Constitution of Meridica

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The original draft of the constitution's preamble and proclamation
The Constitution of Meridica (officially known as the Constitution of the Meridican Republic) is the supreme law of the Republic of Meridica under which the nation, and its departments, operate, and remains heavily influenced by both the American and Australian Constitutions. The Constitution was originally drafted in January 2013 shortly following the Declaration of Independence, but it would not be until March 16 (Constitution Day) for the constitution in whole to be approved by all members of the Meridican Senate as part of the Meridican Independence Laws (or Bills).

History

Shortly following the Meridican Declaration of Independence from Australia, all four founders of the nation came together in an attempt to formulate a binding constitution for the new state to adopt, the first attempt being drafted in the days following independence by two of the founders (including future President Richard Millard), the majority of the draft's contents eventually being inserted into the latter constitution as the preamble and proclamation, as well as the bill of rights. However, it wouldn't be until mid-March in which the constitution was formally written and edited, this period of time taking place over three days until a suitable final draft was presented. On May 16, with a vote from all founders, they passed the Constitution through the Interim Senate as the Constitution of the Meridican Republic, alongside the formal Declaration of Independence, and National Annexation of Territory Act, all together being dubbed the Meridican Independence Laws.

Constitution of the Meridican Republic

Preface

We, the people of the nation of Meridica, do hereby declare that the land governed by the citizens of this nation be placed under the laws of this constitution in an unbinding union.

The Proclamation of the Republic

It shall be once this act is signed by 2/3 of the Senate of Meridica in which the nation shall be proclaimed as legally independent. The nation in context shall be henceforth known as the Republic of Meridica, and this constitution shall be binding to all federal structures of the state, including, but not limited to, all t̶e̶r̶r̶i̶t̶o̶r̶i̶e̶s (departments), citizens, judges and courts. Following the ratification of this constitution, it shall from then on be citied as the Constitution of the Meridican Republic

Part I - General Powers

1. Legislative Power - The legislative power of the Republic of Meridica shall be henceforth vested in the Federal Congress, which shall consist of a President, and a unicameral Senate, which is hereinafter named The Congress of the Republic of Meridica or The Congress.

2. President - A President shall be appointed by the people of Meridica by preferential voting every 2 years. The position shall be subject to the Constitution, and shall be expected to uphold the functions and powers of such Constitution.

3. Sessions of Congress - The President may call for a meeting of the Congress as he sees fit, and may, if he by proclamation, prolong the Congressional sitting. However, the Congress shall not be expected, nor forced to, by proclamation or otherwise, meet 10 days before, nor after a General election.

4. Session Meetings - The sitting Senators shall not be forced to meet if the date from the last Senatorial meeting was 5 months, however, if more than the allocated time frame has passed, the Senate shall be, by proclamation by the President, be brought to the Capital or nearest t̶e̶r̶r̶i̶t̶o̶r̶i̶a̶l (departmental) capital.

Part II - The Senate

1. The Senate - The Senate shall be composed of Senators for the purpose of representation of the t̶e̶r̶r̶i̶t̶o̶r̶i̶e̶s (departments), directly chosen by the people by preferential voting. Until the Congress of Meridica can provide otherwise, the individual t̶e̶r̶r̶i̶t̶o̶r̶i̶e̶s (departments) shall make laws regarding their individual number of electorates, and shall not be subject to Congressional laws in regard to the number of electorates. The Senators shall be chosen for a 2 year term, and the names and political representation of the said Senators shall be certified by the President of Meridica.

2. Qualification of Senators - The qualification shall be subject to this constitution, and shall not be changed until Congress provides correct amendments. The qualifications shall be as follows; One must be literate; Must not be a lobbyist, or ever been one, and; Have substantial knowledge of the Constitution of Meridica.

3. Method of Selecting Senators - Until Congress provides otherwise, the selection of Senators shall be determined by the preferential voting system, and shall not be placed under any other law in regards to voting systems, or method of selection.

4. Failure to Elect Senators - In the absence of a Senator due to the failure of an electorate, the position shall be filled by an acting Senator chosen by the President. The acting Senator shall step down following the election of the aforementioned Senator.

5. Issue of Writs - The President or State-Senator may cause writs to be issued for the election of Senators. If this occurs, in the case of the dissolution of the Senate, the writs must be issued within 5 days of the election.

6. Speaker of the Senate - The Senate shall, before proceeding to the despatch of any other business, vote among their colleges on a Speaker of the Senate, if such an office is vacant. The Speaker shall cease to have this position if he defies any state laws, or has broken his bond with the Constitution, in which the Senate may be required to vote on articles of Impeachment. If the sitting Speaker is impeached, the office shall become vacant until the next available Senate meeting.

7. Resignation of a Senator - A Senator may, by writing to the President, Speaker, or by order through writs, be able to resign his/her place in the Senate, or be forced from his/her place, in which that position shall be taken up by an acting Senator until the next available general election, or left vacant.

8. Voting in the Senate - Any and all voting within the Senate must be handled through voting of the Senators, and the result shall be determined by 2/3 of the votes, and each Senator shall obtain one vote each. The President shall be entitled to a vote in all cases except in the case of passing Bills and Laws. If all the votes are equal, the issue shall pass in the negative.

Part III - The President

1. Voting for the President - The President of the Republic of Meridica shall be voted in terms of preferential voting. Any man or women, r̶e̶g̶a̶r̶d̶l̶e̶s̶s̶ ̶o̶f̶ ̶a̶g̶e, shall be admitted to become President if they meet the requirement of; literacy, not be, or having been a lobbyist, having a substantial amount of knowledge of the Constitution, and have the required majority (1/2) of the popular vote. If the required majority is is not met immediately, the preferential voting system shall work to elect the President.

2. Powers of the President - The President has the powers of;

• The ability to present a bill to Congress without being signed by a sitting Senator;

• The ability to line-veto presented bills;

• The ability to sign bills into law, and;

• The ability to call Congress at any time the incumbent sees fit with regards to prior restrictions found in this Constitution.

3. Dates of Incumbency - The date of the national Presidential election shall take place on 15 May every two years. This date shall be subject to change if such an election occurs on a Sunday, in which the election shall take place a day earlier. The President shall assume the office of presidency on the first day in June following the election, and shall be required to recount the Meridican Presidential Oath of Office in order to take the office. There shall be no terms limits in the Presidential office, and the incumbent shall be in a position to run as many times as he/she sees fit, or until they are removed from office via impeachment.

Part IV - Powers of Congress

1. Legislative powers - The Congress of Meridica, subject to this constitution, shall be endowed with the power to make laws of peace, order and good government of the Republic in respect to:

• Trade and Commerce with international entities and nations, and among the t̶e̶r̶r̶i̶t̶o̶r̶i̶e̶s (departments);

• Taxation, but with respect to the t̶e̶r̶r̶i̶t̶o̶r̶i̶e̶s (departments) taxation systems, and to not discriminate between the t̶e̶r̶r̶i̶t̶o̶r̶i̶e̶s (departments);

• Boundaries in terms of good production and agricultural land;

• Borrowing money and public debt;

• Communication, with respect to electronic, paper, telegraphic or other forms of such communication;

• Astronomical or Meteorological observations or positions;

• Marriage, unions, and spiritual holidays or events;

• Quarantine of dangerous animals or diseases;

• Census and the accompanying statistics;

• Currency, coinage and all legal tender;

• Banking, including State banking, and the regulation of such institutions;

• Weights and measurements;

• Bankruptcy and insolvency;

• M̶i̶l̶i̶t̶a̶r̶y̶,̶ ̶a̶n̶d̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶ ̶t̶a̶x̶a̶t̶i̶o̶n̶ ̶a̶n̶d̶ ̶m̶o̶v̶e̶m̶e̶n̶t̶ ̶o̶f̶ ̶s̶u̶c̶h̶ ̶o̶r̶g̶a̶n̶i̶z̶a̶t̶i̶o̶n;

• Copyright, patents of invention and design, alongside trademarks and the protection of the people against injustices found in them;

• Regulation of Corporations and their respective owners, alongside trading and financial corporations found within the Republic;

• Pensions for the elderly;

• The Healthcare of the citizens of our nation, with full respect and payment given to children, adults the elderly;

• Criminal activities and the rehabilitation of said criminals;

• The relations with other nations;

• The protection of Asylum seekers, immigrants or emigrants;

• The transportation and, by proxy, any transportation mechanisms, including auto-mobiles, trains or horses;

• The protection of the environment, and the regulation of said protected land;

• Matters in respect of which this Constitution have made law, until Congress provides otherwise;

• Matters of the execution of any power, or position of power;

• The seat of government and the Senate, and all places or towns seated by any parliament or political power, and;

• Any matters declared by this Constitution to be within the power of Congress, the Senate or the President.

Part V - The Bill of Rights

1. The Rights of Humankind - The rights of man shall be published in this section of the Constitution, and any to all laws in respect to the Republic of Meridica must strictly uphold these following rights;

• Life - Every human is entitled to life, liberty and happiness, and can freely have these at the expense of no other individual;

• Liberty - Every human has the right to petition, assembly, press and freedom of speech for or against the government, and talk freely without invoking federal reaction or laws that would otherwise take away such freedoms;

• Establishment - Every citizen is entitled to freedom of religion, belief and the ability to broadcast that belief, however, Congress must never establish a religion as its own, or declare a single deity or spirit as its own, nor ever pass a law in respect to discriminating against ones religion, or that belief;

• Search - Every citizen is entitled to turn down law enforcement if they have no warrants issued, evidence for unlawful activities within reasonable bounds, nor shall law enforcement be entitled to spy or hold private information of any citizen;

• Law - All humans have the right to a trial by a jury of its peers, and shall take place in the eyes of the people, with rights to a lawyer. No humans shall be forced by Congress or the Federal government to answer for a pernicious or otherwise infamous crime, unless such crime was proven unanimously by the aforementioned jury of peers, and during such process, they shall not be subject to loss of any freedoms granted to them by this Constitution;

• Discrimination - The inalienable rights of man shall be kept, with every human subject to no physical or lawful discrimination in the categories of race, age, physical structures or features, religion or other spiritual beliefs, nationality, political beliefs or livelihood.

• Movement - No human shall suffer injustices based on where they lived or wish to live, nor suffer incarceration by seeking asylum or seeking protection from another nation.

Part VI - Amendments

All amendments to the Constitution must be passed first in the Senate, with two-thirds of Senators voting for the said amendment. The President must then sign the aforementioned Constitutional amendment, making it law. The President’s right to line-veto does not apply to Constitutional amendments.

1. The Right to Education - All humans are subject to protection from federal and t̶e̶r̶r̶i̶t̶o̶r̶i̶a̶l (departmental) mandates on compulsory education, and every citizen above the age of 13 is entitled to choose whenever to take said education, or not.

2. Right to Consent - A̶l̶l̶ ̶h̶u̶m̶a̶n̶s̶ ̶a̶r̶e̶ ̶e̶n̶d̶o̶w̶e̶d̶ ̶w̶i̶t̶h̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶ ̶r̶i̶g̶h̶t̶ ̶t̶o̶ ̶d̶o̶ ̶a̶s̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶y̶ ̶w̶i̶s̶h̶,̶ ̶w̶i̶t̶h̶ ̶o̶n̶l̶y̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶ ̶c̶o̶n̶s̶e̶n̶t̶ ̶n̶e̶e̶d̶e̶d̶ ̶b̶y̶ ̶m̶u̶l̶t̶i̶p̶l̶e̶ ̶p̶e̶r̶s̶o̶n̶s̶ ̶t̶o̶ ̶b̶e̶ ̶a̶ ̶f̶a̶c̶t̶o̶r̶ ̶i̶n̶ ̶d̶e̶c̶i̶s̶i̶o̶n̶ ̶m̶a̶k̶i̶n̶g̶.̶ ̶T̶h̶i̶s̶ ̶r̶i̶g̶h̶t̶ ̶i̶s̶ ̶s̶u̶b̶j̶e̶c̶t̶ ̶t̶o̶ ̶a̶n̶y̶ ̶a̶n̶d̶ ̶a̶l̶l̶ ̶o̶t̶h̶e̶r̶ ̶r̶i̶g̶h̶t̶s̶ ̶e̶s̶t̶a̶b̶l̶i̶s̶h̶e̶d̶ ̶i̶n̶ ̶t̶h̶i̶s̶ ̶C̶o̶n̶s̶t̶i̶t̶u̶t̶i̶o̶n̶,̶ ̶a̶n̶d̶ ̶m̶u̶s̶t̶ ̶a̶b̶i̶d̶e̶ ̶b̶y̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶m̶ ̶a̶b̶o̶v̶e̶ ̶a̶l̶l̶ ̶e̶l̶s̶e̶.

3. Right to Peace - From this date (23 May, 2013) the Defence force of Meridica is hereby dissolved, and any laws in regard to military or it's applications are to be considered null-and-void. From June 5, 2013, all military personal are to step down, and all military action shall be considered illegal.

4. Abolishment of Lobbying - One month following the ratification of this Amendment, all Lobbyist groups working at the bequest of "for profit" corporations shall be declared abolished, and no citizen shall be entitled to affect the due process of Congress, the Senate, or the President if they are employed to do so by said companies or corporations.

5. Repeal of Right to Consent - From the date of the new year of 2014, the Second Amendment to the Constitution is hereby repealed. All prior laws in regards to the amendment are therefore nullified, but abrogation shall not affect the other rights found within this constitution.

6. Minimum Age - The rights of all citizens within the Republic of Meridica who are fifteen years or older shall not be abridged, and this article shall henceforth establish the age of fifteen as the minimum for holding office, with Congress endowed the power to enforce this amendment with proper legislation.