Republic of Poseidonia
| Republic of Poseidonia |
Δημοκρατία της Ποσειδωνείας
Δικαιοσύνη, Ισότητα, Αδελφότητα (English: Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood)
Ύμνος είς τήν Ελευθερία
|Official language(s)||Greek, English(auxiliary)|
|Official religion(s)||Secular State|
|Short name||Poseidonia, Makronesia (informal)|
|Demonym||Poseidonian, Makronesian (informal)|
|Government||semi-direct democracy under a multi-party directorial republic|
|- President||Aziz Bastosun|
|Area claimed||~18,5 km²|
|Population||9 (as of 2011 census)|
|Currency||Poseidonian Sterline, Euro|
|Time zone||EET(UTC+2), EEST(UTC+3)|
The Republic of Poseidonia is a micronation founded on 2012, in Makronisos Island, Greece. Is Disestablished in 1 February 2019 due of President's request as a result of long time Inactivity. At 9 March 2019 Former Vice-President of Poseidonia decided to create an constitutional assembly and appointed himself as President of Republic of Poseidonia.
The Name "Poseidonia", comes from a place between Makronisos Island, called "Άνω Ποσειδωνεία" /áno posiðonía/, and Demonym "Poseidonians" comes from the "Posedonia". Also the demonym "Makronesian" can be used instead.
How Poseidonia Established
Republic of Poseidonia eshtablished since April 2012 from some friends to change the Image of the island and make Island's future brighter.
The idea to set up concentration camps on the island of Makronissos was incubated during the civil war years (1946-1949) as part of the elimination of all opposition from the Left, and within the extensive operation in the army to purge it from all democratic and leftwing conscripts. With the British intervention, the royalist ‘Popular Party’ won an |easy victory” at the March 1946 elections, and a hurriedly arranged referendum allowed the comeback of the King in September of the same year. The terror unleashed by the Right was heightened. They decided – among other measures against the Left – to “purify” the army from those conscripts considered “politically suspect”. These were disarmed and sent to various battalions or army units specifically formed for this purpose (in Crete, Liopesi, Dodular, etc). Many of the soldiers were ousted from the army or imprisoned and some were executed. Numerous officers of the Greek Liberation Army (ELAS) who fought in the National Resistance against the Germansm were banished to the islands of Naxos, Folegandros and Ikaria.
In February 1947 the decision was taken to set up the camps: Makronissos for the conscripts, Yaros for members of the Resistance, and Trikeri for the “politically suspect” citizens of the ‘cleaned-up’ areas of the country. In 1949, all the civilians that were detained as political exiles on the islands of Ikaria, Ai-Stratis and Limnos were transferred to Makronissos with the aim to submit them ideologically. Thus the largest concentration camp of the civil war was created numbering about 10,000 detainees. For their stay, concentration camps were gradually organized along the western coast of the island.
Different categories of detainees passed through the Makronissos camps:
Conscripts that were considered dangerous to the army Officers of the Greek Liberation Army (ELAS) and reservists who participated in the National Resistance Citizens from various regions who were preventively arrested prior to the “clearing operations” of the army Political prisoners taken from various prisons up and down the country Political exiles Women political exiles (about 1,200) brought to Makronissos from the Trikeri Concentration Camp in January 1950. The deception by which those in charge had wrapped the “patriotic work” practiced at Makronissos, is perpetrated by ‘reliable’ visitors too, who went there to admire it and to proclaim its value. Singular examples are the visit by Queen Frederica and by the American General Van Fleet himself.
Some of the remarkable events in the island’s tragic history are:
The first “Reform Experiment”, which took place at the 3rd Sappers Battalion, involving many abhorrent methods of coercion and torture over a long time, used as a model for torture practices in the other camps; The set up operation of ‘Mutiny’ at the 1st Sappers Battalion, which is one of the most horrific experiences to which the detainees were subjected, witnessing organized mass executions and ill-treatment of their comrades (1948); The “Reform Experiments”, which were extended to the political exiles following the establishment of the “Special Reform School for Civilians” (ESAI), and which coincided with the termination of the civil war in 1949; The parliamentary elections of March 5, 1950 in which, in spite of the climate of terror, the democratic parties won 70% of the votes of the people detained in Makronissos, burying the myth of the “Reform Schools” in the whole world At Makronissos, a variety of buildings were constructed by the prisoners under coercion: churches, playing fields, open-air theaters, places where the ideological reform of the detainees was practiced. The new Parthenons, St Sophias, arches and bas-reliefs, pebble mosaics, inscriptions with slogans that covered whole hillsides completed the “reform” scene. Administration buildings were erected at prominent sites, villas for the commanders, an Officers’ Club for the “instructors”, even buildings for communal functions, bread ovens, a soft drinks factory, a radio broadcasting station, an infirmary building, kitchens, water cisterns, sanitary areas.
The exiles lived in tents, exposed to the winds, the cold or the unbearable heat, suffering from hunger and thirst. Each camp was surrounded by dense rows of barbed wire and sentry huts. It is estimated that about 60,000 people passed through the island under these conditions. For a while (in 1948) the island’s detainee population reached 20,000. In 1961 the Army abandoned the island and subsequently all installations were looted and stripped from all re-usable materials.
More than four decades have elapsed since the end of the civil war. Slowly, and often painfully, the consequences of the civil war are being eradicated, normal parliamentary life takes hold, and many ex-detainees of Makronissos, within the wider Left, contribute to many artistic, scientific and intellectual fields, gaining wider respect and actively partake in the social and political life of the nation. The “exiles of Makronissos” try to preserve historical memory and all that is left on the island, which has turned into a vast pasture.
In 1989 with a ministerial decision the State has recognized Makronissos as a site of historic interest and its building as worthy of preservation as historical monuments. A proposal has also been put forward to include the island in the listed Mediterranean historic sites."
Makronisos: The Island of Exile
When one sails from Lavrion to the island of Kea much of the journey is spent going around a long barren island where you can see the ruins of some old buildings and little else besides rocks. This is the island of Makronisos, Greece's equivelant of Alkatraz. But these were not hardened criminals, murderers and thugs. Makronisos was where many people who had fought to liberate Greece from the Germans during World War Two, met their fate at the hands of their countrymen, tortured and killed because of their political beliefs. The men who lived and died here were the first victims of the Cold War.
In October 1944 the German army which had been occupying Greece retreated. Their stay in Greece was not a pleasant one, for even though the Greek government and the army had themselves retreated from Greece when the Germans first arrived, the Greek resistance, which was predominately communist, harassed the occupiers from their camps in the mountains as well as in the cities. When the country was liberated, the Greek government returned with George Papandreau (father of Andreas) as Prime Minister sharing power with the left in a government of national unity.
Unfortunately for the left it had been decided beforehand in Yalta by the leaders of the USA, Great Britain and The Soviet Union, when they divided up Europe, that Greece was not going to be allowed to fall under the influence of the communists. The possibility that the left would have any place at all in the Greek political system was disturbing to the leaders of the free world, despite the fact that the left had been the main resistance against the Nazis. General Scoby under orders from Winston Churchill initiated political intrigues against the communists and forced them to resign from the government. On December 3 a peaceful demonstration in Syntagma Square was fired upon by police snipers which resulted in the deaths of innocent civilians. This led to the Dekembriana, the December uprising which lasted until January 5th.
With the treaty of Varkiza in February the communists turned in their weapons which made them easy prey for the right-wing criminal militias, who had been colaborators with the Nazis but were now backed by the British, who hunted down members of the resistance and their families. The first elections were held in March 1946 but was boycotted by the communist party, a fatal mistake because from that point on they were outsiders and non-participants in the Greek political system.
Since the treaty of Varkiza the atrocities committed by the right against the left rivaled the crimes of the Nazis. There were 1289 murdered, 31,632 tortured, 30,000 imprisoned and many raped as well as the looting and destruction of property. So in 1946 while the rest of Europe was celebrating the peace after World War Two and trying to get back on their feet, Greece had entered another period of misery as Civil War erupted with the British backing the most reactionary of the Greeks. The leftist parties of the KKE, ELAS and EPON were outlawed. Military tribunals were set up all over the country. Thousands of leftists were executed. 50,000 were imprisoned and tens of thousands were exiled to remote islands.
In 1946 under a government directive from Prime Minister Sofoulis, communists of draft age were sent to the barren island of Makronisos off the coast of Attika, between the town of Lavrion and the island of Kea. The future prime minister Kannelopoulos (who was overthrown by the Junta) had called Makronisos ‘Greece’s new Parthenon’. In much later years, he regretted having said this. The plan was to rehabilitate these 'bad' Greeks into model citizens. Despite the fact that they had participated in the national resistance against the German occupation they were considered 'traitors' and 'enemies of the state'.
Their rehabilitation was called the Baptistry of Siloam and consisted of torture, living in tents in extreme hot or cold weather, hunger and thirst, solitary confinement, threats and brainwashing. When their spirit was broken they could sign a declaration admitting wrongdoing and asking for forgiveness. They were then sent to the front lines to fight against their comrades. Those who refused to sign were tried in a tribunal court, executed by firing squad or locked up in the Military Prison of Makronisos. The vast majority were left on the island to be tortured and abused.
In the northern part of Makronisos civilians and officers were held in what was called D Battalion. These were groups of 500 men crowded fourteen to a tent and isolated from other groups by a fifteen foot high barbed-wire fence. A Battalion was worse and prisoners were beaten and tortured with bats, iron bars and bamboo canes resulting in broken bones, spinal injury, blinding, psychological trauma and death for thousands of prisoners. This went on even after the Civil war ended in 1949. As time wore on, many fighters from the left who only wanted to return home and recommence their lives, found that they could not go back to their villages for fear of reprisals. In 1949 the communists retreating to the Eastern block countries issued the infamous edict that all fighters will remain ready to re-attack (‘to oplo para podas’). This of course was false but gave the right wing governments the excuse to prosecute all leftist sympathizers(not only communists) relentlessly. And many of course ended up in Makronisos. The military junta that ruled Greece repopulated the island with inmates during the 1967-73 period. Now Makronisos is deserted and the torture and cruelty that took place half a century ago is an almost forgotten memory except by those who lived through it. While the Greek Islands usually make us think of summer, sun, swimming and nights in the tavernas, Makronisos shows us there is another side and that man's inhumanity to his fellow man can turn any heaven into a hell. Like the concentration camps in Poland and Germany the island of Makronisos should be open to the public with photos and descriptions of what went on there in those shameful days, if for no other reason so that they will never be repeated.
Perhaps the saddest thing is that the later history of Makronissos has eclipsed the island's significance in ancient times, for Macronissos was the place of refuge for the beautiful Helen when the Trojan War broke out.
Government and politics
Poseidonia's Goverment found by three people, and there is no Parliament due of lack of Politicians.
Law and order
the laws system is same as in greece but in future Poseidonia is Planned to have its own laws.
At the last Days, Poseidonia Starts to have some Relations with few Micronations:
Friendships and mutual recognition
Principality of Ellrose
Principality of Garonne
Grand Duchy of Nesti
Kingdom of Ourania
Socialist Federative Republic of Snelandia
Independent State of Kaleido
Kingdom of Orion
There is no Military in Poseidonia now
Geography and climate
Poseidonia's Climate is same as in Attica region in Greece
Poseidonia's Economy is the less developed arround Micronations due that the Greek Economic crisis also hits here.
There is no any Official TV or YouTube Channel of Poseidonia for now, but there is an Official FB page of Poseidonia.
English: Poseidonian Republic
Greek: Ποσειδώνια Δημοκρατία
http://makronissos.net/, a Greek Web page about Makronisos,(NOTE: this website is not ours and belongs to Greek authorities, please if you want to contact with us, please send a Message to our FB page)
- http://www.greektravel.com/greekislands/makronisos/, the last two are the sources of the information about Makronisos's past
- https://github.com/poseidoniagov/poseidonia_constitution/blob/master/constitution.txt, the constitution of poseidonia