Republic of Suverska

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Republic of Suverska
Республіка Суверьща

2020 Suverska Flag.png    2020 Suverskan Arms.png
Symbols of Suverska

Suverska Map 2020.png
Location of Suverska

Status Unrecognised state

Capital Paskrai

Language English

Religion 73% Christianity
20% None/unanswered
7% Others

Demonym(s) Suverskan

Government        Unitary liquid democracy
 • Executive Federal Council
 • Parliament National Assembly

Independence from Canada
 • Establishment October 27, 2013
 • Declaration March 27, 2014
 • Constitution May 3, 2021

Area
 • Total 4.20 km² (193rd)
 • Water (%) 0.32

Population
 • 2020 census 44 (196th)
 • 2021 estimate 59 (196th)
 • Density 14.05/km² (223rd)

Currency Suverskan let (SVL)
Canadian dollar (CAD)

Time zone UTC−06:00

Date format ISO 8601

Membership UAMW, UCI, WCS

Suverska (/svɛərskə/; Cyrillic: Суверьща; lit. northern/cold, sovereign land), officially the Republic of Suverska and formerly the Republic of Suwerenny, is a North American unrecognised state and the oldest continuously active micronation in Western Canada.[a] With a population of 59 and an area of 4.20 km², the nation consists of two regions, Suveria and Meteora, which are made up of enclaves and exclaves located mostly within the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.[b]

The land that is now Suverska was inhabited by various groups of indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to European colonisation. European settlement in the area can be traced back to the 1840s, and the region was incorporated into Canada in 1870. Throughout the 20th Century, the ancestors of today's Suverians immigrated to the area, mostly from Eastern Europe following both world wars. Today, most Suverians remain of Eastern European origin; the 2020 Census of Suverska found that over three in four Suverskans have Slavic ancestry.

In October 2013, the nation was formed under the name the Republic of Suwerenny, and in March 2014, it declared independence from Canada as a federal parliamentary republic. Its original constitution, which was written in March 2014, remained in effect until a series of referendums in May 2019 dissolved the previous system of government and began a two-year transition which ended in May 2021 with the implementation of the 2021 Constitution of Suverska and a unitary, liquid democratic system of government.

The older region, Suveria, consists of the historical regions of Flosia, Veskrai, and the nation’s capital Paskrai, while the newer region, Meteora, joined Suverska in 2018 and has devolved powers. Both regions of Suverska are located within the Canadian prairies, specifically the province of Saskatchewan. Externally, the country is a member of the Union Against Micronational War and the Union Cycliste Intermicronationale.

Etymology

The name Suverska is a blend of various words from the Slavic languages that altogether roughly translates as 'northern sovereign land'. Firstly, the name originates from words meaning 'sovereign', such as the Polish suwerenny or the Ukrainian "суверенний", which was chosen to represent the claim to sovereignty that the nation makes. Secondly, the name takes influence from the Slavic words meaning 'northern' or 'cold', such as the Ukrainian "сі́вер" or Serbo-Croatian sjȅvēr (a word which may have also influenced the name of the Severians). Finally, the nation's name ends with the prefix of -ska, which is especially common in Polish place names. From 2013 to 2019, the country's name took origin only from one of the words and was called the Republic of Suwerenny (as it was written in documents such as the Deceleration of Independence and the 2014 Constitution of Suwerenny). During the 2019 Referendums, voters chose to rename the country from Suwerenny to Suverska, an altered version of the original name that had found its way into common use. Since then, the name Suverska has become the regular name of the country, with it becoming official in the 2021 Constitution of Suverska.

History

Pre-Suverskan history

The land that is now Suverska was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to European colonisation. Peoples indigenous to present-day Suveria and Meteora include the Dakȟóta, Lakȟóta, Nakawē (Saulteaux), Nakoda, and Nehiyawak (Cree) people, with the area also being the homeland of the Métis.[1] European settlement in the area can be traced back to the 1840s, with the Dominion Lands Act of 1872 encouraging homesteaders to come to the area where they could purchase 160 acres (0.65 km2) of land for $10.[2] By the 1880s, the Canadian Pacific Railway had made its way through the then District of Assiniboia, and with the construction of the railway through the region, European settlers began farming there. From 1871 to 1877, Numbered Treaties 2 and 4 were signed between Queen Victoria and various First Nation band governments, with their coverage spanning present-day Suveria and Meteora.[1] The region was incorporated into Canada in 1870 as a part of the Northwest Territories and later as a part of Saskatchewan in 1905.[3] The ancestors of today's Suverskans immigrated to the area, mostly from Eastern Europe, throughout the 20th Century.[4]

Formation and early history

A photo taken in 2015 of the landscape in the region of Paskrai.

The predecessor to modern Suverska, originally called the Republic of East Butte, was founded on October 27, 2013 in modern-day Veskrai. With a population of seven, it declared itself autonomous from the rest of Canada and established a provisional government.[4]

On March 27, 2014, the Republic of East Butte declared independence from Canada as the Republic of Suwerenny. Four days later, the nation’s citizens voted unanimously to enact the 2014 Constitution of Suwerenny and to elect John of Flosia to a two-year term as the first president of the republic. Over the next two months, additional regions would join the country, bringing the total population up to sixteen in time for the first national census on May 19, 2014. On the same day, the nation’s first parliamentary elections were held, with four of the National Assembly’s five seats being awarded to the Suwerenny Party (the other one were independent candidates). In May 2014, Suverska entered the international micronational community when it began foreign relations with other countries and organisations. Suverska began informal communications with other nations, including the Republic of Molossia, the People's Republic of Hashima, and the Great Empire of Dikameppra. The country joined the Union Against Micronational War on May 8, 2014 to establish its focus on intermicronational peace; throughout its entire history, Suverska has lacked any armed forces.[4]

Between 2014 and 2016, Suverska’s population grew by fifty percent from 16 to 24. During this time, the Canada Party split off from the Suwerenny Party while what remained of the party renamed to the Libsoš Party. In the 2016 elections, John of Flosia was re-elected president and Libsoš won four seats, the Canada Party two, and and an independent candidate one). Referendums in May 2017 scheduled the movement of the national capital from East Butte to Paskrai and the eventual integration of Meteora into the nation (which was to happen within a year). In June 2017, the capital moved to Paskrai, and in April 2018, the regions of Meteora joined the country. For the census in May 2018, the national population was now 39. In this month’s elections, John of Flosia was re-elected as president once again, and the Libsoš Party only formed a minority government (4 Libsoš, 3 Prairie, 2 Canada). In October 2018, Arctic of Veskrai was elected president.[4]

Recent history

Selected indices of Suverska (2021)

Transitional period

The increasing popularity of the Canada and Prairie parties challenged the incumbent Libsoš minority government. In 2019’s national referendums, the nation voted in favour of various proposals, including the for various government reforms, for increased autonomy in Meteora, and for the country to be renamed to Suverska. Within the next few weeks, further referendums approved the Transitional Constitution of Suverska and the creation of the Transitional Council, a five-member, nonpartisan council which was to temporarily lead the country through a two-year transition period and draft a new constitution. At this time, the parliament was dissolved in favour of this temporary council.[4]

Following the two-year transitional period of Suverska's history, the 2021 Constitution of Suverska went into effect on May 3, 2021.[4] The first elections to the Federal Council took place on June 25, 2021. In November 2021, Suverska is set to adopt the Suverskan let (SVL; plural: lety) as its official currency.

COVID-19 pandemic

COVID-19 pandemic in Suverska
Disease COVID-19 SARS CoV-2
Cases 0 active, 0 total
Deaths 0
Vaccinations 81.3% total vaccinated
77.1% fully vaccinated

Amidst the transitional period, the COVID-19 pandemic entered the area and began to impact in the neighboring nation of Canada significantly in March 2020. The government declared a state of emergency and two-week national lockdown which would be renewed throughout the spring, finally ending in June 2020. During this time, the government urged its citizens to stay home unless essential, and Suverskan school children transitioned to learning at home as their Canadian schools were closed due to the pandemic. Most Suverskan workers returned to their places of employment in Canada in June, while students returned to school in September. Any major events were cancelled, postponed, or moved online. Some public gatherings, mostly outdoors and all physically distanced, took place during the spring and summer, but colder temperatures and rising cases in Saskatchewan forced all events to close down once again in November 2020. At this point, the government reaffirmed its state of emergency and discouraged any indoor gatherings.[4]

Under normal circumstances, all school-aged citizens of Suverska attend public or independent schools in the neighbouring nation of Canada. However, due to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, schools and universities across Canada were closed, leaving all of Suverska's school-aged citizens without any regular form of education. Because of this, the government created a special programme for educating students in Suverska. This program was later integrated into the Public Enterprise of Domestic Affairs.[4]

With the spread of the spread of variants of concern and a third wave of cases throughout Canada (for which Southern Saskatchewan became a global hotspot) in March 2021, Suverska once again reaffirmed its national emergency and implemented a second national lockdown which lasted until May 2021.[4] After re-opening more than it had so far during the pandemic in the summer of 2021, Suverska reimplemented precautions and a national emergency in late August amidst a rise of cases in the Canadian fourth wave.

Geography and climate

A pronghorn in Akawobek, the national animal of the country.

Despite its small size, Suverska has a diverse geography which consists of prairie, aspen parkland, valleys, and lakes. The urban areas where most of the population lives are located on a flat, treeless plain. The biodiversity of the nations is typical of the Great Plains, as common wildlife of Suverska include the coyote, red and swift fox, bobcat, lynx, white-tailed deer, and the pronghorn. The diversity of Suverska's plants and animals are represented in the nation's symbols, which includes the pronghorn, chokecherry, chokecherry.[3]

Land use in Suverska is divided between residential, agricultural, and environmental reserves.

Most of the nation experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), while some regions experience a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc). All regions of Suverska experience with warm summers and cold winters where precipitation is heaviest in late spring and early summer as rain, while snow is common in the winter months. July and August are the warmest months, with temperatures going as high as above 40 °C (104 °F) a few times a year, although the nights are still cold in the summer. In the winter, temperatures regularly drop below -40 °C (-40 °F) with wind chill.[5]


Government and politics

The political system of Suverska. Note that this was a proposed representation during the transitional period and is not entirely correct.

Since the enactment of the 2021 Constitution of Suverska, the nation has been a unitary liquid democracy in which all citizens of voting age are a part of the nonpartisan legislature and five elected citizens make up the executive Federal Council. Prior to 2019, the nation was a federal parliamentary republic with a president elected by popular vote. During this time, Suverska’s political scene was dominated by the Libsoš Party (initially called the Suwerenny Party), who formed majority governments in 2014 and 2016 followed by a minority government in 2018. Opposition to Libsoš included the Canada Party, Prairie Party, and numerous independent politicians.[4]

The Suverskan government is made up of a executive, legislative, and judicial branch. The Federal Council is the executive branch and the head of government (similar to the Swiss Bundesrat); it governs as a nonpartisan consensus government, and each of its five members direct one of the government's Public Enterprises. Elections to the Federal Council take place no more than every six months, in which members are elected by the National Assembly using ranked voting, and individual members may be removed from the council at any time if a majority of the National Assembly votes for their removal. The National Assembly, which is the legislative branch of government, is a nonpartisan collective of all voting-age citizens of Suverska. As opposed to the Federal Council which meets regularly, the National Assembly meets irregularly and votes on laws using liquid democatic means. The People's Court, as described in the "Law" section, is the judicial branch of government. [4]

Constitution and human rights

On March 31, 2014, days after the nation’s declaration of independence, the populace voted unanimously to enact the 2014 Constitution of Suwerenny. A series of referendums in 2019 approved a new Transitional Constitution of Suverska and called for the creation of the nonpartisan Transitional Council, which was to temporarily lead the country through a two-year transition period and draft a new constitution. Following this transitional period, the 2021 Constitution of Suverska went into effect on May 3, 2021.[4]

The current constitution, structurally based on the Constitution of Iceland, consists of eight sections: Introduction; Federal Council; National Assembly; People’s Court; Devolution of powers to Meteora; Citizens, residents, and visitors; Emergency powers of government; and Amendments to this Constitution. Section I opens the document while Sections II to V outline the nation’s government structure, with section V in particular outlining Meteoran devolution. Section VI outlines the three classifications of persons in Suverska and the rights and responsibilities of each grouping (as well as the means of becoming a citizen or resident). Lastly, Section VII outlines the temporary powers that the government can exercise in times of emergency if granted to do so, and Section VII sets forth the process of amending the constitution.[4]

Human rights in Suverska are outlined in Section VI of the constitution, titled Citizens, residents, and visitors. Articles in this section ensure for all persons in Suverska legal egalitarianism; freedom of association; freedom from enslavement, forced labour, and torture; presumption of innocence; mobility rights; and the freedom to manage personal property and to participate in democracy; among other things. In terms of LGBT+ rights, the constitutional guarantee of legal egalitarianism extends to all individuals regardless of sex and gender, as well as their “their true or perceived identity and characteristics,” which may allude to sexual orientation and identity though this inclusion unclear. In addition, marriages, civil unions, and gender are not legal matters in Suverska, essentially making queer relationships and gender identities equal under the law.[4]

There are no protections against non-governmental discrimination or hate speech in Suverska.[4]

Foreign relations

Visa policy for entry into Suverska
  Suvreska
  Visa not required
  Visa required upon arrival

Suverska creates and maintains foreign relationships with other nations and organisations through its Public Enterprise of Foreign Affairs, and the country is known to seek out and establish foreign relationships with nations of similar ideology, and ones that promote intermicronational peacekeeping and security. Suverska began its foreign presence in 2014 when it declared independence from and attempted to open communications with Canada.[4]

The 2021 Constitution of Suverska requires that all visitors to the country follow the Public Enterprise of Democracy’s most recent visa policy.[7] As of September 2021, this means that non-Suverskans wishing to enter the country must present upon entry to Suverska a valid travel visa or one of the 3 visa-exempt passports—those of Canada, Cuba, and Rojava.

Law and courts

The 2021 Constitution of Suverska is the supreme law of the country. The constitution is a short, dynamic document that is regularly changed by the populace by mandatory annual referendums. The laws that govern the country consist entirely of the 2021 Constitution of Suverska and the Acts of the Government (law-related acts made by the executive and legislative branches of the government). Laws are consistent and uniform across the nation, and the laws of Canada and Saskatchewan still apply in the country.[4]

Civil law prevails in Suverska, and the nation's laws are interpreted by the People's Court, which, in each case, consists of a random selection of two Federal Council members plus three other citizens, in which the highest-ranking Federal Council member directs the session. Cases settled by the People's Court are non-binding outside of that specific case, meaning that they only apply on a case-by-case basis unless the decision is later adapted into an act or amended into the Constitution. As of May 2021, no court sessions have taken place since the writing of the 2021 Constitution.[4]

In the case that the Constitution conflicts with an act made by the Federal Council or National Assembly, the words of the Constitution (which are written by the people, therefore giving the people the ultimate power) are supreme, which is decided at the discretion of the People's Court. In order for a constitutional amendment to be voted on by the people in a referendum, the idea must either collect at least 10 signatures in an official petition or be organised by the Federal Council or National Assembly in their regular meetings. Referendums also take place when the National Assembly deems an issue of ultimate concern to the populace.[4]

Regions and devolution

Suverska is a unitary state that is divided into two regions—Meteora and Suveria. Suveria consists of enclaves and exclaves landlocked entirely within the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, with an additional exclave, Novchakho, located on Vancouver Island. Likewise, Meteora consists of enclaves and exclaves in Saskatchewan. The older region, Suveria, consists of the historical regions of Flosia, Veskrai, and the nation’s capital Paskrai, while the newer region, Meteora, was integrated into Suverska in 2018 and has devolved powers.[4]

Regions of Suverska
Flag Name Code Capital Founded Pop. Area Executive
2021 Meteora flag.png Republic of
Meteora
MTO Oskana 2018 21 3.1 km² Meteora Council
None Suveria
Region
SUV Paskrai 2013 38[c] 1.1 km² None

Economy

Economy of Suverska
Currency Suverskan let (SVL) (internal)
Canadian dollar (CAD) (external)
Imports Food and perishable goods, electricity, gasoline, plastic products
Exports Cereals, meat and meat products, horticulture, waste
Partners Canada
Currency: Suverskan Let (SVL)
Exchange rate (Nov. 2021): unknown
Stock TBD
Supply TBD
Banknotes 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 Ⰾ
Bank Bank of Suverska
Issuer   Public Enterprise of Finance

Suverska's economy is two sided—one side consists of an internal, informal economy running on the local Suverskan let (SVL), while the formal economy and external imports and exports run primarily on the Canadian Dollar (CAD). While the let is the only official currency, the Canadian dollar thus acts as a de facto official currency in addition to the let. All organizations are owned and ran by the federal government, the Meteoran government, or by cooperatives of citizens, none of which may be run for profit. As an informal economy, Suverska lacks personal income taxation or sales taxation.

Almost all trading is done between Suverska and Canada, and most Suverskans are employed in Canada and import goods back into Suverska, causing the country to import more goods than it exports. Common imports into Suverska include food and perishable goods, electricity, gasoline, and plastic products, while common exports include cereals, meat and meat products, horticulture, and waste. Suverska's main industries include tourism, agricultrue and horticulture, and the media industry.[4]

Currency

The currency of Suverska is the Suverskan let (plural: lety; sign: Ⰾ; code: SVL). Previous to the government reforms of 2021, Suverska’s informal economies has used various local fiat currencies, including the Pušč (2013–2015) and its successor the Pasqua Dollar (2015–2021), but operated mostly on the Canadian dollar. During the transitional period, the Transitional Council proposed the creation of a new commodity or commodity-backed currency in order to promote the independence of Suverska’s economy. The proposal received greatly positive support from the populace, as seen in its referendum support, so the currency was developed. While originally scheduled to be introduced at the same time as the 2021 Constitution, printing of the let was postponed by six months until November 2021.

The let is issued by the Public Enterprise of Finance, with its Bank of Suverska acting as the central bank for the currency. The first banknotes set to be issued are in the denominations of 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, and 300 lety.

Energy

Energy consumption
Source %
Natural gas SP 45.6
Coal and coke SP 42.2
Hyrdo power BCH 12.2

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
201416—    
201624+50.0%
201839+62.5%
202044+12.8%

The 2020 Suverskan Census, which was taken on May 18, counted the nation's total population as 44, an increase of 12.8 percent from the result of the 2018 Census. Since its founding in 2013, the nation has grown greatly from its original seven residents mostly because as a result of the expansion of the country's borders. Suverska's population density of 11 people per square kilometre is considered very low by international standards, with the statistic being comparable to that of Kazakhstan and the Central African Republic. Despite this, the country is extremely urbanised, with 85.0 percent of the population living in cities or towns.

Suverska has a young population. In 2019, it was estimated that 40.5% of the population was below the age of 18, and that the median population was 30.1 years, with that statistic being slightly higher for women (30.3 years) than men (29.9 years). The two most prominent age groups in the nation are youth and working-age citizens, and as of the 2020 Census, the male and female population of Suverska was equal (both 50.0 percent). The nation's life expectancy at birth is currently estimated to be 83 years. Also as of 2020, the large majority of Suverskans (92.5 percent) live in family households, while 7.5 percent of Suverians live alone. The average size of a household is 3.08 people, with house sizes ranging from one person to six people.

Language and ethnicity

A traditional Ukrainian Orthodox meal eaten on Christmas Eve, photo taken in Tumakrai in 2020.

The 2020 Census of Suverska found that the nation is mostly home to white Canadians of European descent, as well as some Candians of Chinese descent and people of two or more races (10.0 percent). The Census results found that 97.5 percent of Suverskans have some European ancestry, which includes Polish (75.0 percent), Ukrainian (62.5 percent), and Hungarian (7.5 percent) ancestry, while 12.5 percent of the nation's residents have some Chinese ancestry. 12.5 percent of Suverians are visible minorities.

According to the 2020 Census, 92.5 percent of Suverksans were born in Canada and 2.5 percent in Poland, while only 5.0 percent of residents were born in Suverska itself. In a similar statistic, 82.5 percent of Suverskans reported in the 2020 Census that both of their parents were born in Canada, while 10.0 percent said one parent and 7.5 percent neither.

Suverska has no official language, although English acts as the de facto official language and the lingua franca of communication within the nation's government and between citizens. The 2020 Census of Suverska found that 90.0 percent of Suverskans speak English as their mother tongue, while other common mother tongues included Cantonese, Polish, and Ukrainian. As well, every adult Suverskan is able to read, write, and speak in English, while some people can carry a conversation in Cantonese, French, and various Slavic languages.

Religion

Religion in Suverska (2020 estimate)
Ukrainian Orthodox
  
36%
Roman Catholic
  
18%
Unspecified Christianity
  
14%
Lutheran
  
5%
Nonreligious/unspecified
  
20%
Non-Christian religions
  
7%

No official statistic of religion in Suverska has ever been recorded, but the nation is estimated to be a fairly religious nation by church membership. However, most of the nation's residents are relaxed adherers to their faiths, as the average weekly church attendance among Suverskans is estimated to be very low. Despite low attendance numbers, most Suverians are members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada or the Roman Catholic Church. A 2020 study by the Public Enterprise of Domestic Affairs estimated that Christians make up approximately three-quarters of the national population, including at least 36 percent Eastern Orthodox, 18 percent Roman Catholic, and 5 percent Lutheran, while the remaining citizens are members of other religions, non-religious, or did not specify their answer.

Culture

Pond hockey is a popular outdor activity in Suverska, especially Paskrai.

Suverskan culture resembles the culture of the neighbouring country of Canada and is also greatly influenced by Eastern European culture and Christian traditions. Like Canada, Suverska's people and its government place an emphasis multiculturalism and equality. Suverians value their nation's peaceful foreign policy, emphasis on the rights and freedoms of all, and its national park system. Historically, Suverska and its citizens have been influenced by Ukrainian and Polish culture, which are the nations where most of its citizens' ancestors immigrated from. Because of this, many Suverians practice and continue to value traditions from these cultures, such as egg decorating and other Christian traditions.

Popular sports in Suverska include ice hockey, baseball, and Canadian football. Many Suverians are fans of the Canadian Football League's Saskatchewan Roughriders. The national sport of Suverska is ice hockey, and the country is also a member of the Union Cycliste Intermicronationale.

Holidays

Because of their Christian backgrounds (specifically Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic), many Suverskans observe traditional Christian holidays such as Christmas and Easter Sunday. The following is a list of federal, non-working days in Suverska.

Non-working days of Suverska
Date Day
January 1 New Year's Day
January 7 Christmas Day (Julian)
variable March holiday
May 1 May Day
variable August holiday
variable Family Day
December 25 Christmas Day (Gregorian)

National symbols

Various symbols are used to represent Suverska and its people, such as the national flag and coat of arms. Along with these formal symbols, the government has also declared that the national sport is ice hockey, the national animal is the Pronghorn (antilocapra americana), the national fruit is the chokecherry (prunus virginiana), and the national flower is the marigold (calendula officinalis). As of 2020, the national colours of Suverska are black, gold (#FFCA60), and white.


National symbols of Suverska

2020 Suverska Flag.png 2020 Suverskan Arms.png Suverska pronghorn.jpeg Suverska chokecherry.jpg Suverska marigold.jpg Outdoor ice hockey.jpg
National flag National arms Animal: Pronghorn Fruit: Chokecherry Flower: Marigold Sport: Ice hockey


See also

Notes

  1. Suverska is also the third oldest continuously active micronation in all of Canada (on this website), after the Aerican Empire and Slabovia. (See the list of micronations in Canada).
  2. The Novchakho region of Suveria is located on Vancover Island.
  3. Includes 10 Suverskans living abroad in Canada.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "First Nations Communities and Treaty Boundaries in Saskatchewan". Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 30 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 December 2009.
  2. "Dominion Lands Act | The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. Retrieved 2021-05-12.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Saskatchewan | History, Population, Map, & Flag". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 "Republic of Suverska". sites.google.com. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  5. "National Climate Data". climate.weather.gc. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
  6. https://climate.weather.gc.ca/climate_normals/index_e.html
  7. "2021 Constitution of Suverska", Republic of Suverska, Retrieved 17 September 2021