User:JosephKennedy2/Sandbox 2

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Commonwealth of Havnesgade-Amager
Flag of Amager.png
Flag
Official Arms.png
Emblem

Motto
Fortitudo et Virtus (Courage and Virtue)
Anthem
Amagerian Psalmter
National Map.png

Capital city Koningswyk (executive; seat of the Sovereign)
Charlestown (legislative)
Saint Constantine (judicial)
Largest city Koningswyk
Official language(s) English
Amatine
Afrikaans (recognized in Natal)
Ashukov (recognized in Havnesgade)
Demonym Amagerian (primary)
Amatine
Ashukov
Government Federation, constitutional monarchy with a directorial executive and parliamentary democracy
- Sovereign King Joseph of Havnesgade-Amager
- Federal Council HH the Duke of Urquhart (First Minister)
The Most Hon. The Marchioness Scott
HH the Duke of Ashukovo
- Federal Chancellor Vacant
Legislature Parliament
- Upper House Chamber of Patricians
- Lower House Federal Assembly
- Type - Bicameral
- Number of seats - 4 and 6
- Last election - 2018
Established 1 June 2011 (old Confederation)
x September 2018
Area claimed 50 sq. km (including ceremonial borders)
Population 45
Currency Amagerian Pianeta
Time zone Varies
National sport Association football
National animal White-tailed deer, mute swan
Patron saint Saint Charles the Martyr

Official website and paper

The Commonwealth of Havnesgade-Amager, also known as Havnesgade-Amager or simply Amager ([ˈɑmɑːˀ] or, especially among older speakers, [ˈɑmæːɪ̯ˀɐ]), is a nation-state movement, transcontinental nation-state in Europe and North America governed as a federal constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. Originally established as a parliamentary presidential federal republic with a single-party system in June 2011, Amager has undergone various changes of administration throughout the years it has been active.

The Commonwealth of Havnesgade-Amager was a parliamentary democracy with a directorial executive, the Federal Council, ruled over by a Sovereign of the Commonwealth, Joseph, and administered by a parliament. The nation was a direct democracy and a highly devolved state, with local and cantonal governments in all twelve communes and cities, five ridings and three cantons.

Saint Luke and Amager, with a mixed market capitalist economy (social market economy) and a large welfare state, ranked as having a high level of income equality. It was frequently ranked as a happy and lowly corrupt nation. The national language, Haevian Francillish, is closely related to Norwegian, French and Francillish, with which it shares strong cultural and historical ties. Amager is a member of the St.Charlian Commonwealth, EMCO, League of Capitalists (ruling party), and Unicus, a think tank and multilateral group for addressing the issues of creating constructive micronational governments through a quasi-confederation supranational political union (similar to the European Union in some ways). Amager also held a non-voting seat in the St.Charlian Parliament. Amager was one of the most influential and respected younger nations in the MicroWiki community until its dissolution after the a month or so of unstable rule following Hobartstown and Victoria's secession. Multiple nations in the MicroWiki community today trace their roots to Amager, including Natal and Ashukovo.


Etymology

Amager, and the larger name of Havnesgade-Amager (Havnegade being a road on Amager), comes from the name of Amager Island, which is partially part of Copenhagen and Amager itself. The name pays homage to the island and Copenhagen.

The name of Saint Luke has a much different origin however. It pays homage to the patron saint of the Republic, Luke the Evangelist. According to legend, a plague broke out in the nation long ago. Prayers to the saint cured the infections apparently, leading to his honouring.

History

Prehistory

Amager's territory at its height was spread out throughout North America and Europe, and thus prehistory of areas claimed by Amager is diverse and extensive. The earliest known inhabitants of metropolitan Amager, that being the original Amagerian territorial claims in the New England region of the United States, were Native Americans who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages. Some of the more prominent tribes include the Abenaki, the Penobscot, the Pequot, the Mohegans, the Pocumtuck, and the Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire and Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine. Their principal town was Norridgewock, in present-day Maine. The Penobscot were settled along the Penobscot River in Maine. The Wampanoag occupied south-eastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks, Western Massachusetts. The Connecticut region was inhabited by the Mohegan and Pequot tribes prior to European colonization. The Connecticut River Valley, which includes parts of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, linked different indigenous communities in cultural, linguistic, and political ways.

According to archaeological evidence, the indigenous people of the warmer parts of Southern New England had started agricultural endeavours over a thousand years ago. They grew corn, tobacco, kidney beans, squash, and Jerusalem artichoke. Trade with the Algonquian peoples of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, where the growing season was shorter, likely provided for a robust economy. As early as 1600, French, Dutch, and English traders, exploring the New World, began to trade metal, glass, and cloth for local beaver pelts. In the year 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which would come to dominate the area, was established by royal charter. Later on, in 1784, New England (Amager) would become a strategic part of the newly formed United States.

Foundation and early politics

The proposal for the formation of a state was made by Jules Grant on June 1, 2011 and work began on forming the micronation the following day with Grant becoming the de facto leader and founding father of the nation. The nation's original name was Havnesgade-Amager and it gained a presence within the MicroWiki community after Grant joined MicroWiki and created an article on the micronation on 7 October 2011. Early Havnesgade-Amager was a unitary semi-presidential republic, though the government's structure and nature would change numerous time throughout Amager's history and was often the subject of intense political disputes, especially during Amager's early history. Amager's first constitutional structure emerged in late October 2011, though it was largely uncodified and based on a series of law. Though the Constitution would later be codified, these initial acts formed the nucleus of the future Amagerian state and political structure.

Grant assumed the newly formed position President-Minister of the now renamed Saint Luke and Amager until the first elections could be undertaken, sharing power with his current partner Victoria Liszt, who assumed the position of First Minister. Amager's early political scene was largely bipartisan and divided between the Socialist Labour of Victoria Liszt and Jules Grant's Conservatives.

Government development and growth

7 November 2011 saw the creation of the honors of Amager. Designed by Grant on November 8, the Order of Amagerian Honour, the Parliamentary Medal of Freedom, the Order of Saint Veronica and the Peace Award were created to recognize contributions and achievements in Amager. This system of honours was an important part of Amager politically and culturally until its dissolution.

Logo of the OAM, of which Amager was a mandate of after the signing of the Treaty of Amasburg.

However, November also saw weeks of parliamentary inactivity, after which the government was compelled to sign the Treaty of Amasburg which made Amager become a member of the then major Organisation of Active Micronations as a mandate governed by the organisation, mainly with representatives sitting in place of the government and in essence controlling it. This era is retrospectively seen as one of the lowest points in Amagerian history and caused deep routed anti-micronational organisation sentiments among many elements of the Amagerian populace for years. The Organisation of Active Micronations had a great deal of authority under the stipulations of the Treaty of Amasburg, and under their influence Amager became a unicameral semi-President-Ministerial republic, with federalism being abolished in favour of a unitary structure.

December 2011 brought the Embezzlement Trials of Alexia Wynn of Amager, the Federal Chancellor since the early month of August. She was accused and by executive order found guilty of stealing from the state treasury for own gain, a total of eighty Francs, twenty United States Dollars at the end of several months, a major contribution to the economic debates of the January elections for President-Minister and successive rebellions from the Helsing and Labour front.

Towards the end of the month, the Organisation of Active Micronations dissolved and subsequently the constitution of Amager was left disabled and unable to govern. Provincial status was assumed and the government rushed for cover before being pummeled by the media of Amager. There was a widespread lack of confidence in the government, and under these circumstances became part of Eniarku for a brief time. Shortly after regaining its independence Amager joined the Dale Commonwealth and in effect the previous political structure and constitution was suspended. This position however also proved unsustainable and Amagerian regained its full political independence shortly thereafter.

Elections of 2012 and the Socialist Coups

The 2012 elections for President-Minister soon came around, and under a new weak constitution, elections went forth. The government spent a great deal of time and money organizing a potentially working administration. The two ministries of Amager supported Victoria Liszt out of the lack of confidence in President-Minister Grant's ability to govern.

The Socialist's anger at the political establishment soon became apparent, and with bickering found at many state dinners and anger from all sides of the nation, elections soon became untenable. Liszt herself was prepared to engage in a coup d’état, and when plans of this were discovered elements loyal to Grant's government, he immediately moved to press charges. Liszt quickly fled the mainland and ran for the Socialist-dominated city of Victoria in Chiract. The Federal Police and other loyalists were called upon, and with the President-Minister learning of Liszt's escape to Victoria, a state of active conflict was assumed. The government quickly gave an ultimatum to the Socialists and mandated the fighting stop. Liszt was arrested shortly thereafter.

With Liszt arrested, Grant was reelected President-Minister by default, and a more stable post-coup Amager slowly began to form. Major reforms instituted with such policies as direct democracy and federalism being a key part of Amager's second constitution, which was pioneered by Grant. Electoral provisions were then made for early June, which soon led to the destabilising rise of the Labour successor party of the Helsing, named for it wanting to destroy Amager's establishment.

Socialist elements within Amager again rose up and attacked Amagerian politics, proposing to throw out the new constitution. Things went south from the debates, and upon Election Day, support was rallied by the Helsing to once more attempt to overthrow Grant's government. In a similar fashion to the Listz's attempted coup, the Helsing organised marches to attempt to force a government change. Worse than Liszt, when finally defeated, the Helsing were granted a damnation of memory, and widespread efforts were undertaken by the government to remove them from recorded Amagerian history. Due to this knowledge about the Helsing is limited, and their movement was effectively destroyed with the Democratic conversion of the city of Victoria, Chiract which removed the last socialist stronghold. This caused the rise of moderate politics within Amagerian government and society, and led to a suppression of the far-left and far-right and their removal from mainstream politics.

Gloriana period

The official emblem of the Amagerian Labour Party, whose rapid rise took place during the Gloriana period.

The end of the national crises of the past brought forth the Gloriana period, which is seen by most historians as the golden age of Amagerian history. Amager joined the Grand Unified Micronational, as well as seven other institutions, as well as the establishing of the Unicus group in Amasburg. Amager achieved greater stability diplomatic prestige by making Declan of Hobartstown, the former King of the Amagerian predecessor nation of Victoria, was made Doge and later Steward of Saint Luke and Amager in a cultural office celebrating the old monarchy. However, this move was unpopular among the more left-wing elements of Amagerian politics, who had managed to achieve and upsurge of support after moving away from the more extreme far-left ideology of past Amagerian labour movements.

In this time, two successive constitutional revisions were adopted, creating a confederal structure as well as a sounder semi-direct parliamentary democracy. The nation became also much more seen on the community scale, beginning to distance itself from its unstable past. Leon Simpson's New Nevadan Republic was admitted to the Confederation in November 2012, and shortly thereafter became the Amagerian state of Libereco. This caused a major realignment of Amager's political system as for the first time Amager expanded outside of North America. Libereco's population was also largely left-leaning, which meant that the unquestioned dominance of the center-right in Amager's politics was ended. In the following months, Amager moved towards being a true Confederation with the admittance of numerous different states including Akharnes, Montania, Doshevika and others. The absorption of the largely left-leaning states of Montania and Doshevika also led to the foundation of the Labour Party under Liberecan President Leon Simpson's leadership which rapidly became a powerful political force within the Confederation with Joseph Kennedy and Charles Clarke of Montania and Doshevika respectively becoming members, with the latter writing a comprehensive manifesto for the party which proved popular with many Amagerians.

Despite this resurgence of the left in Amagerian politics, the new found stability and growth led to a large increase in confidence in Grant's government, with Grant himself having an 87% approval rating before the 2013 elections. Nonetheless, Grant's Democratic Unionists failed to gain an overall majority and thus a power sharing agreement was formed between the Democratic Unionists, Nationalists, Greens and the Labour Party. Grant assumed the position of Prime Minister, whilst Labour leader Leon Simpson assumed the position of Deputy Prime Minister. Green leader Sebastian Schriber and Nationalist leader Edward Jacobs also obtained prominent Cabinet roles as part of the compromise.

The nation’s status in the St.Charlian Commonwealth was also cemented during this period, with approval being obtained despite the opposition of the Labour Party. Amager began to move towards a more liberal social outlook, and in late 2012, marriage for LGBT couples was achieved through legislation proposed by the Labour Party. Unicus, an Amagerian-led organisation, was also founded on the St. Charlian Social Principle of a more active and social nation, proposed to bring a new brand of democracy to the community in light of current failures of the long loved GUM in Amager. Unicus was reformed into the short lived Amagerian association programme, whilst allowed a number of younger micronations the status of 'associate state' of the Confederation. During this period other nations also came close to joining the Confederation, such as Gremmia before the deal fell through in the face of the opposition of the Gremmian legislature.

Despite the stability of this period, some national conflicts were experienced between the Garshirrian nations, and there was some diplomatic tension with Wyvern and Sandus, as well as a potential seceding of the states of Luciania and Akharnes following discontent about their status within the Confederation in both states. Nonetheless, policies were cemented, and with this the most stable era of Amagerian history continued. In early January 2013 the Foreign Minister instituted a change in Amager's foreign policy in regards to micronational organisations after the 2012-13 GUM leadership scandal, with Amager withdrawing from several organisations, including NAMCO, the GUM, UAMW, the Blue Cross, and the OMAP. However, Amager would later return to the GUM.

March 2013 saw Grant call new elections, which again led to no party gaining an overall majority and a renewal of the power sharing agreement between the four main parties. The Cabinet had a minor reshuffle, but Grant was reluctant to disturb the status quo between the parties, and so the elections actually resulted in very little change.

Hobartstown crisis and collapse

Portrait of Joseph Kennedy, the last head of government of Amager.

Whilst it appeared that the Gloriana period was set to continue for the foreseeable future, the era of stability came to an abrupt end with the sudden emergence of the Hobartstown and Victorian independence movement in the face of what they saw as the Labour Party's attacks on traditional Amagerian values. First Minister Grant announced his support for the movement soon after, and he subsequently resigned his post. This destroyed the Democratic Unionists as a political force and caused a political crisis until the Labour Party used their new found majority to form a government. Leon Simpson assumed the position of First Minister and Joseph Kennedy became the Second Minister. Simpson subsequently held and extraordinary session of the Federal Assembly at which he announced plans for a fourth constitution in Amager's history, and appointed an interim Federal Council until the constitution could be approved.

The Fourth Constitution instituted numerous reforms. It abolished the role of First Minister in favour of a slightly less powerful Prime Minister and established a presidency independent of the St.Charlian Commonwealth. Leon Simpson was elected President and Joseph Kennedy was named Prime Minister. Despite still being praised as a fine document, the Fourth Constitution was unable to hold the Confederation together. The Federal Assembly voted to officially dissolve the Confederation on 6 August 2013.

Government and politics

The government and politics of Amager differed greatly throughout Amager's history, as from its foundation until its dissolution Amager had no less than four different constitutions and shifting governments and political alignments meant that the government's structure and nature was reformed several times. However, throughout most of its history Amager was a parliamentary republic, with the large Federal Assembly as its centrepiece. Amager always had a multi-party system, usually with two or three strong parties, although there was four main parties during the Gloriana period. There were also a multitude of smaller political parties, often representing regional interests or single issues. Most political parties in Amager varied between center-left and center-right, although left-wing extremism was more prominent in early Amagerian history.

The Prime Minister of the Confederation (later First Minister) was the first among equals, head of government and leader of the Federal Assembly as the Speaker of the Assembly. The Prime Minister had the power of veto over parliamentary decisions although it was rarely used and the Federal Assembly had the right to overrule such a veto with the consent of two-thirds of its members. In urgent situations where an Assembly decision could not be made in a reasonable amount of time, the constitution empowered the Prime Minister to act on behalf of the Assembly. There are only a few instances in Amagerian history where the head of government exercised such power.

Between April 2012 and February 2013 Amager operated with a kind of quasi-republican system, as the Steward (formerly known as Doge, Federal Protector and Amaseme) acted as an entirely ceremonial monarchical figure, similar to the role played by the Emperor of Japan. On 15 February 2013, said role was transitioned into a subnational ceremonial monarchy in Hobartstown and Victoria alone, with the last holder of the position being Jonathan I. During the same period where Amager had a Steward as its head of state, it also used a directorial system, with a collective head of government known as the Federal Council. The Federal Assembly was the unicameral legislative body of Amager throughout most of its history and it was elected by mixed-member proportional representation, creating direct representation legislative wise.

The judiciary was independent of the executive and the legislature. The civil and common law system of the nation was governed by two systems, the regular administrative courts, headed by the Federal Chancellery. Administrative courts process cases where official decisions are contested. The Federal Chancellery was elected annually from the life-appointed members of the Chancellery, and served as head of the Federal Court Circuit.

Amager also had a confederal structure. The principle of subsidiarity defines that the competence to make decisions was established at the most relevant level of government. A constituent nation, that being a state within Amager, was in political union with Amager, in communal sovereignty, but no member held sovereignty apart from the Confederation as a whole. Member states were not independent, but were in communion with Amager. Member nations shared sovereignty, but awere not nation states but simply nations.

Constituent countries

Name Joined
Akharnes flag.png Akharnes 1st December 2012
DoshevikanFlag.png Doshevika 18th February 2013
Flag of Havnesgade.png Hobartstown and Victoria 2nd February 2013
Flag of Libereco.png Libereco 21st November 2012
MontanianFlag.png Montania 6th Febuary 2013

Political parties

Amager was always a multi-party state, and its composition of political parties consistenly varied. Early Amagerian politics was largely bipartisan in nature and defined by conflict between conservatives and socialists. However, with Amager becoming a Confederation during the Gloriana period there were a number of diverse political groups. The four main political parties during the period were the National Party, the Democratic Unionists, the Green Party and the Labour Party, all of which participated in a power sharing agreement. Below shows the aforesaid four parties and their policies.

Party Founded Ideology Main leader
Conservative Party.png 2012 Liberal conservatism Edward Jacobs
Democratic Unionists Front.png 2012 Economic liberalism, eco-capitalism, civil libertarianism, community politics, classical liberalism Jules Grant
Green Front.png 2012 Green democracy Sebastian Schriber
Labour Party Amager.png 2013 State socialism, labourism, environmentalism, Amagerian democracy, pro-welfare state, promotion of an Amagerian President independent from the St. Charlian Presidency Leon Simpson

Geography and climate

Mainland Amager's long rolling hills, mountains, and jagged coastline are glacial landforms resulting from the retreat of ice sheets approximately 18,000 years ago, during the last glacial period. The coast of is dotted with lakes, hills, swamps, and sandy beaches. Further inland are the Appalachian Mountains, extending through much of the nation. Among them is Mount Washington, which at 6,288 ft. (1,917 m), is the highest peak in the Northeast and is the second-highest peak in the Appalachian Mountain system as well as the second-highest mountain east of the Mississippi River. It is the site of the second highest recorded wind speed on Earth, and has the reputation of having the world's worst weather.

Climate and biodiversity

Amager 2.jpeg
The climate varies much through the nation. Most of Amager has a humid continental short summer climate, with mild summers and cold winters. South-eastern Amager have a humid continental long summer climate, with warm summers and cold winters. Owing to thick deciduous forests, fall in Amager brings bright and colourful foliage. Trees are very common in Amager. The most common kinds are maple, oak and chestnut. Springs are generally wet and cloudy. Average rainfall generally ranges from 1,000 to 1,500 mm (40 to 60 in) a year, although the southern parts of Amager see slightly less, from 500 to 1,000 mm (20 to 40 in). Snowfall can often exceed 2,500 mm (98 in) annually.
Climate data for Amasburg, Amager
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 74
(23.3)
76
(24.4)
89
(31.7)
97
(36.1)
99
(37.2)
102
(38.9)
108
(42.2)
105
(40.6)
105
(40.6)
93
(33.9)
85
(29.4)
76
(24.4)
108
(42.2)
Average high °F (°C) 38.1
(3.39)
41.1
(5.06)
50.1
(10.06)
60.8
(16)
71.4
(21.89)
80.2
(26.78)
85.2
(29.56)
83.2
(28.44)
75.7
(24.28)
64.7
(18.17)
53.7
(12.06)
43.0
(6.11)
62.3
(16.83)
Average low °F (°C) 24.4
(−4.2)
26.6
(−3.0)
34.2
(1.22)
43.7
(6.5)
54.1
(12.28)
63.5
(17.5)
69.1
(20.61)
67.7
(19.83)
59.9
(15.5)
48.2
(9)
39.1
(3.94)
29.8
(−1.2)
46.7
(8.17)
Record low °F (°C) −8
(−22.2)
−14
(−25.6)
6
(−14.4)
16
(−8.9)
33
(0.6)
41
(5)
51
(10.6)
45
(7.2)
35
(1.7)
25
(−3.9)
12
(−11.1)
−8
(−22.2)
−14
(−25.6)
Source: NOAA

Environment

Amager's ecosystems can be particularly fragile, because of the many delicate valleys separated by high mountains, often forming unique ecologies. The mountainous regions themselves are also vulnerable, with a rich range of plants not found at other altitudes, and experience some pressure from visitors and grazing. The climatic, geological and topographical conditions of the region make for a very fragile ecosystem that is particularly sensitive to climate change.

Foreign relations

Amager's foreign policy was directed by the Foreign Ministry. Whilst early Amagerian foreign policy was unclear and largely focused on relations with nations such as Eniarku and Dale, both of which Amager had formerly been a part of. There was also a brief sovereignty dispute with New Europe during this early period, and for a brief time during the mandate era Amager's foreign policy was controlled entirely by the Organisation of Active Micronations after the signing of the Treaty of Amasburg. During the Gloriana period, however, Amager had a clearly defined foreign policy which was instituted by Prime Minister Grant and enacted by Leon Simpson, who was then the Minister of Foreign Affairs. During Simpson's tenure as Foreign Minister, Amager had an official foreign policy focused on Swiss-like neutrality in intermicronational disputes and forming official relations with any nation of similar principles. During the Gloriana period, Amager left a number of inactive micronational organisations such NAMCO, UAMW, the Blue Cross, and the OMAP. Additionally, out of frustration with the 2012-13 GUM leadership scandal Foreign Minister Simpson convinced Prime Minister Grant to leave the Grand Unified Micronational, though Amager would later return to the organisation after it stabilised. Below is a list showing both nations Amager recognised and had official relations with at any point in its history.

Culture and demographics

Amagerian culture was closely related to the cultures of Scandinavia and Northern Europe, but upon moving towards a confederal structure and the admittance of a number of states from around the world Amager developed a more multicultural society. States such as Libereco chose to move away from the traditional Northern European style Amagerian culture in favour of a more Latin nature. The Amagerian Federal Department of Home Affairs actively encouraged the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs. The governments of Jules Grant and the Democratic Unionists also encouraged the development of a united Amagerian culture, with limited success.

Society

Amagerian society was one which strongly emphasised humanitarianism. In fact, the section on the rights of citizens is the longest in the constitution, four of a total seven pages in the first and second constitutions and a significant length in the third and fourth constitutions as well. It may also have been one of the longest bills of rights in micronationalism, after Francisville, which has always had a notoriously comprehensive constitution. Amager was influenced by Émile Durkheim, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Max Weber, so many Amagerian were interested in the social sciences and practices, anthropology, and making their political view libertarian for the large part, though this was by no means true for the entire Amagerian population.

Amagerian society is also one with very clear social rankings, as power and influence seem to go together easily.

Media

Amagerian media is relatively rich and well written. As per freedom of speech, the government allows all citizens to speak their mind freely. The largest publication in the nation is the Amagerian Voices, a government critical and highly controversial paper. It takes no position, but gives overall liberal and Democratic-biased reporting.

Languages

Several languages are spoken in Amager, including French, Catalan, English, Haevs, and Spanish. However, a small number of these are actually recognized.

English remains the common language, with Spanish as well. Haevs, Catalan, and French are languages spoken by the more educated part of society.

Symbols

External links

References