Sandus, while full citizens also have suffrage in national elections and social citizens are eligible for suffrage if they complete charity taxes. Charity taxes are an obligation of all citizens to donate, volunteer, or to provide something tangible or intangible to charity in a season.
Sandum law forbids dual citizenship, requiring its citizens to bear sole micronational allegiance to Sandus or (in the case of social citizens) to bear allegiance to a member state of the Social System.
Citizens must give several affirmations when they apply to become Sandum citizens that reflect their belief in and adherence to the Sandum Philosophy. Applications are vetted by the Three Grand Officers of State and are voted on by Sandum citizens at large in the Council. Citizens must have been a peregrine citizen for a full month before becoming full citizens. In order to formally become citizens, citizens must make an appropriate oath or affirmation of citizenship that is regulated by law.
Organisation and rights
Sandus has embraced a simple and flexible governmental organisation, preferring to prioritise offices that perform expressed functions and eschewing ministries that exist in name only. A prevailing feature of Sandum government is its reliance not only on medium- to long-term planning such as that found in other Socialist regimes but also ad hoc decision-making and flexibility. Less reference is made to written law, for example, but rather to precedent and to motivating factors in a particular moment. A key motivating factor for embracing the simplicity of the Sandum system is the belief in Realism that encourages flexibility and praxis over theory.
The small size of the government allows the Sandum government to maintain democratic support from citizens and to receive public advice in Sandus at large. Ideologically, this closeness also plays a role in encouraging Socialism in the State. Members of government, who also tend to be members of the Citizens' Party of Sandus, are frequently the most active citizens in Sandus and most vocal in their support of Socialism generally. Unlike in systems with nomenklatura, however, distinction is not made on activity or membership in the Party or in government: Sandum citizens enjoy a close, reciprocal, and democratic relationship with the Sôgmô and with their government no matter their status. The right to petition the Sôgmô for redress or to change existing policy or to promulgate new policy is considered the basic democratic right in Sandus, dating to a time when it was the exclusive democratic output of democracy in Sandus. Over the years, reference to the right to petition has significantly widened the powers of democracy in Sandus, beginning with the election of the Sôgmô and the enfranchisement of the Party in 2011 to the establishment of the Council in 2015.
In addition to the right to petition, citizens also enjoy personal rights that cover political, social, cultural, and economic spheres of activity. As Sandus is a socialist country, these rights are known as "the rights to life" in Sandus, meaning that they are considered inalienable to all citizens—not to mention to all humanity.
The classic rights of the Sandum people and the right to petition the government for a redress of its function or in redress of its policies shall not be abridged.— Article 4 of the Founding Law of the State of Sandus
The People of Sandus enjoy the right to life, including the right to work, the right to rest, the right to care in old age and illness, the right to housing, the right to education, the right to culture, the right to expression, the right to conscience, the right to protection from the state and the right to the inviolability of the home. Each citizen is equal before the law.— Article 5 of the Founding Law of the State of Sandus
The rights to life include socialist economic rights (such as the right to a job, rest and leisure, and to an education) that are not found in many liberal democracies. However, as Sandus is a micronation, the rights and their provisions are moderated by the realities of micronational life. Reference to these rights does not extend beyond the micronational sphere that Sandus finds itself in.
Sandum diplomatic affairs have been shaped by several instances of piercing diplomatic policies that have significantly shaped its foreign affairs. In July 2009, Sandus decided to recognise the existence of all other micronations that demonstrate that they meet the criteria of the 1933 Montevideo Convention, namely by demonstrating that they have the capacity to enter into diplomatic relations. Rather than needing a formal treaty of recognition, the Sandum government errs on the side of requiring only a simple agreement to reciprocate recognition and friendly relations.
Sandus was an early member of the Grand Unified Micronational, whose membership it held on and off from 2009 to 2014. Through the early community, Sandus befriended many prominent micronations, including Landashir, Erusia, Francisville, Renasia, St.Charlie, Nemkhavia, Egtavia, and Austenasia. From 2009 to 2011, Sandus was a vocal international proponent of Socialism and was a key party in the Great Ideological Conflict. Gaius Soergel Publicola has at several times chaired the GUM.
Early in the existence of the State of Sandus, the Central People's Government decided to distance itself from the MicroWiki community, preferring instead to chart its own independent course. In 2011, after months of invoking Libera as a reason to come to the vociferous defence of Sandus and of its Socialist system, the Sôgmô adopted a new policy that would begin a period of diplomatic isolation in the Winter season, beginning with the Armilustrium (19 October) and ending with the Festival of Fortuna Publica (5 April). The policy was increasingly invoked in 2013 and later as a reason for Sandus's isolation from the intermicronational community at large, leading Sandus to prioritise internal development over robust foreign policy. The policy of moderate isolationism continues in the present day, though less rigorously, as the Central People's Government prioritises internal activity over external diplomatic affairs.
As a Realist micronation, Sandum foreign policy often reflects Realist attitudes and interests, sometimes putting the country at odds with simulationist, hobbyist, and satirical micronations.
Sandus has been a key intermicronational proponent of social freedoms, human rights, human dignity, and LGBTQ+ rights. In 2014, the State of Sandus drafted the Denton Protocol, a controversial international agreement that sought to protect the rights and privacy of transgender micronationalists. Sandus received much scorn and ostracism for pioneering the protocol, chiefly from Brooklyn Hewitt, Bradley of Dullahan, Yaroslav Mar and Jonathan I. In 2016 and 2017, for example, when Sandus applied for membership and later for observership in the GUM, its application was rejected because of Sandus's adherence to the protocol. In 2020, Sandus drafted the Augusta Accord and incorporated criticism of the Denton Protocol. As a part of these efforts, as well, Sandus has frequently collaborated with other micronations on accords, statements, and significant diplomatic policies that respond to micronations that seek to undermine international peace, human rights, and human dignity.
Since 2012-2015, Sandum foreign policy has been shaped by increasing cooperation with a small number of micronations and by a growing presence on the international stage. In 2012, the Sôgmô took part in the 2012 PoliNations conference in London. In 2013 and 2014, Sandus established social relations with Kumano and Überstadt, respectively. Eventually, these social relationships (which allowed Kumanoese and Überstadti citizens to become Sandum citizens) eventually formed into the Social System, an intermicronational organisation independent of Sandus and shared in common with social members. In 2015, Sandus was a founding member of the MicroFrancophonie and, in 2018, sent a delegation to the second OMF summit in Vincennes, France. In 2017, a Sandum delegation took part in MicroCon 2017 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States, and again in 2019 at MicroCon 2019 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Organisation de la MicroFrancophonie
The State of Sandus is a founding member of the Organisation de la MicroFrancophonie (OMF), an organisation it helped to create on 30 May 2015. The Central People's Government consistently considers the OMF and its members as a key partners on the international scale, and ranks the organisation highly on the list of its diplomatic interests. In July 2018, the Sôgmô represented the State of Sandus at the 2018 OMF Summit in Vincennes, France, and Sandum delegations frequently meet (whenever possible) with member-states of the organisation. In addition to members of the OMF, Sandus also maintains close relationships with other French-speaking micronations and with other Francophile micronations.
The State of Sandus is a founding member of the Borean Community, a North American anti-fascist intermicronational organisation that encourages international solidarity on the continent. Along with leaders in Überstadt and Saint-Castin, the Sôgmô worked to draft the oranisation's charter and encouraged its ratification in a number of other micronations. As Sandus was the first to sign the community's charter, Sandus was the Borean Community's first member to hold the presidency, an office that is rotating among its members based on seniority.
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Sandus began developing an economy in 2011, when the Founding Law of the State of Sandus declared that Sandus's economic system was socialist, forbade private ownership of the means of production, and foresaw the creation of a system of cooperatives.
In 2012, the Sôgmô declared some basic goals for developing and organising the Sandum economy by 2015 that focused on the country's vision for its economic focus, what cooperatives would exist, and how the economic system as a whole would be constructed. The goals were largely met with success, since they entailed defining the economic characteristics of Sandus rather than aspiring to a fully-fledged and productive economy. The 2015 Economic Goal, as it was called, was so influential that it dominated Sandum economic planning until 2020 when new reforms to the cooperative system were beginning to be planned. The chief focus of the economic goal was the creation of an "agrarian" economy under Tellus Agrarian Cooperative (now Tellus Horticultural Coöperative).
In late 2012, Sandus had begun diplomatic discussions with Technocratic Renasia through the Commission for Mutual Economic Prosperity to cooperate and to construct a mutual technocratic service economy.
Sandus was a founding member of the Saint Josephsburg Economic Pact that sought to regularise free trade across the pact, though its participation in the pact was short-lived. By 2016, the SJEP had fallen inactive and Sandus no longer considered itself a member.
On 10 January 2020, Sandus and Überstadt founded the Common Economy, an intermicronational organisation associated with the Social System for free trade and a single socialist economy shared between members. The treaty that established the Common Economy, ratified by Sandus on 21 December 2019, foresaw a schedule of different treaties that spelled out in fuller detail the exact provisions of the Common Economy, such as a common cooperative and state enterprise system, a combined monetary system, and trade and production standards consistent across the whole economic community. In July 2021, both Sandus and Überstadt ratified a new treaty that regularises the economic structures of both economies.
In July 2020, Tellus was reorganised into Tellus Horticultural Coöperative, beginning a wave of cooperative reform in the State of Sandus. Jacob Barnet had proposed the cooperative be organised under a new "Dharmachakra model" where there is no vertical hierarchy but rather a centre with a director and local "spokes" or work-groups, such as with a wheel. (The traditionally Buddhist "Dharmachakra" means "Wheel of Buddhist Philosophy.") Since then, the Central People's Government and the Citizens' Party of Sandus have discussed future reforms to existing cooperatives and to the cooperative system as a whole either through modification of the cooperative system in Sandus or through a subsequent treaty in the Common Economy. On 8 February 2021, the Sôgmô granted the Collegium Sacerdotum a new royal charter for its tenth anniversary that brings the cooperative in line with the most recent Sandum economic reform proposals.
Article 6 of the Founding Law of the State of Sandus established the economic basis of the State of Sandus as through cooperatives "created by and amongst the people" that are the country's means of production. The official interpretation of the Founding Law recognises a constitutional expectation ab initio that cooperatives are managed by worker's democracy, though over the years the Central People's Government has frequently directly managed each cooperative. Recent proposals for cooperative reform have sought to restore the expectation and goal of establishing worker's democracy in cooperatives.
The Sandum system of cooperatives encourages representation on behalf of the whole cooperative. Beneath the entire cooperative level, local divisions of labour exist and operate under work groups that may take alternative names in cooperatives. For example, in the Collegium Sacerdotum work-groups are called "sodalities," while in Tellus Horticultural Cooperative they are called "associate gardens." Work groups may even be further subdivided into "teams," though no such division exists in Sandus.
On an individual level are workers who may make up a work-group, depending on the cooperative and local conditions. A worker that exists independently and that operate as a functionary is also called a chargé•e d'affaires (French: "charged with matters"). Some chargés d'affaires operate as independent posts, such as that of Scribe or Epulo.
|Central People's Government (CPG)||State Organ||4||13 April 2011||Governance of the State of Sandus||Sôgmô of the State of Sandus
Gaius Soergel Publicola
|Office of the Sôgmô with two Ministries, one Bureau, and chargé•e•s d'affaires|
|Collegium Sacerdotum||State Enterprise||4||27 May 2011||Developing Sandum Culture
Religion, Philosophy, Culture
|Flamen Minervalis Gaius Soergel Publicola
(ex officio the Sôgmô of the State of Sandus)
|Convocation with three semi-autonomous sodalities (work-groups) and chargé•e•s d'affaires|
|Citizens' Party of Sandus||State Organ||9||June 2009||Representing the Sandum Proletariat and the Interests of Socialism||Secretary of the Party Adam Camillus von Friedeck||Party Congress with Central Committee|
|Tellus Horticultural Cooperative||Worker Cooperative||2||29 June 2013
28 July 2020
|Jacob Barnet P. Σ.||Worker's democracy with an elected director and local gardens (work-groups)|
|Erganê Artisanal Cooperative||Worker Cooperative||2||24 August 2014||Arts and Crafts
Self-Sufficiency in Material
|State Media Enterprise||State Enterprise||2||3 August 2017||Print and Audiovisual Media||None official, Gaius Soergel Publicola de facto||None, see Sandum Media for work-groups|
The Collegium Sacerdotum (Latin: "College of Priests," originally called "Collegio Sacerdotae" in Sandus's conlang "Sancta") was the first cooperative formed on 27 May 2011 with the purpose to represent religious and philosophical communities in the State of Sandus and to develop and define Sandus's own culture.
Tellus Agrarian Coöperative, now Tellus Horticultural Coöperative (THC), was the country's first economic cooperative founded on 29 June 2013 with the initial purpose to develop Sandus's economy along agrarian lines. Today, THC now works to represent, to benefit, and to organise Sandum gardeners and horticulturalists.
Erganê Artisanal Coöperative was the second economic cooperative to be established on 24 August 2014 with the initial purpose to provide homemade clothing production and to represent arts and crafts as a valid socialist economic mode of production in Sandus; today, however, the cooperative casts a larger net in terms of what counts as "arts and crafts," no longer restricted so strictly to homemade clothing production.
On 3 August 2017, the State of Sandus established the State Media Coöperative (SMC) in order to combine and unite the authorial and editorial functions of Sandum Media. On 7 August 2018, SMC joined the MicroFrancophone media conglomerate Mnat together with media companies in Aigues-Mortes and Saint-Castin.
State & Common Enterprises
When both Sandus and Überstadt ratified their second Common Economy treaty that regularises the economic structures of both states, a second and third category of economic entity was created. Both state enterprises and common enterprises provide public goods and services, but differ based on their scope and governance. State enterprises are managed and governed by Central People's Government of the State of Sandus, while common enterprises are managed by the Commission for the Command Economy.
Sandus has a unique culture derived from a variety of multicultural sources yet all made uniquely “Sandum” thanks to Realism‘s Active Micronational Cultural Development Theory and the Sandum Philosophy’s Sancta category. Cultural development has often been a key priority of the State of Sandus and its efforts date back to times when cultural development in Sandus was a trend-like behaviour: the many pre-State of Sandus governments were often different cultural trends in Sandus, such as French culture under the first Barony of Sandus (December 2009 to April 2010).
In Sandus today, Sandum culture is becoming increasingly independent and unique, though Sandus still relies on multicultural backgrounds. The Armilustrium on XIX Octobro (19 October) is an example of this where an ancient Roman festival, originally intended to expiate the negativity of post-war troops, has been turned into a festival welcoming Autumn and Winter for a seasonal expiation of negativity in general — especially during the dark months. Multiple other festivals can be found here on the Sandus website and the Office of the Sôgmô publishes semi-monthly fliers for Sandum holidays — including State (governmental) holidays, Sancta (Sandum cultural) holidays, and “days of recognition” (holidays for specific causes). To include an entire list of Sandus’s cultural institutions would be difficult to accomplish, as there are still trends in the modern State of Sandus; however, a general cultural background can be given.
Sandus is, at its root, a Buddhist culture influenced in large part by ancient Western civilisations and by the struggles for social progress and national liberation from the 20th and 21st centuries. Sandum culture and Sandum arts are largely influenced by the Sandum Philosophy, though with cultural motifs found in classical and modern liberal societies. Certain political theories are also important in Sandus, such as Realism, Libera, and Philia. These political concepts are often combined with Sandum Philosophy to tell a unique story of Sandum culture…
"This is my nation, Sandus — a nation built on the idea that we all suffer in our lives and that, through common bonds and common love, we can all overcome that which causes our suffering. By building a strong collective of individuals, built upon common respect and love for our fellow citizens and for Sandus, we hope to build a better life for ourselves, our loved ones, and for those who come after us. In Sandus, we are all family, suffering together in this world; though we may suffer together, this does not mean that we can overcome it together — that we must do alone, but with the help of our Sandum family. Sandus is as much about the victory over suffering as it is about working to overcome it: the fact we exist is a testament to Sandus’s never-ending victory. With Realism, we know that a collective and united Socialist Sandus must seek our pragmatic solutions to its situation as a self-created nation-state and nation-project; with Libera, we vow to keep Sandus free and along the strong and powerful path of overcoming our suffering — both in our minds and in our societies — by Socialism; with Philia, we vow to seek pragmatic activities to keep developing Sandum culture as interdependent of other cultures. This is my nation, Sandus — a nation built on ending suffering by Socialism." -Sôgmô of Sandus
In terms of the arts, Sandum artwork is a cultural phenomenon being expanded and defined. While abstract visual artwork, often of landscapes or seascapes, and artwork without a point of focus has been the latest trend in Sandus, Sandum culture is still tremendously fluid as a self-created culture. Media is often important to Sandum culture, as well, as it includes the common parlance and phrases used here (“Ave, Sandum Citizens!“, “Sovereign People of Sandus“, or “Comrade Citizen“). In addition to parlance, media expresses Sandum culture in theory in defiance of the principle that micronational culture in practice is more difficult for micronations — though, Sandus has practised Sandum culture in the past, and plans on doing so in the future despite all odds. Under projects for leitourgía and for liaisons, Sandus working to continuously develop the Sandum culture, our nation-project, and the micropatriological background of our State. In the past, many cultural projects have produced a unique Sandum culture and have made Sandus into a culturally fulfilling micronation as it is today.
Music & Art
Sandus has over 300 national holidays, including cultural, religious, and political holidays. Holidays fall into three categories: State holidays, Sancta holidays, and “days of recognition.” State holidays are important holidays which are uniquely Sandum and celebrate historical events in Sandus. Sancta holidays are derived from various cultures and religious traditions. These include Tibetan Buddhist holidays, Roman festivals, and Christian holidays, to name a few. “Days of recognition” are political and social holidays that do not rank as important as State holidays and that serve a particular purpose. These include holidays like Start Your Own Country Day, Transgender Day of Remembrance and Resilience, Realism Day, and Revolutionaries’ Day.
State holidays include:
- 20 February: Day of Secession
- 13 April: Day of Foundation
- 1 May: Labour Day
- 9 May: Remembrance Day
- 26 May: Day of Creation, or Sandum Independence Day
- 7 November: National Day of Socialism
Some important Sancta holidays are:
- 1 January: Gregorian New Year
- January: Month of Peace
- Losar, or Tibetan Lunar New Year, occurs in January or February
- 1 March: Sancta New Year
- 1 April: Veneralia
- Week of 28 June: LGBTQ Pride Week
- 1 August: Lammas
- 19 October: the Armilustrium
- 28 November: Athena’s Day
- 17-23 December: Saturnalia
- 25 December: Christmas and Dies Natalis Solis Invicti
Sandus is a officially a secular country. Approximately 38% of Sandum citizens are Christians, while 43% are not religious, atheist, or secular humanists. 19% of Sandum citizens are Buddhists and some form of neopagan. Traditionally, however, Sandus is considered a Buddhist and Roman Neopagan country. Sandus was created in 2009 as a lamate, a micronation run by a Tibetan Buddhist scholar and monk not unlike the Bhutanese monarchy. From 2009 to 2012, Sandus was inspired by Roman culture (among others) and added many Roman holidays to its national calendar.
Since Sandus is a socialist country, all religion is organised under the state-run Collegium Sacerdotum, the Sandum cooperative dedicated to religion, philosophy, and culture.
Sandum media includes audio, visual, and printed media published in the State of Sandus. All of the media outlets are owned and operated by the State Media Cooperative.
To date, Sandum media includes Veritum Sandus, Channum Unum, the Voice of Sandus, Sacerdotium, and the Tellus Sibyl. The history of media in Sandus dates to mid to late 2009, when Sandus created its first newspaper in the form of a periodical image file and a Livestream channel was created.
|Media Name||Type of Media||Frequency||Publication Founded||Description|
|As needed||May 2010||The first periodical newspaper in Sandus eventually became Veritum Sandus (Sandum Latin: “Truth of Sandus”) in November 2009 and was moved to WordPress in that month; however, the first Veritum Sandus article dates from May 2010. Veritum Sandus has been used as the official register and journal of Sandum governments since its foundation, and continues to exist as the premier newspaper after a long period of having only one newspaper. Today, Sandus has four newspapers yet Veritum Sandus still remains the most important and most widely-read in Sandus for its national and international journalism. Veritum Sandus has been recognised as being one of the premier intermicronational newspapers in the micronational world, whose opinion editorials and articles on Sandum national news are both widely read and widely respected. As the national newspaper, Veritum Sandus is often at the vanguard of Sandus’s political, social, and cultural developments and is featured greatly in all Sandum national efforts.
Access Veritum Sandus by clicking here
|Channum Unum||Video/Audio||As needed||Early 2009||The first and only video channel in Sandus, Channum Unum (Sandum Latin: “Channel One”) was established in late 2009 as a Livestream channel. Channum Unum has had other, smaller channels on Livestream too: Partio, Festai, Alnôbak, Kanaka, and Norskemann. Partio was dedicated to broadcasting CPS Party news and Socialist music; Festai was dedicated to broadcasting marches for 9 May – Remembrance Day in Sandus; Alnôbak was dedicated to Native American music and information; Kanaka was dedicated to Hawai’ian, Polynesian, and other Pacific Islander culture, music, and information; and Norskemann was a temporary channel established to commemorate the 2011 Oslo and Utøya attacks. Though it no longer broadcasts on Livestream, Channum Unum still regularly releases videos on its YouTube channel. Due to a recent update to YouTube in late 2013, however, a new channel has been created specifically for Channum Unum.
Access Channum Unum by clicking here
|Voice of Sandus||Newspaper||As needed||May 2012||The first secondary newspaper in Sandus serving the CPS Party specifically, the Voice of Sandus is a newspaper interested on Party news, Socialist opinions, and the publication of revolutionary Socialist cultural and social work. It was established in May 2012. As the official journal of the Party, it publishes articles focused on Sandum politics of Libera, Realism, and Philia; regular and special articles; and revolutionary music for the State and Party.
Access Voice of Sandus by clicking here
|As needed||September 2012||The official newspaper and journal of the Collegium Sacerdotum, Sacerdotium (Latin: “Office of Priests”) was created in September 2012 following the establishment of Voice of Sandus. Publishing works of micropatriological, academic, religious, philosophical, and cultural importance is the function of Sacerdotium. Despite being the second smallest and second youngest newspaper in Sandus, Sacerdotium attracts the most irregular visitors thanks to the broader Pagan, neo-Pagan, and Polytheist community that the Collegio is focused on.
Access Sacerdotium by clicking here
|Tellus Sibyl||Newspaper||Seasonal||October 2013||The youngest and smallest newspaper in Sandus, Tellus Sibyl is a periodical newspaper which reports on seasonal and harvest news from Tellus Agrarian Cooperative. Its publication is irregular and is often announced on Veritum Sandus.
Access Tellus Sibyl by clicking here
|Radio Patria||Audio||Bimonthly||2014||The newest addition to Sandum media, Radio Patria is Sandus’s first and only radio station. Broadcasting only on the internet through such sites as SoundCloud and through Channum Unum on YouTube, Radio Patria broadcasts at irregular times at least once every month. Broadcasts come in five segments: News, Music, Lesson or Interview, Events Coming Up, and sélection Française — a selection of the news and upcoming events made in Sandus’s second official language, French.|
- Act on Citizenship of March 2012, Sections 2 and 3. The Sandum cursus honorum no longer exists, but provisions are still kept in place for praetors to run the local government of provinces.
- "Sôgmô Establishes Treasury & Persumo, Reforms Legislative Process", Veritum Sandus, published 2 July 2013.
- "Sôgmô Immediately Establishes Ministry, Appoints Minister of Diplomatic Affairs", Veritum Sandus, published 18 August 2016.
- "Major Reshuffle of Ministries, New Health Ministry", Veritum Sandus, published 6 August 2019.
- "Sôgmô Passes Major Foreign Affairs Reform", Veritum Sandus, published 27 September 2011.
- Though the Central People's Government is not a cooperative, it counts as a cooperative in Sandus for employment and salary purposes.
- The Citizens' Party of Sandus is officially a cooperative in the State of Sandus, but it exists as an independent branch in the Sandum republican constitution together with the Sôgmô and the Council.
- In Sandus, the Sôgmô and the Central People's Government officially uses the diaeresis to signify that double vowels are not diphthongs, so the official name of the THC includes a diaeresis (e.g., coöperative vs. cooperative or co-operative).