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Contents

Previous business of the Grand Forum of All Citizens

This page is a list of Beaconite legislative decisions made by the Grand Forum, in order of enactment.

Constitution of the Serene Beaconite Republic

Legislative history

First enacted by the Beaconite Municipal Assembly, with unanimous consent.

Preamble

We, the Beaconite people, seek a more perfect nation that defends our rights and our voices, with institutions that can stand against the test of time and act where necessary. Therefore, we denounce our previous constitution and enact the following—

Article I: Our Serene Republic

  1. Our state is to be officially known as the Serene Beaconite Republic, and referenced in law and by our Citizens as ‘Our Serene Republic’.
  2. Our Serene Republic is to be Free and Democratic, and derives its sovereignty from the people.
  3. Our Serene Republic succeeds the Principality of Beacon City and Its Associated Dominions and Wards, and upon its foundation is to be responsible for all Wards formerly administered by the Principality, but not its Dominions.
  4. The working language of Our Serene Republic is to be English.

Article II: Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

  1. Our Serene Republic affirms the principles of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration is to be binding in law.
  2. The lack of enumeration of any particular Rights in the Declaration is not to be construed to deny the people any other Rights.

Article III: The Grand Forum

  1. The Chief Legislative Authority of Our Serene Republic is vested in a Grand Forum of All Citizens (‘Grand Forum’).
  2. The Grand Forum is to be administered by the Rector of the Serene Beaconite Republic (‘Rector’), who is to act as Head of State. The Rector enjoys membership of the Grand Forum at all times.
  3. A Citizen who has obtained an age specified by law has the right to become a member of the Grand Forum. This right may be exercised by notice to the Rector.
  4. Members of the Grand Forum are to be known as Electors.
  5. A decision of the Grand Forum is to be made by majority. In making such a decision, each Elector is to have one vote.
  6. The business of the Grand Forum is to be determined by the Electors. Any proposal for an item of business must receive the backing of at least two other Electors before it may be brought before the Grand Forum. A proposal must be laid before the Rector.
  7. The Rector may dismiss proposals which they deem irrelevant, inactionable or unconstitutional. Electors may appeal a dismissal to a justicial authority, and if the appeal is successful, the Rector must place the proposal on the next Ballot. Neither the Rector’s decision nor the decision of the justicial authority on this matter preclude later judicial review of the constitutionality of the proposal.
  8. On the first day of each Calendar Month, the Rector must deliver a Ballot to each Elector, containing every item of Business on which the Grand Forum is to decide. The Rector may refuse to include an item of Business on the Ballot if it was not received at least seven days prior. The Electors must return their Ballot to the Rector, with their votes, by the eighth day of the Calendar Month. The Electors may choose to abstain from any items of Business on the Ballot.
  9. The Rector must announce the results of the Ballot on the ninth day of the Calendar Month.
  10. The Rector may bring forward or postpone the Ballot process by up to two Days if they deem necessary. An extension on this time limit may be made by a justicial authority.
  11. If a proposal is rejected by the Electors, it may not be proposed for the two subsequent Ballots without the express permission of the Rector.
  12. Where two proposals to the Grand Forum coincide with or contradict one another, the Rector must contact the relevant Electors and try to reach an agreement on a single mediated proposal. Should that fail, the Rector is to amend or dismiss the proposals so as to avoid coincidence or contradiction.
  13. The secrecy of the Ballot is to be maintained and the individual voting records of Electors are not to be tracked, but the Rector may track whether Electors have voted, and if an Elector has not voted in three consecutive Ballots, the Rector may remove their membership of the Grand Forum. The former Elector may become a member again at any point.

Article IV: The Minor Council

  1. An additional Legislative Authority of Our Serene Republic is vested in a Minor Council of the Serene Beaconite Republic (‘Minor Council’).
  2. The Minor Council is to be administered by the Rector, though the Rector must not vote in any proceeding of the Minor Council unless they hold proper membership.
  3. The Grand Forum must elect three members to the Minor Council every six Calendar Months. But if two members of the Minor Council should vacate their Offices, the election must be held at the next Ballot of the Grand Forum.
  4. The Minor Council is to make legislative decisions on issues that require a quicker response than the Grand Forum is able to deliver. The Rector is to determine if an issue is sufficiently urgent to warrant a response from the Minor Council.
  5. Should a decision of the Minor Council remain in effect by the time of the next Ballot of the Grand Forum, then the decision must be placed on that Ballot.
  6. Where a vacancy has opened in an Office elected by the Grand Forum (other than Offices on the Minor Council itself), the Minor Council may elect someone to serve in the Office until the next Ballot. The law may provide that a deputy serves in that Office until either the Minor Council makes its temporary appointment or the Grand Forum elects someone to the Office.
  7. The proceedings and voting record of the Minor Council are to be a matter of public record.

Article V: The Magistracies

  1. The Executive Authority of Our Serene Republic is vested in the Magistracies.
  2. A Magistracy may be established by the Grand Forum. The mandate of the Magistracy must be specified on establishment.
  3. Each Magistracy is to be led by a Magistrate, who must be elected by the Grand Forum. The law establishing a Magistracy may also create junior Offices in the Magistracy. The law may specify that these junior Offices are to be elected by the Grand Forum in the same manner, or appointed or held ex officio by other officials.
  4. A Magistrate is to exercise the functions of any vacant junior Office. The Rector is to exercise the functions of any vacant Magistrate’s Office unless there is a deputy or similar who may lead the Magistracy instead.
  5. The Magistrates are to sit as members of the College of Magistrates in order to maintain a uniform governing strategy. The Rector may also sit on the College of Magistrates, though the Rector may not vote unless they hold proper membership.
  6. The College of Magistrates must elect a Chief Magistrate, whose responsibility is to co-ordinate the governing strategy of the Magistracies.
  7. Electors may propose in the usual manner that an election is called for a Magistrate’s Office; if this succeeds, such election must occur on the next Ballot. Otherwise, an election for a Magistrate’s Office is to occur twelve Calendar Months after the previous election.

Article VI: The Justicial Councils

  1. The Justicial Authority of Our Serene Republic is vested in a Senior Justicial Council of the Serene Beaconite Republic (‘Senior Justicial Council’) and any other junior Justicial Councils as the Grand Forum may establish.
  2. There is to be an odd number of Justices sitting on the Senior Justicial Council, with the number of Justices being provided by law.
  3. Justices of the Senior Justicial Council must be elected by the Grand Forum for a twelve Calendar Month term. A potential Justice requires confirmation by the Minor Council. Justices may not serve as Magistrates or members of the Minor Council.
  4. The Senior Justicial Council is to be administered by a Chief Justice, who is to be elected by the Justices.
  5. The Senior Justicial Council is to sit as an appellate court of last resort.
  6. The Justicial Councils may issue such writs and orders as appropriate in each case in aid of its jurisdiction.
  7. The Justicial Councils are to have the power of Judicial Review over the actions of the Rector, the Grand Forum, the Minor Council and the Magistracies.
  8. Other than the Senior Justicial Council, the Justicial Councils are to be bound by the precedents set by previous analogous decisions of the Justicial Councils.
  9. The Chief Justice of the Senior Justicial Council may order the Rector to lay an item of business before the Minor Council.

Article VII: Citizenship

  1. Those who were citizens of the Principality of Beacon City, the Empire of New Winterdown, or the Empire of Novadal are entitled to Citizenship, as are citizens of the Landgraviate of Satirno at the time of this Constitution’s enactment.
  2. Those born in the borders of Our Serene Republic or the Landgraviate of Satirno are entitled to Citizenship.
  3. Those born to one or both parents with Citizenship are entitled to Citizenship.
  4. The law may provide for the naturalisation of other individuals.
  5. Unless the law provides otherwise, the Rector is to be responsible for the granting and revoking of Citizenship.

Article VIII: The Rector

  1. The Rector is to serve for life, but may be removed from office by seven-tenths vote  of the Grand Forum and majority vote of the Minor Council.
  2. Upon the vacancy of the Office of the Rector, the next Rector must be elected by the Grand Forum. The Grand Forum must vote two Calendar Months later on whether to keep the new Rector in their Office, and again another four Calendar Months later. If the Grand Forum votes against the new Rector in any such vote, a new election for the Rector must be held.

Article IX: Final provisions

  1. No individual may hold an office set forth under this Constitution, other than that of an Elector, without holding office as an Elector.
  2. Before becoming an Elector, a Citizen must make an Oath or Affirmation in the following form: “I, [name], do solemnly (swear/affirm) to uphold the principles of the Constitution of Our Serene Republic and to carry out the duties of my Office faithfully, without prejudice, and in the best interests of the People.”
  3. If and when it becomes necessary to amend this Constitution, it requires the seven-tenths vote of the Grand Forum and majority vote of the Minor Council, and the signature of the Rector.
  4. The first Rector is to be the Prince of Beacon City at the time of this Constitution’s enactment.
  5. The Rector may exercise any function of the Minor Council until the first Minor Council is elected.
  6. Existing treaties of the Principality of Beacon City are to remain in effect for three Calendar Months after the enactment of this Constitution.

R000-001 Ballot Act 2018

Legislative history

First enacted by the Rector pursuant to Article IX.6 of the Constitution. Referred to appear on the May 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously. Amended by P001-004 and P001-010; the latest version is given here.

Enacting clause, long and short titles

Be it enacted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, as follows—

Minor Council Referral 000-001, Ballot Act 2018

An Act to make provision for the Business, Procedures, and Ballot distribution methods of the Grand Forum.

Chapter I: On the Business of the Grand Forum

Section A: General citations and categorisation

  1. The Business that the Grand Forum considers is to be divided into six categories, each denoted with a single initial letter:
    1. Propositions, denoted P, which take the form of a written bill of legislation, which are to be known as Acts upon their enactment;
    2. Elections, denoted E, which take the form of the election to an Office established by the Constitution or by law, or a question of whether to call an election for a particular Office if such a proposal is permitted;
    3. Treaties, denoted T, which take the form of a binding agreement with another sovereign entity;
    4. Charters, denoted C, which take the form of formal documents granting rights or powers to particular persons or groups;
    5. Local Ordinances, denoted O, which take the form of a written bill of legislation;
    6. Motions, denoted M, which are any Business that cannot be categorised as one of the above, including non-binding items;
    7. Minor Council Referrals, denoted R, which are be any action taken by the Minor Council that the Grand Forum must then consider at its next Ballot. Though Minor Council Referrals will additionally fit into one of the previous categories, they are categorised only as Minor Council Referrals.
  2. Each item of Business is to be assigned a Citation Code for future reference.
  3. The Citation Code is to be of the form “[X][MCN]-[BIN]”, where—
    1. X is the category letter as defined above;
    2. MCN is the number of the Minor Council, beginning at 001 and increasing sequentially with each newly elected Minor Council, though any Business proposed before the first Minor Council election is to have an MCN of 000;
    3. BIN is the number of the item of Business, beginning from 001 for each newly elected Minor Council and increasing sequentially.
  4. The MCN and BIN are to be written with at least three digits.

Section B: Citations and formatting of Propositions

  1. A Proposition must have a Short Title and a Long Title. The Short Title must take the form “[Name] Act [Year of Enactment] ([Additional Descriptors])”, where the Name and Additional Descriptors are chosen by the Electors proposing it, and the Additional Descriptors are optional. The Long Title must begin with “An Act to…” and then describe the purpose of the Proposition. All provisions of the Proposition must be described by the Long Title.
  2. Each Proposition must have its articles formatted in the following hierarchy:
    1. Chapters, numbered sequentially with Roman numerals;
    2. Sections, denoted sequentially by uppercase letters of the Roman alphabet;
    3. Articles, numbered sequentially by Arabic numerals;
    4. List items, denoted sequentially by lowercase letters of the Roman alphabet.
  3. Chapters and Sections represent divisions of the Proposition and may have titles. Articles contain actual legal provisions, and any lists required in an Article will be written in List item form. If a Proposition is short enough to not require Chapters or Sections, they may be omitted.
  4. Each Proposition must begin with an Enactment Clause of the following form: “Be it enacted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, as follows—”
    If the Proposition amends the Constitution, the Enactment Clause is of the following form: “Be it enacted by a Consensus of the Grand Forum of All Citizens and also the Minor Council and the Rector, as follows—”

Section C: Citations of Elections

  1. An Election is to be named on the Ballot in the form “[Ordinal] Election to the Office(s) of [Office(s)]”, where Ordinal is replaced with the ordinal number of the election to that Office, and Office is replaced with the title of the Office, with pluralisation as needed.
  2. If the item is a question of whether to call an election for a particular Office, the item is to be named on the Ballot in the form “[Ordinal] Recall Motion for the Office(s) of [Office(s)]”.

Section D: Citations and formatting of Local Ordinances

  1. A Local Ordinance must have a Short Title and a Long Title. The Short Title must take the form “[Name] Local Ordinance [Year of Enactment] ([Additional Descriptors])”, where the name and Additional Descriptors are chosen by the Electors proposing it, and the Additional Descriptors are optional. The Long Title must begin with “A Local Ordinance to...” and then describe the purpose of the Local Ordinance. All provisions of the Local Ordinance must be described by the Long Title.
  1. Each Local Ordinance must have its articles formatted in the following hierarchy:
    1. Chapters, numbered sequentially with Roman numerals;
    2. Sections, denoted sequentially by uppercase letters of the Roman alphabet;
    3. Articles, numbered sequentially by Arabic numerals;
    4. List items, denoted sequentially by lowercase letters of the Roman alphabet;
    Chapters and Sections represent divisions of the Local Ordinance and may have titles. Articles contain actual legal provisions, and any lists required in an Article will be written in List item form. If a Local Ordinance is short enough to not require Chapters or Sections, they may be omitted.
  1. Each Local Ordinance must begin with an Enactment Clause of the following form:
    “Be it permitted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, for Local Authorities to bring into effect as follows—”

Section E: Citations of other items of Business

  1. A Treaty must have a formal title for the sake of citation.
  2. A Charter must have a title of the form “Charter of Incorporation for…”.
  3. A Motion must take the form “This Forum moves that…” followed by the text to be approved or rejected by the Grand Forum.
  4. A Minor Council Referral must take the same formatting of the other Category the item fits into.

Chapter II: On the Procedure of Election

Section A: Nomination for Election

  1. Nomination for an Office requires the support of the Nominee and at least two other Electors as prescribed by Article III.6 of the Constitution.

Section B: Elections to the Minor Council

  1. The election of the members of the Minor Council must occur every six Calendar Months as prescribed by Article IV.3 of the Constitution.
  2. All three members are to be elected together by the Single Transferable Vote, in accordance with Article III.5 of the Constitution.
  3. Given that the Constitution requires that the Minor Council have members, should there be less than three nominees, the required number of nominees will be chosen from the pool of those Electors who are not Justices by lot.

Section C: Elections for Magistrates

  1. The election of Magistrates must occur every 12 months as prescribed by Article V.3 of the Constitution.
  2. The election of Magistrates and other elected Offices within Magistracies is to be done by the Instant Runoff Vote, in accordance with Article III.5 of the Constitution.

Section D: Elections to the Senior Justicial Council

  1. The election of Justices in the Senior Justicial Council must occur every twelve Calendar Months as prescribed by Article VI.3 of the Constitution.
  2. Justices are to be elected by the Single Transferable Vote, in accordance with Article III.5 of the Constitution.
  3. Given that the Constitution requires that the Senior Justicial Council have Justices, should there less nominees than seats on the Senior Justicial Council, the required number of nominees will be chosen from the pool of those Electors who are not Magistrates or members of the Minor Council by lot.

Section E: Elections to the Rectorate

  1. The election of a Rector is to be done by the Instant Runoff Vote, in accordance with Article III.5 of the Constitution.
  2. Given that the Constitution requires that there be a Rector, should there be no nominee, a nominee will be chosen from the pool of Electors by lot.

Section F: Elections for other Offices to be established

  1. When an election is held for a single Office, it is to be done by the Instant Runoff Vote, in accordance with Article III.5 of the Constitution.
  2. When an election is held for a set of equivalent offices, such as a Council, it is to be done by the Single Transferable Vote, in accordance with Article III.5 of the Constitution.

Section G: Implementation of the Instant Runoff and Single Transferable Vote

  1. When voting in an election held by the Instant Runoff or Single Transferable Votes, the Elector must assign a rank to every nominee.

Chapter III: On the Ballots themselves

Section A: Initial provisions

  1. The Rector is to request the following details from Electors for the purposes of identification:
    1. Full name;
    2. Age;
    3. Residency status;
    4. Any contact details necessary for the delivery of Ballots.
  2. The Rector is to ensure that Electors consent to the use and storage of their personal information and that they receive the data rights given by P001-004 Section B. An Elector will lose their membership of the Grand Forum if they fail to provide this data.
  3. To all Electors the Rector must assign a unique Electoral Identification Number (‘EIN’), created by such algorithm as they may choose but made to minimise the likelihood of any person fraudulently calculating another Elector’s EIN.
  4. When an Elector returns a Ballot to the Rector, they must include their EIN so that the Rector may confirm that the vote is from an Elector. If the Rector receives a Ballot with an invalid EIN, or indeed no EIN at all, then the Ballot must be discounted.
  5. If the Rector receives two or more Ballots with the same EIN, then both Ballots must be discounted.
  6. In accordance with Article III.13 of the Constitution, the Rector may never associate an Elector’s Ballot with their details of identification.

Section B: Delivery and return of Ballots

  1. The Rector may deliver and receive Ballots by the following methods:
    1. Postal delivery
    2. Balloting stations
    3. Online balloting
  2. Should the Rector choose to use postal delivery for any Ballots, they must ensure that all Ballots are delivered to those Electors that receive their Ballots by this method by the first day of voting, and that any Ballots posted for return on the final day of voting are returned to the Rector with adequate time for the counting of the votes and the announcement of the results. Additionally, the Rector must ensure that the Elector pays for neither the delivery nor the return of the Ballot.
  3. Should the Rector choose to use Balloting stations for any Ballots, they must ensure that, of those Electors that receive their Ballots by this method, all have an accessible Balloting station within walking distance.
  4. Should the Rector choose to use online Balloting for any Ballots, they must ensure that the web address for the online Balloting portal is posted on a platform where all Electors will be able to access it, or that the web address is sent via e-mail or social media to the Elector. This method may not be used for Electors lacking either an e-mail address or consistent internet access.

E000-002 First Election to the Offices of Minor Councillors

Candidates

  • The Rector

Results

  • The Rector elected by default
  • Alex White chosen by lot
  • Artemis B. Langford chosen by lot

E001-001 First Election to the Office of Justice

Candidates

  • Anthony R. Clark

Results

  • Anthony R. Clark elected by default

P001-002 Diplomatic Code Act 2018

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the May 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Enactment clause, short and long titles

Be it enacted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, as follows—

Proposition 001-002, Diplomatic Code Act 2018 An Act to establish a Magistracy for Foreign Affairs, its relevant junior Offices, and to lay a groundwork for the execution of the foreign policy of Our Serene Republic

Chapter I: On the Magistracy for Foreign Affairs

Section A: Establishment of the Magistracy

  1. There is to be a Magistracy for Foreign Affairs (‘the Magistracy’).
  2. The Magistracy is to be led by a Foreign Magistrate, elected by the Grand Forum.
  3. The Magistracy is mandated to manage the following areas of policy:
    1. Liaising with foreign governments;
    2. Negotiating treaties with foreign governments;
    3. Managing diplomatic missions;
    4. Ensuring that both Our Serene Republic and foreign governments carry out their treaty obligations;
    5. Ensuring the safety and security of Beaconite Citizens travelling abroad.

Section B: Establishment of the Ambassadry

  1. Within the Magistracy there is to be an Undermagistracy known as the Ambassadry.
  2. The Ambassadry is mandated to manage the same areas of policy as the Magistracy, but with distinct representation of the Magistracy to foreign governments.
  3. The Ambassadry is to be led by a Chief Ambassador, elected by the Grand Forum.
  4. The Chief Ambassador is to serve additionally as the Deputy to the Foreign Magistrate, and will carry out the responsibilities of the Foreign Magistrate if they are busy, incapacitated, or otherwise unable to carry out those duties themselves, or if the Office of Foreign Magistrate is vacant.

Chapter II: On the Responsibilities of the Magistracy

Section A: Foreign Liaison

  1. The Foreign Magistrate is to direct the policy of Our Serene Republic in regards to diplomacy with other nations.
  2. The Grand Forum may, by Motion, order the Foreign Magistrate to seek to open negotiations with other foreign states or organisations, require certain terms to be placed in the treaty, require certain terms to be removed from any existing drafts of the treaty, or order the Foreign Magistrate to close negotiations.
  3. Any other decisions in regard to liaison or negotiations is left to the discretion of the Foreign Magistrate.

Section B: Treaty obligation

  1. The Foreign Magistrate is to ensure that any foreign states with treaties with Our Serene Republic properly fulfil any obligations those treaties may require.
  2. If the Foreign Magistrate finds that those states are not fulfilling their obligations, they may—
    1. Recommend an end to the treaty to the Grand Forum;
    2. Recommend expulsion of part or all of those states’ diplomatic missions (see Chapter III);
    3. Recommend sanctions or another retaliatory response to the Grand Forum or to the relevant authority;
    4. If permitted by those states’ legal systems, file suit against that government;
    5. Refuse to fulfil the equivalent obligations of Our Serene Republic, should such an equivalent exist.
  3. The Foreign Magistrate is also to ensure that Our Serene Republic fulfils its treaty obligations.
  4. If the Foreign Magistrate finds that Our Serene Republic is not fulfilling its treaty obligations, they may—
    1. Send a reminder, public or private, to the relevant authority that the obligations must be fulfilled;
    2. Inform those other states that the obligations are unfulfilled;
    3. Claim for the enforcement of the obligations in a Justicial Council;
    4. If they find that Our Serene Republic is unable to carry out those obligations, recommend an end to the treaty to the Grand Forum.

Section C: Security of Beaconite Citizens abroad

  1. The Foreign Magistrate is to ensure that Beaconite Citizens in foreign states are protected during their time in those states.
  2. If those Citizens are unable to return to Our Serene Republic, then the Magistracy (and particularly the Ambassadry) are to provide aid to assist their return or to ensure their safety until return is feasible.
  3. If those Citizens find themselves the victims of a crime, accident, disaster or similar, the Foreign Magistrate is to liaise with the relevant authorities of those foreign states to ensure that the Citizens receive the appropriate protections and compensations.
  4. If those Citizens are arrested, charged, or similar, the Foreign Magistrate is to liaise with the relevant authorities of those foreign states to ensure that the Citizens, as far as possible, are granted the proper rights that they would receive in Our Serene Republic. The Foreign Magistrate may also request that the Citizens are sentenced with deportation rather than any sentence to be served in those foreign states. If the Foreign Magistrate suspects that those foreign states would hold an unfair trial or give disproportionate sentencing, they are to attempt to pressure those states to hold fair proceedings or to release the Citizens immediately.

Chapter III: On the Structure of the Ambassadry

Section A: The Chief Ambassador

  1. The Chief Ambassador will be responsible for the appointment of the Ambassadors at-Large and the Ambassadors.
  2. The Chief Ambassador will also be responsible for the appointment of delegates to any international organisations that Our Serene Republic may join.
  3. The Chief Ambassador may declare any foreign diplomats to be persona non grata.
  4. All Ambassadors and Ambassadors at-Large may appoint Deputies, who will carry out the responsibilities of that Office if they are busy, incapacitated, or otherwise unable to carry out those duties themselves, or if the Office is vacant.

Section B: The Ambassadors

  1. An Ambassador may be appointed to any foreign state recognised by Our Serene Republic. If that state also recognises Our Serene Republic, then its government may require that any Ambassadors appointed to it be accredited by its government.
  2. The principal roles of an Ambassador are to represent the Magistracy and Our Serene Republic to the state to which they are appointed, and to represent the same to any Beaconite Citizens travelling to that state.
  3. Ambassadors are to hold title of the form “Beaconite Ambassador to [X]”, where X represents their appointed state.
  4. Ambassadors may appoint Diplomats to assist with the carrying out of their duties. These may also require accreditation under the same conditions as the Ambassadors.
  5. An Ambassador may seek to establish a permanent Embassy building in their appointed state. Any Embassy to be established must be granted a sufficient degree of extraterritoriality such that the Ambassador may carry out their duties with sufficient independence from their appointed state under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
  6. The Foreign Magistrate will hold the Office of Beaconite Ambassador to the United Kingdom, ex officio.

Section C: The Ambassadors at-Large

  1. An Ambassador at-Large may be appointed to any region or grouping of foreign states recognised by Our Serene Republic. If any of those states recognise Our Serene Republic, then their government may require that any Ambassadors at-Large appointed to them be accredited by their government.
  2. The roles, responsibilities and rights of Ambassador at-Large is the same as those of an Ambassador, including representation, appointment of Diplomats, and establishment of Embassies.
  3. Ambassadors at-Large are to hold title of the form “Beaconite Ambassador at-Large to [X]”, where X represents either a list of their appointed states or a name that is representative of the grouping of states.

Section D: The Consuls

  1. An Ambassador or Ambassador at-Large (henceforth known generically as ‘Ambassador’, unless specifically stated otherwise) may appoint Consuls to specific regions of their appointed state or states to represent the Ambassadors. Consuls may require accreditation under the same conditions as Ambassadors.
  2. Consuls are to hold title of the form “Beaconite Consul to [X]”, where X represents their appointed state.
  3. A Consul may seek to establish a permanent Consulate building in their appointed region. Any Consulate to be established must be granted a sufficient degree of extraterritoriality such that the Consul may carry out their duties with sufficient independence from their appointed state under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
  4. Consuls may also appoint Diplomats.

Chapter IV: On the Recognition and Diplomacy of Foreign States

Section A: The Hierarchy of Foreign Recognition

  1. Our Serene Republic will recognise foreign states according to the following hierarchy:
    1. Those states that Our Serene Republic has signed treaties with, such that mutual recognition is mandated;
    2. Those states that, by a Motion of the Grand Forum, Our Serene Republic chooses to unilaterally recognise;
    3. The member states of the United Nations, and additionally the Vatican City State.
  2. Where two states have disputed borders, the state higher on this hierarchy is to have its borders recognised by Our Serene Republic. Should the two states have the same ranking on this hierarchy, then the decision of which borders to recognise is to be made by the Foreign Magistrate.
  3. An exception is to be made for the City of Beacon, New York, which will be considered an illegitimate administration.

Section B: Diplomatic Missions to Our Serene Republic

  1. Should a foreign state recognised by Our Serene Republic wish to appoint Ambassadors, Diplomats, Consuls, or other diplomatic staff as their laws so require, they will require accreditation from the Chief Ambassador.
  2. The Chief Ambassador may refuse or revoke accreditation on the following grounds:
    1. Suspicion of the illicit gathering of Beaconite information;
    2. Suspicion of conspiracy against Our Serene Republic;
    3. Failure to properly represent their government;
    4. Response to the undue revocation of accreditation of Beaconite diplomatic staff;
    5. Response to failure to meet treaty obligation under Article II.B.2.b of this Act;
    6. Scandal, crime, or other serious breach of Beaconite public order beyond the expected behaviour of statesmen.
  3. If a foreign state wishes to establish an Embassy, Consulate, or other similar permanent diplomatic missions, they will require permission from the Grand Forum, which will include the granting of extraterritorial rights under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Only the minimum rights of extraterritoriality required will be granted, and Our Serene Republic will remain sovereign over that land.
  4. Foreign states will be responsible for any costs incurred for the building and maintenance of any diplomatic missions, including the land used itself.

P001-003 Titles and Styles Act 2018

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Enacting clause, long and short titles

Be it enacted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, as follows—

Proposition 001-003, Titles and Styles Act 2018 An Act to provide for the legal recognition of the honorific titles and styles that Citizens entitled to such may use.

Section A: General provisions

  1. An ‘honorific title,’ (‘title’) refers to an honorific that should be affixed to the name of the person holding the title. It may be prefixed or suffixed; if suffixed, then the title should be separated from the name by a comma. Unless specified otherwise, the title is to be assumed to be prefixed.
  2. A ‘style’ refers to a specific type of honorific used to address a person entitled to the style. When used with the name of the person entitled to the style, and if the style does not begin with the definite article, it should be prefixed and be separated from the name and title of the person. The style should itself be prefixed with a possessive pronoun of the gender of the person entitled to the style, with the first letter of such pronoun capitalised. e.g. a male Rector would be referred to as ‘His Serenity’ in the third person, or ‘Your Serenity’ in the first person.

Section B: Titles

  1. The Rector is entitled to the title of ‘Rector.’
  2. The spouse of the Rector is entitled to the title of ‘Consort.’
  3. Minor Councillors are entitled to the title of ‘Councillor.’
  4. Magistrates are entitled to the title of ‘Magistrate.’
  5. Where an Office has an existing deputy Office, the holder of that deputy Office is entitled to the title of that Office, preceded by ‘Deputy,’ e.g. a Deputy Magistrate is entitled to the title of ‘Deputy Magistrate.’ Similarly, where an Office has an existing junior Office formed by prefixing ‘Under-’ to the name of that Office, the holder of that junior Office is entitled to the title of that Office, prefixed with ‘Under-,’ e.g. an Undermagistrate is entitled to the title of ‘Undermagistrate.’
  6. Where a series of Offices sharing the same title have a ‘Chief’ Office holder, that Office holder may prefix their title for that Office with ’Chief,’ e.g. the Chief Magistrate is entitled to the title of ‘Chief Magistrate.’
  7. Justices of the Senior Justicial Council are entitled to the title of ‘Justice.’
  8. Ambassadors, Ambassadors at-Large, and Consuls are entitled to the titles given to them in P001-002 Section III.B.
  9. Ordinary Citizens are entitled to use titles such as ‘Mr.,’ ‘Mrs.,’ ‘Miss,’ ‘Ms.,’ and any other appropriate and equivalent title for their gender.

Section C: Styles

  1. The Rector is entitled to the style of ‘Serenity’, as are immediate members of the Rector’s family.
  2. Minor Councillors are entitled to the style of ‘The Honourable,’ which may be abbreviated as ‘Hon.’
  3. Magistrates are entitled to the style of ‘The Right Honourable,’ which may be abbreviated as ‘Rt. Hon.’ Undermagistrates and Deputy Magistrates are entitled to the style of ‘The Honourable.’
  4. Justices of the Senior Justicial Council are entitled to the style of ‘Honour’.
  5. Ambassadors, Ambassadors at-Large, and Consuls are entitled to the style of ‘Excellency.

P001-004 General Data Protection Regulation Compliance Act 2018

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Enacting clause, long and short titles

Be it enacted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, as follows—

Proposition 001-004, General Data Protection Regulation Compliance Act 2018 An Act to bring Our Serene Republic into compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation of the European Union.

Section A: Disclaimer on the Sovereignty of Our Serene Republic

  1. Our Serene Republic is not bound by the General Data Protection Regulation, or indeed any law of any institution that does not derive its authority from Our Constitution or the laws thereby enacted.

Section B: Data rights of citizens

  1. The governing institutions of Our Serene Republic have the right to request personal information (‘data’) from Citizens insofar as the data is required for government. The data that may be requested must be specified in the laws or orders that mandate the requests.
  2. When a governing institution requests this data, it must ensure that the Citizen responding gives their consent to the submission of the data. Citizens under the age of 13 years will require the consent of a parent or legal guardian.
  3. A Citizen may at any point request the personal data that a governing institution has stored about them at the time of request.
  4. A Citizen may at any point request that the personal data that a governing institution has stored about them at the time of request be amended in accordance with the desires of the Citizen, including destroying the data entirely.
  5. If a Citizen does not consent to the submission of the data, then they may be denied the rights and services that the governing institution provides, but only insofar as the data is required for the provision of those rights and services, and only insofar as this does not violate the Fundamental Rights and Freedoms given by Our Constitution.

Section C: Provisions concerning the Ballot Act 2018

  1. R000-001 Chapter III, Section A is to have a new article inserted following Article 1, as follows:
    ‘The Rector is to ensure that Electors consent to the use and storage of their personal information and that they receive the data rights given by P001-004 Section B. An Elector will lose their membership of the Grand Forum if they fail to provide this data.’
    The following Articles of Section A are to be renumbered accordingly.
  2. The Rector is to contact all current Electors to confirm that they do indeed consent to the use and storage of their data in accordance with the above amended Article.

C001-005 Charter of Incorporation for the Gazette Corporation

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Proclamation clause, title and preamble

As proclaimed by the Grand Forum of All Citizens,

Charter 001-005, Charter of Incorporation for the Gazette Corporation Whereas in view of the Beaconite people having the right and desire to know the actions of their government, we deem it desirable that such a service is developed to the best advantage and in the interest of Our Serene Republic,
And whereas we believe that it would greatly promote these Objectives and be for the public benefit if a Corporation charged with these duties were created by exercise of a Charter of Incorporation,
It is so that we do by exercise of a Charter of Incorporation give and grant as follows:

Incorporation

  1. There is to be a Body Corporate, known as the Gazette Corporation (‘the Corporation’). As such, it is to be capable in law of holding property, filing and facing suit in a Justicial Council, and taking all actions necessary or incidental to a Body Corporate, with exception that any surplus revenue must be applied solely to other projects of the Corporation.
  2. The Corporation is to be wholly owned by Our Serene Republic.
  3. The Rector, the Chief Magistrate, and the Chief Justice of the Senior Justicial Council, or representative appointees thereof, are to serve as members of the Executive Board of the Corporation.
  4. The Executive Board is to make any decisions by a majority vote of its members.

Corporate objectives

The objectives for which the Corporation is established and incorporated are—

  1. To publish any and all actions of Our Serene Republic, including but not limited to:
    1. The Business of the Grand Forum, both the texts of the items of Business and the voting results of the Ballot;
    2. The executive orders and decisions of the Magistracies, the Council of Magistrates, and the Rector;
    3. The opinions of the Justicial Councils.
    The information published is to be purely a record of those actions, with no opinions or editorial comments.
  2. To print, compile, or otherwise distribute its publications.
  3. To do other such things that may seem necessary or incidental to these Corporate Objectives.

Authorisations and Restrictions

  1. The Corporation’s publications are to be the official Journal of Record of Our Serene Republic; that is, the Corporation is officially granted the right to publish the actions of Our Serene Republic, and indeed the Corporation’s publications are to be an official record of those actions.

T001-006 Treaty of Mutual Recognititon between the Serene Beaconite Republic and the Nordkavn Federation

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Signing clause, title and preamble

Treaty 001-006, Treaty of Mutual Recognititon between the Serene Beaconite Republic and the Nordkavn Federation.

This treaty has been ratified by the appropriate institutions of the Serene Beaconite Republic and of the Nordkavn Federation, henceforth known as “the signatories”.

Section I: Mutual Recognition

  1. The Serene Beaconite Republic recognises the Nordkavn Federation as a sovereign state and as the legitimate government for her territorial claims.
  2. The Nordkavn Federation recognises the Serene Beaconite Republic as a sovereign state and as the legitimate government for her territorial claims.
  3. All legally recognised titles used within the signatory states are to be respected and appropriately used by the governments and diplomatic delegations of the signatories.
  4. The signatories are to respect the nature of each other concerning governmental structures and actions, cultures, and worldviews.

Section II: Diplomatic Relations

  1. The signatories are to pursue diplomatic intercourse between their governments to the end that both may collaborate on international matters, where the attention of both is required, and defend their common values.
  2. Where disagreements occur between the signatories, they are to work together in order to produce a peaceful resolution.

Section III: Terms of this Agreement

  1. This treaty is to be considered null and void if a signatory dissolves as an international entity, or becomes so inactive it can be considered such.
  2. This treaty is to be considered null and void if the signatories agree to mutually terminate the agreement.
  3. This treaty is to be considered null and void if a signatory has chosen to terminate the agreement, and one calendar month has passed after the other signatory has been given appropriate notice of the termination.
  4. This treaty is to be considered null and void if the treaty is violated and any attempts to produce a resolution are unsuccessful.

T001-007 Treaty of Mutual Recognititon between the Serene Beaconite Republic and the Tsardom of Nolland

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Signing clause, title and preamble

Treaty 001-007, Treaty of Mutual Recognititon between the Serene Beaconite Republic and the Tsardom of Nolland.

This treaty has been ratified by the appropriate institutions of the Serene Beaconite Republic and of the Tsardom of Nolland, henceforth known as “the signatories”.

Section I: Mutual Recognition

  1. The Serene Beaconite Republic recognises the Tsardom of Nolland as a sovereign state and as the legitimate government for her territorial claims.
  2. The Tsardom of Nolland recognises the Serene Beaconite Republic as a sovereign state and as the legitimate government for her territorial claims.
  3. All legally recognised titles used within the signatory states are to be respected and appropriately used by the governments and diplomatic delegations of the signatories.
  4. The signatories are to respect the nature of each other concerning governmental structures and actions, cultures, and worldviews.

Section II: Diplomatic Relations

  1. The signatories are to pursue diplomatic intercourse between their governments to the end that both may collaborate on international matters, where the attention of both is required, and defend their common values.
  2. Where disagreements occur between the signatories, they are to work together in order to produce a peaceful resolution.

Section III: Terms of this Agreement

  1. This treaty is to be considered null and void if a signatory dissolves as an international entity, or becomes so inactive it can be considered such.
  2. This treaty is to be considered null and void if the signatories agree to mutually terminate the agreement.
  3. This treaty is to be considered null and void if a signatory has chosen to terminate the agreement, and one calendar month has passed after the other signatory has been given appropriate notice of the termination.
  4. This treaty is to be considered null and void if the treaty is violated and any attempts to produce a resolution are unsuccessful.

T001-008 Treaty of Mutual Recognititon between the Serene Beaconite Republic and the Abeldane Empire

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Signing clause, title and preamble

Treaty 001-008, Treaty of Mutual Recognititon between the Serene Beaconite Republic and the Abeldane Empire.

This treaty has been ratified by the appropriate institutions of the Serene Beaconite Republic and of the Abeldane Empire, henceforth known as “the signatories”.

Section I: Mutual Recognition

  1. The Serene Beaconite Republic recognises the Abeldane Empire as a sovereign state and as the legitimate government for her territorial claims.
  2. The Abeldane Empire recognises the Serene Beaconite Republic as a sovereign state and as the legitimate government for her territorial claims.
  3. All legally recognised titles used within the signatory states are to be respected and appropriately used by the governments and diplomatic delegations of the signatories.
  4. The signatories are to respect the nature of each other concerning governmental structures and actions, cultures, and worldviews.

Section II: Diplomatic Relations

  1. The signatories are to pursue diplomatic intercourse between their governments to the end that both may collaborate on international matters, where the attention of both is required, and defend their common values.
  2. Where disagreements occur between the signatories, they are to work together in order to produce a peaceful resolution.

Section III: Terms of this Agreement

  1. This treaty is to be considered null and void if a signatory dissolves as an international entity, or becomes so inactive it can be considered such.
  2. This treaty is to be considered null and void if the signatories agree to mutually terminate the agreement.
  3. This treaty is to be considered null and void if a signatory has chosen to terminate the agreement, and one calendar month has passed after the other signatory has been given appropriate notice of the termination.
  4. This treaty is to be considered null and void if the treaty is violated and any attempts to produce a resolution are unsuccessful.

T001-006 Treaty of Mutual Recognititon between the Serene Beaconite Republic and the United Kingdoms of The Danube and New Flanders and Her Commonwealth

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed with 71.4%, or 5 votes, in favour.

Title and preamble

Treaty 001-009, Treaty of Mutual Recognititon and Friendship between the Serene Beaconite Republic and the United Kingdoms of The Danube and New Flanders and Her Commonwealth.

Section 1: Recognition of Danube

  1. The Serene Beaconite Republic hereby recognises the United Kingdoms of The Danube and New Flanders and Her Commonwealth’s existence as a sovereign nation state.
  2. The Serene Beaconite Republic may not engage in an attack on the United Kingdoms of The Danube and New Flanders and Her Commonwealth or any of her protectorates.
  3. All claims to lands, titles and the applications of its laws made by the United Kingdoms of The Danube and New Flanders and Her Commonwealth are her own issue, and may not be tampered with by the Serene Beaconite Republic.

Section 2: Recognition of the Serene Beaconite Republic

  1. The United Kingdoms of The Danube and New Flanders and Her Commonwealth hereby also recognises the Serene Beaconite Republic’s existence as a sovereign nation state.
  2. The United Kingdoms of The Danube and New Flanders and Her Commonwealth may not engage in an attack on the Serene Beaconite Republic or any of her protectorates.
  3. All claims to lands, titles and the applications of the laws made by the Serene Beaconite Republic are her own issue, and may not be tampered with by the United Kingdoms of The Danube and New Flanders and Her Commonwealth.

Section 3: Other clauses

  1. Military intelligence must be shared from one party when it deals with the national security of the other party.
  2. The unrestricted movement of any persons from one party through the other may not be curtailed except if any persons stay in that territory for more than twenty four hours.

Section 4: Termination of the agreement

  1. This treaty is to be considered null and void if one party dissolves as an international entity, or becomes so inactive it can be considered such.
  2. This treaty is to be considered null and void if the parties agree to mutually terminate the agreement.
  3. This treaty is to be considered null and void if one party has chosen to terminate the agreement, and one calendar month has passed after the other party has been given appropriate notice of the termination.
  4. This treaty is to be considered null and void if the treaty is violated and any attempts to produce a resolution are unsuccessful.

P001-010 Local Communities Act

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Enactment clause, short and long titles

Be it enacted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, as follows—

Proposition 001-010, Local Communities Act 2018 An Act to establish a Magistracy for Local Communities, the local governments themselves, and provisions for the enactment of Local Ordinances.

Chapter I: On the Administrative Divisions of the Serene Republic

Section A: Wards of Our Serene Republic

  1. Our Serene Republic is to be divided geographically into Wards.
  2. A Ward is to serve as a division for administrative, statistical, legislative or other governmental purposes.
  3. The Wards of Our Serene Republic are:
    1. Beaconite Satirno;
    2. Civetia;
    3. Isambard
    4. New Winterdown;
    5. Sorrelset.

Section B: Incorporation of Cities

  1. The Grand Forum may by exercise of a Charter of Incorporation establish Cities.
  2. A City is to serve the same purposes as a Ward.
  3. The border of a City may be independent of a Ward; that is, they may cross Ward boundaries or be entirely contained in a single Ward, or they may be defined to be coterminous with Wards.
  4. No more than one City may occupy the same area.
  5. Cities and Wards may be known collectively as ‘Local Communities’.

Chapter II: On the Magistracy for Local Communities

Section A: Establishment of the Magistracy

  1. There is to be a Magistracy for Local Communities (‘the Magistracy’).
  2. The Magistracy is to be led by a Local Magistrate, elected by the Grand Forum.
  3. The Magistracy is mandated to manage the following areas of policy:
    1. To promote the welfare of residents and Local Communities;
    2. To give effect to Local Ordinances where appropriate.
  4. The Local Magistrate may appoint a Deputy Local Magistrate.

Section B: Establishment of the Wardenries

  1. Within the Magistracy there is to be a series of Undermagistracies known as Wardenries and Municipal Authorities (collectively ‘Local Authorities’).
  2. There is to be a Wardenry for each Ward and a Municipal Authority for each City.
  3. Each Wardenry is to be headed by a Warden, and each Municipal Authority by a Mayor (collectively ‘Local Executives’). These are appointed by the Local Magistrate.
  4. Where a City and a Ward are coterminous, the Wardenry and the Municipal Authority are form a single Undermagistracy known as a Municipal Wardenry.
  5. A Warden will hold the title of “Warden of [X]”, where X is the name of the Ward they lead.
  6. A Mayor will hold the title of “Mayor of [X]”, where X is the name of the City they lead.
  7. A leader of a coterminous City and Ward will hold the title of “Warden and Mayor of [X]”, where X is the name of the Ward and City they lead.
  8. Local Executives may appoint Deputy Local Executives or other Junior Offices to support the purpose of their Office.

Chapter III: On Local Ordinances

Section A: Effecting of Local Ordinances

  1. The Grand Forum is to have the ability to enact Local Ordinances.
  2. Local Ordinances do not take effect throughout all of Our Serene Republic by default, as any other decision of the Grand Forum would, but rather each Local Executive may issue a Writ of Ordinance Effect, bringing a particular Local Ordinance into effect within their Local Community.
  3. The Grand Forum may choose to phrase a particular Local Ordinance such that only select parts of the Local Ordinance may be brought into effect, instead of the whole Local Ordinance.
  4. The Grand Forum may specify that only Wardens or only Mayors may bring a particular Local Ordinance into effect in their Local Communities/

Section B: Relationships between Wardenries and Municipal Authorities

  1. Where a Ward and a City overlap, it must be made clear in the Charter of Incorporation for the City which of the Local Executives’ Writs of Local Ordinance are to take effect in that area.

Section C: Amendments to the Ballot Act

  1. R000-001 Chapter I, Section A, Article 1 is to have a new list item inserted following list item (d), as follows:
    “Local Ordinances, denoted O, which take the form of a written bill of legislation;”
    The following list items are to be renumbered accordingly.
  2. Chapter I of the same is to have a new section inserted following Section C, as follows:

Section D: Citations and formatting of Local Ordinances
1. A Local Ordinance must have a Short Title and a Long Title. The Short Title must take the form “[Name] Local Ordinance [Year of Enactment] ([Additional Descriptors])”, where the Name and Additional Descriptors are chosen by the Electors proposing it, and the Additional Descriptors are optional. The Long Title must begin with “A Local Ordinance to...” and then describe the purpose of the Local Ordinance. All provisions of the Local Ordinance must be described by the Long Title.
2. Each Local Ordinance must have its articles formatted in the following hierarchy:
(a) Chapters, numbered sequentially with Roman numerals;
(b) Sections, denoted sequentially by uppercase letters of the Roman alphabet;
(c) Articles, numbered sequentially by Arabic numerals;
(d) List items, denoted sequentially by lowercase letters of the Roman alphabet;
Chapters and Sections represent divisions of the Local Ordinance and may have titles. Articles contain actual legal provisions, and any lists required in an Article will be written in List item form. If a Local Ordinance is short enough to not require Chapters or Sections, they may be omitted.
3. Each Local Ordinance must begin with an Enactment Clause of the following form:
“Be it permitted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, for Local Authorities to bring into effect as follows—”
The following sections are to be renumbered accordingly.

P001-011 Judiciary Act 2018

Legislative history

Proposed to appear on the June 2018 Ballot; passed unanimously.

Enactment clause, short and long titles

Be it enacted by the Grand Forum of All Citizens, as follows—

Proposition 001-011, Judiciary Act 2018 An Act to establish Justicial Councils inferior to the Senior Justicial Council and provide for their procedure.

Chapter I: General Provisions

Section A: Judges

  1. The Chief Justice may appoint and dismiss a judge by notice to the Rector and the Grand Forum.
  2. The Chief Justice is responsible for assigning a judge to an action.

Chapter II: On the Organisation of Councils

Section A: Council of First Instance

  1. There is hereby established a Council of First Instance.
  2. The Council of First Instance has original and exclusive jurisdiction over all actions in the first instance.

Section B: Advisory opinions

  1. The Senior Justicial Council may, on reference, give an advisory opinion as to any question of law.
  2. The Senior Justicial Council may dismiss a reference on the grounds that the reference—
    1. does not raise a question of law of general public importance;
    2. raises matters on which the law is already clear;
    3. is excessively vague.
  3. No court order may be made in an action proceeding on reference.
  4. A lower court may file a reference seeking an opinion on a question or proposition of law on which it seeks instruction for the proper decision of a case.
  5. An advisory opinion does not constitute binding judicial precedent, but a lower court must give respectful consideration to any advisory opinion of the Senior Justicial Council.

Section C: Judicial review

  1. The right of judicial review is in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other rights that a party has to seek a review, whether by a Justicial Council or by another tribunal, authority or party, of that enactment, decision, conduct or failure.
  2. Where a person no longer holds or for whatever reason is not performing the duties of an office amenable to judicial review, a claim for judicial review may be made against—
    1. the person for the time being holding or performing the duties of that office or
    2. if there is no person for the time being performing the duties of that office or that office no longer exists, the Rector, or a personauthorised by them for such purpose.

Section D: Removal from court venues

  1. A Justicial Council may order that a person is removed from a venue of the Council if the person is continually disruptive to the proceedings of the court or disrespectful to the dignity of the court.
  2. A removal under this section may not be ordered for longer than is necessary.

Section E: Vexatious litigants

  1. The Chief Justice may designate an individual a vexatious litigant by notice to the Rector and the relevant individual if that individual has repeatedly attempted to initiate vexatious, frivolous or totally unmeritorious actions.
  2. An individual designated a vexatious litigant must not initiate any action without the permission of the court to which at which it is entered.

Chapter IV: On Offences Concerning the Judiciary

Section A: Offences under this Act

  1. A person who alleges publicly, to another person or to a public authority that another person is guilty of a criminal offence while knowing the allegation to be false commits an offence.
  2. A person who acts so as to obstruct the fair disposition of any court action is guilty of an offence.
  3. A person who wilfully asserts as to a matter of fact, opinion, belief or knowledge before a court, such assertion being known by the person to be false, and offered with the intent of misleading the court, commits an offence.
  4. A person who—
    1. violates a court order;
    2. breaches an undertaking to the court;
    3. publishes any statement that creates a real risk that the course of justice may be impaired;
    4. disrupts proceedings of the court;
    5. disrespects the dignity of the court;
    commits an offence.