Republic of Arcaidyllia
Republic of Arcaidyllia
|Motto: "Liberté, prospérité, unité" (French)|
"Liberty, Prosperity, Unity"
|Anthem: "Civitatis Arcadylliae solemne est Reipublicae" (Latin)|
State Anthem of the Republic
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Robert Kennedy (As Provisional President/Acting President)|
|20 March 2022|
|25 March 2022|
|30 March 2022|
• Interim Provisional Government
|2 April 2022|
• Latest Elections
• Adoption of the Interim Constitution
|April 20 2022|
• Adoption of the Official Permanent Constitution
|6,541.3427 km2 (2,525.6265 sq mi) (195th)|
• Water (%)
• 2022 census
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
|▲ $581.189 billion (42nd)|
|GDP (nominal)||2022 estimate|
|▲ $191.941 billion (53rd)|
• Per capita
|▲ $4,294 (102nd)|
low · 23rd
|HDI (2021)||▲ 0.721|
high · 90th
|Currency||Arcaidyllian Dollar (ARD)|
|Time zone||UTC+1:00:01 (AST)|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC−4 to −10 (Arcaidyllian State Time)|
|Date format||mm. dd. yyyy|
The Republic of Arcaidyllia, often simply referred to as Arcaidyllia, is a country primarily located in the United States of America. It consists of 12 states, and a federal district. The official languages are German and English as auxiliary language. The current Prime Minister Dr. Edmund Baudelaire is currently serving unelectedly also as President of the Republic. General Elections are to be held when the nation fully establishes.
The name Arcaidyllia means ideal rustic paradise and an extremely happy, peaceful, or picturesque episode or scene, typically an idealized one.
On 20 March 2022, The Provisional Government Was established
The provisional government declared the independence of Arcaidyllia on 2 April 2022 by adopting the resolution from Robert Kennedy that stated:
French:Que cette nation est, et de droit devrait être, libre et indépendante, qu'elle est absous de toute allégeance aux États-Unis d'Amérique, et que tout lien politique entre elle et les États-Unis d'Amérique est, et devrait être, totalement dissous.
English (American): That this nation is , and of right ought to be, free and independent, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the United States of America, and that all political connection between them and the United States of America is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.
On 20 April 2022, they adopted the Constitution of the Republic and this date is celebrated as the nation's Constitution day. The Provisional Prime Minister shortly thereafter officially changed the nation's name to the "Republic of Arcaidyllia".
The new nation was founded on Enlightenment ideals of liberalism and was called the unalienable rights to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness". It was dedicated strongly to republican principles, which emphasized that people are sovereign, demanded civic duty, feared corruption, and rejected any aristocracy.
The country is still in a interim provisional Government as its not fully established yet. A 'provisional government', also called an 'interim government', an 'emergency government', or a 'transitional government', is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
The Great Dilemma
The Great Dilemma was a period of uncertainty when the founder of the Republic, Dr. Edmund Baudelaire, was in great dilemma whether to choose a presidential republic where the president is both Head of State and government or a Semi-Presidential Republic where the powers are shared between the president and the prime minister who is elected by Parliament while the President is largely ceremonial. The Great Dilemma ended when the founder of the republic decided to choose a semi-presidential republic since the powers are not vested in one person and there is accountability of the sitting government. Another reason to choose this type is that multiple parties can get a chance to become an MP thus providing greater representation to the Populus. Moreover the dilemma also included which type of government should be chosen whether a unitary government or a federal government. The Dilemma also included whether to choose a Civil Law or Common Law. The Founder chose civil law since its easier to reference and requires less revisions.
Politics and government
The republic is a federal semi-presidential constitutional parliamentary republic. The power of the Executive Branch is vested in the President of the Republic of Arcaidyllia. The Président is the People’s representative. The Prime Minister is the Head of Government while the President is solely ceremonial who represents the Arcaidyllian People with executive powers sanctioned by the Constitution. In practice, they are Arcaidyllia’s Head of Government and State and have a range of constitutional and ceremonial duties. The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Executive authority is formally vested in the President of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, and it is exercised on the advice of the Prime Minister and the cabinet. The President Can dissolve Parliament with the advice of the Prime Minister. The power to dissolve house(s) of parliament is solely vested in the President If deemed necessary. The President can also sign executive orders. An executive order is a means of issuing federal directives in the Republic, used by the President of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, that manages operations of the federal government. Presidential executive orders, once issued, remain in force until they are canceled, revoked, adjudicated unlawful, or expire on their terms. This Republic is a multi-party system. The Republic which consists of 12 states, a federal district, and uninhabited island possessions. It is a representative democracy "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law."
In the Arcaidyllian federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district.
The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Arcaidyllian Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. The Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the writ of habeas corpus. The Constitution has 27 amendments; the first ten amendments, which make up the Acts of Rights of Citizens, and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Arcaidyllian s' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review, and any law can be voided if the courts determine that it violates the Constitution
The federal government comprises three branches:
The bicameral Parliament, made up of the Senate and the National Assembly. The 'Arcaidyllian Parliament' (French: Parlement d'Arcaidyllia) is the bicameral legislature of the Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale). Each assembly conducts legislative sessions at separate locations. Each house has its own regulations and rules of procedure. However, occasionally they may meet as a single house known as the Congress of the Arcaidyllian Parliament (Congrès du Parlement français), convened at the Palace of Versailles, to revise and amend the Constitution of France. The National Assembly elects the Prime Minister and the President Appoints them.
Normally, the parliament meets for a single nine-month session each year but under special circumstances the President of France can call an additional session. Parliamentary power was limited after the establishment of the Fourth Republic; however, the National Assembly can still cause a government to fall if an absolute majority of the legislators votes for a motion of no confidence. As a result, the government usually consists of members from the political party that dominates the Assembly and must be supported by a majority there to prevent a vote of no-confidence.
The prime minister and other government ministers are appointed by the president, who is under no constitutional or other mandatory obligation to make governmental appointments from the ranks of the majority party in parliament. This is a safe-guard that was introduced by the founder of the Fifth Republic, Charles de Gaulle, to attempt to prevent the disarray and horse-trading seen in the parliamentary regimes of the Third and Fourth Republics; however, in practice the prime minister and other ministers usually do belong to the majority party. A notable exception to this custom occurred during Nicolas Sarkozy's premiership when he appointed socialist ministers and Secretary of State-level junior ministers to his government. The rare periods during which the president is not from the same political party as the prime minister are usually known as cohabitation. The Cabinet of Ministers is led by the president rather than the prime minister.
The government (or, when it sits in session every Wednesday, the cabinet) exerts considerable influence on the agenda of Parliament. The government also can link its term to a legislative text which it proposes, and unless a motion of censure is introduced within 24 hours of the proposal and passed within 48 hours of introduction – thus full procedures last at most 72 hours – the text is considered adopted without a vote. However, this procedure was limited by a 2008 constitutional amendment. Legislative initiative rests with the National Assembly.
Legislators enjoy parliamentary immunity. Both assemblies have committees that write reports on a variety of topics. If necessary, they can establish parliamentary commissions of inquiry with broad investigative power. However, this is almost never exercised because the majority can reject a proposition by the opposition to create an investigatory commission. Also, such a commission may only be created if it does not interfere with a judicial investigation, meaning that in order to cancel its creation, one just needs to press charges on the topic concerned by the investigatory commission. Since 2008, the opposition may impose the creation of an investigative commission once a year, even against the wishes of the majority. However, they still cannot lead investigations if there is a judicial case in process already (or that starts after the commission is formed).
The 'president of France', officially the 'President of the Republic' (French: Président de la République d'Arcaidyllia), is the head of state of France, head of the executive, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Arcaidyllian Armed Forces. As the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country, the officeholder is the holder of the highest office in France. The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, in addition to their relation with the prime minister and Government of France, have over time differed with the various constitutional documents.
The Arcaidyllian Fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike many other European presidents, the Arcaidyllian president is quite powerful. Although the prime minister of France, through their Government as well as Parliament, oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day domestic affairs, the Arcaidyllian president wields significant influence and authority, especially in the fields of national security and foreign policy. The president's greatest power is the ability to choose the prime minister. However, since it is the Arcaidyllian National Assembly that has the sole power to dismiss the prime minister's government, the president is forced to name a prime minister who can command the support of a majority in the assembly. Since 2002, the legislative elections are held a few weeks after the presidential; a majority supporting the president's party is therefore very likely to be obtained. They have also the duty of arbitrating the functioning of governmental authorities for efficient service, as the head of state of France.
- When a majority of the Assembly has opposite political views to that of the president, this leads to political cohabitation. In that case, the President's power is diminished, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive prime minister and National Assembly, and is not directly attributed to the post of president.
- When the majority of the Assembly sides with them, the president can take a more active role and may further influence government policy. The prime minister is then a more personal choice of the president, and can be easily replaced if the administration becomes unpopular. This device has been used in recent years by François Mitterrand, Jacques Chirac, and François Hollande.
Since 2002, the mandate of the president and the Assembly are both five years, and the two elections are close to each other. Therefore, the likelihood of a cohabitation is lower. Among the powers of the president:
- The president promulgates laws.
- The president has a suspensive veto: when presented with a law, they can request another reading of it by Parliament, but only once per law.
- The president may also refer the law for review to the Constitutional Council prior to promulgation.
- The president may dissolve the Arcaidyllian National Assembly.
- The president may refer treaties or certain types of laws to popular referendum, within certain conditions (among them the agreement of the prime minister or the Parliament).
- The president is the chief of the Armed Forces.
- The president may order the use of nuclear weapons.
- The president names the prime minister. In theory, he cannot directly dismiss him, but at least a few recent PM's are known to have given an undated letter of resignation for themselves to the president upon taking office, and the president generally has some influence over the PM. The president also names and dismisses the other ministers, with the advice of the prime minister.
- The president names most officials (with the assent of the cabinet).
- The president names certain members of the Constitutional Council. (Former presidents are also members of this council)
- The president receives foreign ambassadors.
- The president may grant a pardon (but not an amnesty) to convicted criminals; the president can also lessen or suppress criminal sentences. This was of crucial importance when France still operated the death penalty: criminals sentenced to death would generally request that the president commute their sentence to life imprisonment.
All decisions of the president must be countersigned by the prime minister, except dissolving the Arcaidyllian National Assembly, choice of prime minister, and other dispositions.
The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to Parliamentary override), and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. The Prime Minister shall direct the actions of the Government. The Prime Minister also shall determine and conduct the policy of the Nation, and it includes domestic issues, while the president concentrates on formulating directions on national defense and foreign policy while arbitrating the efficient service of all governmental authorities in Arcaidyllia. Other members of the government are appointed by the president "on the recommendation of the prime minister. In practice the prime minister acts in harmony with the president to whom he is a subordinate, except when there is a cohabitation. In such cases, a constitutional convention gives the prime minister primacy in domestic affairs, while the president oversees foreign affairs. His responsibilities, then, are akin to those of a prime minister in a parliamentary system. The prime minister can "engage the responsibility" of their government before the National Assembly. This process consists of placing a bill before the assembly, and either the assembly overthrows the government, or the bill is passed automatically. In addition to ensuring that the government still has support in the house, some bills that might prove too controversial to pass through the normal assembly rules are able to be passed this way. The prime minister may also submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council. Before they are allowed to dissolve the assembly, the president has to consult the prime minister and the presidents of both houses of Parliament. They are, as the representative of the government, the only member of the government able to introduce legislation in Parliament.
The constitutional attributions of the president are defined in Title II of the Constitution of France.
'Article 5': The president of the republic shall see that the Constitution is observed. He shall ensure, by his arbitration, the proper functioning of the public authorities and the continuity of the State. He shall be the guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity and observance of treaties.
'Article 8': The president of the republic shall appoint the prime minister. He shall terminate the appointment of the prime minister when the latter tenders the resignation of the Government. On the proposal of the prime minister, he shall appoint the other members of the Government and terminate their appointments.
'Article 9': The president of the republic shall preside over the Council of Ministers.
'Article 10:' The president of the republic shall promulgate acts of parliament within fifteen days following the final adoption of an act and its transmission to the Government. He may, before the expiry of this time limit, ask Parliament to reconsider the act or sections of the Act. Reconsideration shall not be refused. While the President has to sign all acts adopted by parliament into law, he cannot refuse to do so and exercise a kind of right of veto; his only power in that matter is to ask for a single reconsideration of the law by parliament and this power is subject to countersigning by the Prime minister.
'Article 11:' The president could submit laws to the people in a referendum with advice and consent of the cabinet.
'Article 12': The president of the republic may, after consulting the prime minister and the presidents of the assemblies, declare the National Assembly dissolved. A general election shall take place not less than twenty days and not more than forty days after the dissolution. The National Assembly shall convene as of right on the second Thursday following its election. Should it so convene outside the period prescribed for the ordinary session, a session shall be called by right for a fifteen-day period. No further dissolution shall take place within a year following this election.
'Article 13:' The president of the republic shall sign the ordinances and decrees deliberated upon in the Council of Ministers. He shall make appointments to the civil and military posts of the State. [...]
'Article 14': The president of the republic shall accredit ambassadors and envoys extraordinary to foreign powers; foreign ambassadors and envoys extraordinary shall be accredited to him.
'Article 15': The president of the republic shall be commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He shall preside over the higher national defence councils and committees.
'Article 16': Where the institutions of the republic, the independence of the nation, the integrity of its territory or the fulfilment of its international commitments are under serious and immediate threat, and where the proper functioning of the constitutional public authorities is interrupted, the president of the republic shall take the measures required by these circumstances, after formally consulting the prime minister, the presidents of the assemblies and the Constitutional Council. He shall inform the nation of these measures in a message. The measures must stem from the desire to provide the constitutional public authorities, in the shortest possible time, with the means to carry out their duties. The Constitutional Council shall be consulted with regard to such measures. Parliament shall convene as of right. The National Assembly shall not be dissolved during the exercise of the emergency powers.
'Article 16', allowing the president a limited form of rule by decree for a limited period of time in exceptional circumstance, has been used only once, by Charles de Gaulle during the Algerian War, from 23 April to 29 September 1961.
'Article 17': The president of the republic has the right to grant pardon.
'Article 18': The president of the republic shall communicate with the two assemblies of Parliament by means of messages, which he shall cause to be read and which shall not be the occasion for any debate. He can also give an address in front of the Congress of France in Versailles. Outside sessions, Parliament shall be convened especially for this purpose.
'Article 19': Acts of the president of the republic, other than those provided for under articles 8 (first paragraph), 11, 12, 16, 18, 54, 56 and 61, shall be countersigned by the prime minister and, where required, by the appropriate ministers.
Before the 2008 constitutional reform forbidding them, there was a tradition of so-called "presidential amnesties", which are something of a misnomer: after the election of a president, and of a National Assembly of the same party, parliament would traditionally vote a law granting amnesty for some petty crimes (it was also a way of reducing jail overpopulation). This practice had been increasingly criticized, particularly because it was believed to inspire people to commit traffic offences in the months preceding the election. Such an amnesty law would also authorize the president to designate individuals who have committed certain categories of crimes to be offered amnesty, if certain conditions are met. Such individual measures have been criticized for the political patronage that they allow. The difference between an amnesty and a presidential pardon is that the former clears all subsequent effects of the sentencing, as though the crime had not been committed, while pardon simply relieves the sentenced individual from part or all of the remainder of the sentence.
- Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the Prime Minister with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.
The National Assembly has 400 voting members, each representing a Parliamentary district for a four-year term. House seats are apportioned by proportional representation. Members of Parliament elected by direct universal suffrage with a two-round system by constituency, for a five-year mandate, subject to dissolution.
The Senate has 200 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every two years. The president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice.
The Supreme Court, led by the chief justice of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, has nine members, who serve for life.
The 12 states are the principal political divisions in the country. Each state holds jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, where it shares sovereignty with the federal government. They are subdivided into counties or county equivalents and further divided into municipalities. Arcaidyllia City is a federal district that contains the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Arcaidyllia. The states and the Federal District choose the president of the Republic of Arcaidyllia.
The Legislative Branch is the Parliament (Parliament) which has 2 houses, which are the National Assembly and House of the Senate. It makes Laws for the Nation. Each Province has two Senators and at least one MP (Member of Parliament for the National Assembly); the more residents a state has, the more Representatives allowed. There are 200 Senators and 400 out of 600 seats as MPs. Current Parliamentary Session is the 1st Parliament Session.
The judicial branch is in charge of deciding the meaning of laws, how to apply them to real situations, and whether a law breaks the rules of the Constitution. The Constitution is the highest law of our Nation. The Arcaidyllian Supreme Court, the highest court in the Republic, is part of the judicial branch.
The Prime Minister of Arcaidyllia' (French: Premier ministre français), officially the 'prime minister of the Republic', is the head of government of the Republic and the leader of the Council of Ministers.
The prime minister is the holder of the second-highest office in Arcaidyllia, after the president of Arcaidyllia. The president, who appoints but cannot dismiss the prime minister, can ask for their resignation. The Government of Arcaidyllia, including the prime minister, can be dismissed by the National Assembly. Upon appointment, the prime minister proposes a list of ministers to the president. Decrees and decisions signed by the prime minister, like almost all executive decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Some decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State (French: Conseil d'État), over which the prime minister is entitled to preside. Ministers defend the programs of their ministries to the prime minister, who makes budgetary choices. The extent to which those decisions lie with the prime minister or president often depends upon whether they are of the same political party. If so, the president may serve as both the head of state and de facto head of government, while the prime minister serves as his deputy.
Robert Lawrence appointed himself as prime minister and President of the Provisional Government on 22 April 2022. He presented his government three days later.
The prime minister is appointed by the president of Arcaidyllia, who is theoretically free to pick whomever he pleases for the post. In practice, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the government by adopting a motion of censure, the choice of prime minister must reflect the will of the majority in the National Assembly. Notably, immediately after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand had to appoint Jacques Chirac as prime minister although Chirac was a member of the Rally for the Republic and therefore a political opponent of Mitterrand. While Mitterrand's Socialist Party was the largest party in the National Assembly, it did not have an absolute majority. The RPR had an alliance with the Union for Arcaidyllian Democracy, which gave them a majority. Such a situation, in which the president is forced to work with a prime minister who is a political opponent, is called a cohabitation.
While prime ministers are usually chosen from amongst the ranks of the National Assembly, on rare occasions the president has selected a non-officeholder because of their experience in bureaucracy or foreign service, or their success in business management—Dominique de Villepin, most notably, served as prime minister from 2005 to 2007 without ever having held elected office.
Although the president's choice of prime minister must be in accordance with the majority in the National Assembly, a prime minister does not have to ask for a vote of confidence after their government's formation. They can base their legitimacy on the president's assignment as prime minister and approval of the government. However, it is traditionally expected that the government seeks a motion of confidence upon entering office.
According to the Constitution, the prime minister "shall direct the actions of the Government". Additionally, it stipulates that the government "shall determine and conduct the policy of the Nation", and it includes domestic issues, while the president concentrates on formulating directions on national defense and foreign policy while arbitrating the efficient service of all governmental authorities in Arcaidyllia. Other members of the government are appointed by the president "on the recommendation of the prime minister". In practice the prime minister acts in harmony with the president to whom he is a subordinate, except when there is a cohabitation. In such cases, a constitutional convention gives the prime minister primacy in domestic affairs, while the president oversees foreign affairs. His responsibilities, then, are akin to those of a prime minister in a parliamentary system.
The prime minister can "engage the responsibility" of their government before the National Assembly. This process consists of placing a bill before the assembly, and either the assembly overthrows the government, or the bill is passed automatically (article 49). In addition to ensuring that the government still has support in the house, some bills that might prove too controversial to pass through the normal assembly rules are able to be passed this way.
The prime minister may also submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council (article 61). Before they are allowed to dissolve the assembly, the president has to consult the prime minister and the presidents of both houses of Parliament (article 12). They are, as the representative of the government, the only member of the government able to introduce legislation in Parliament.
President of the Republic
The president of the Republic of Arcaidyllia (POTA) is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Arcaidyllia of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Republic of Arcaidyllia Armed Forces. The power of the presidency has grown substantially since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. In contemporary times, the president is also looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower. As the leader of the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP, the president possesses significant domestic and international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government and vests the executive power in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law and the responsibility to appoint federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory, and judicial officers. Based on constitutional provisions empowering the president to appoint and receive ambassadors and conclude treaties with foreign powers, and on subsequent laws enacted by Parliament, the modern presidency has primary responsibility for conducting Republic foreign policy. The role includes responsibility for directing the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president also plays a leading role in federal legislation and domestic policymaking. As part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation. Since modern presidents are also typically viewed as the leaders of their political parties, major policymaking is significantly shaped by the outcome of presidential elections, with presidents taking an active role in promoting their policy priorities to members of Parliament who are often electorally dependent on the president. In recent decades, presidents have also made increasing use of executive orders, agency regulations, and judicial appointments to shape domestic policy. The president is elected indirectly through the Electoral College to a four-year term, along with the vice president. Under the Twenty-second Amendment, no person who has been elected to two presidential terms may be elected to a third. In addition, nine vice presidents have become president by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation.
Signing and Vetoing Bills
The president's most significant legislative power derives from the Presentment Clause, which gives the president the power to veto any bill passed by Parliament. While Parliament can override a presidential veto, it requires a two-thirds vote of both houses, which is usually very difficult to achieve except for widely supported bipartisan legislation. The framers of the Constitution feared that Parliament would seek to increase its power and enable a "tyranny of the majority," so giving the indirectly-elected president a veto was viewed as an important check on the legislative power. While George Washington believed the veto should only be used in cases where a bill was unconstitutional, it is now routinely used in cases where presidents have policy disagreements with a bill. The veto – or threat of a veto – has thus evolved to make the modern presidency a central part of the Arcaidyllian legislative process.
Specifically, under the Presentment Clause, once a bill has been presented by Parliament, the president has three options:
- Sign the legislation within ten days, excluding Sundays—the bill becomes law.
- Veto the legislation within the above timeframe and return it to the house of Parliament from which it originated, expressing any objections—the bill does not become law, unless both houses of Parliament vote to override the veto by a two-thirds vote.
- Take no action on the legislation within the above timeframe—the bill becomes law, as if the president had signed it, unless Parliament is adjourned at the time, in which case it does not become law (a pocket veto).
Parliament attempted to enhance the president's veto power with the Line Item Veto Act. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit. Parliament could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Parliament could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.
Setting the Agenda
For most of Arcaidyllian history, candidates for president have sought election on the basis of a promised legislative agenda. Formally, Article II, Section 3, Clause 2 requires the president to recommend such measures to Parliament which the president deems "necessary and expedient." This is done through the constitutionally-based State of the Union address, which usually outlines the president's legislative proposals for the coming year, and through other formal and informal communications with Parliament.
The president can be involved in crafting legislation by suggesting, requesting, or even insisting that Parliament enact laws he believes are needed. Additionally, he can attempt to shape legislation during the legislative process by exerting influence on individual members of Parliament. Presidents possess this power because the Constitution is silent about who can write legislation, but the power is limited because only members of Parliament can introduce legislation.
The president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Parliament. Additionally, the president may attempt to have Parliament alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.
Many laws enacted by Parliament do not address every possible detail, and either explicitly or implicitly delegate powers of implementation to an appropriate federal agency. As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Parliament. Legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Parliament had slid into the hands of presidents. Presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars'—each wholly unaccountable to Parliament yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the Presidential Palace". Presidents have been criticized for making signing statements when signing Parliamentary legislation about how they understand a bill or plan to execute it. This practice has been criticized by the Arcaidyllian Bar Association as unconstitutional.
Convening and adjourning Parliament
To allow the government to act quickly in case of a major domestic or international crisis arising when Parliament is not in session, the president is empowered by the Constitution to call a special session of one or both houses of Parliament. In addition, prior to ratification of the Twentieth Amendment , which brought forward the date on which Parliament convenes from December to January, newly inaugurated presidents would routinely call the Senate to meet to confirm nominations or ratify treaties. However, the power has decreased in the modern era as Parliament now formally remains in session year-round, convening pro forma sessions every three days even when ostensibly in recess. When not a emergency the president shall dissolve parliament at his pleasure on the advice of the Prime Minister when deemed necessary.
Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.
The president is head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".
Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: an incoming president may make up to 6,000 before taking office and 8,000 more while serving. Ambassadors, members of the Cabinet, and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the "advice and consent" of a majority of the Senate. When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. Recess appointments are temporary and expire at the end of the next session of the Senate.
The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue. Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. However, Parliament can curtail and constrain a president's authority to fire commissioners of independent regulatory agencies and certain inferior executive officers by statute.
To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the Republic of Arcaidyllia. Within the Executive Office, the president's innermost layer of aides (and their assistants) are located in the Presidential Palace Office.
The president also possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government by issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders. When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad. Even so, these directives are subject to judicial review by Republic federal courts, which can find them to be unconstitutional. Moreover, Parliament can overturn an executive order via legislation.
Article II, Section 3, Clause 4 requires the president to "receive Ambassadors." This clause, known as the Reception Clause, has been interpreted to imply that the president possesses broad power over matters of foreign policy, and to provide support for the president's exclusive authority to grant recognition to a foreign government. The Constitution also empowers the president to appoint Republic of Arcaidyllia ambassadors, and to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the Republic of Arcaidyllia and other countries. Such agreements, upon receiving the advice and consent of the Republic Senate (by a two-thirds majority vote), become binding with the force of federal law.
While foreign affairs has always been a significant element of presidential responsibilities, advances in technology since the Constitution's adoption have increased presidential power. Where formerly ambassadors were vested with significant power to independently negotiate on behalf of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, presidents now routinely meet directly with leaders of foreign countries.
One of the most important of executive powers is the president's role as commander-in-chief of the Republic of Arcaidyllia Armed Forces. The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Parliament, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.
Juridical powers and privileges
The president has the power to nominate federal judges, including members of the Republic of Arcaidyllia courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the Republic of Arcaidyllia. However, these nominations require Senate confirmation before they may take office. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance. When nominating judges to Republic district courts, presidents often respect the long-standing tradition of senatorial courtesy. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office. Presidents often grant pardons shortly before leaving office.
Two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy. The first is executive privilege, which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.
The degree to which the president personally has absolute immunity from court cases is contested and has been the subject of several Supreme Court decisions.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, the dissolution of parliament shall be commenced by the president on the advice of the Prime Minister if deemed necessary or if parliament fails to represent its constituencies . In the case of a Constitutional Crises, The President may act on its own with no advice from another body of the Parliament. Only the National Assembly shall be dissolved. The President shall use his presidential decree to dissolve parliament if deemed necessary.
Head of state
As head of state, the president represents the Republic of Arcaidyllia government to its own people, and represents the nation to the rest of the world. For example, during a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn. This is followed by a state dinner given by the president which is held in the State Dining Room later in the evening. As a national leader, the president also fulfills many less formal ceremonial duties.
Other presidential traditions are associated with Arcaidyllian holidays. One of the traditions are the turkey pardon during Thanksgiving when the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the Presidential Palace. Presidential traditions also involve the president's role as head of government. Many outgoing presidents traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition. The modern presidency holds the president as one of the nation's premier celebrities. Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves. One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". Administration public relations managers staged carefully crafted photo-ops of smiling presidents with smiling crowds for television cameras. As a result, some political commentators have opined that Arcaidyllian voters have unrealistic expectations of presidents: voters expect a president to "drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees".
Head of party
The president is typically considered to be the head of his or her political party. Since the entire National Assembly and at least one-third of the Senate is elected simultaneously with the president, candidates from a political party inevitably have their electoral success intertwined with the performance of the party's presidential candidate. The coattail effect, or lack thereof, will also often impact a party's candidates at state and local levels of government as well. However, there are often tensions between a president and others in the party, with presidents who lose significant support from their party's caucus in Parliament generally viewed to be weaker and less effective.
With the rise of the Republic of Arcaidyllia as a superpower and the Republic of Arcaidyllia having the second world's largest economy into the 21st century, the president is typically viewed as a global leader, and at times the world's most powerful political figure. The president is the "leader of the free world."
Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one:
- Must be a Citizen of the Republic ( Naturalized are allowed as well )
- Must be at least 25 years old.
- have been a resident of the Republic for 6 Months (Non-Residents as absentee President).
- Must have a Bachelor's Degree in any Field that is approved by the federal government.
- Must have 1 year or more of Political Experience as Mayor or Other Political Offices.
- Must be a Individual of Faith.
A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:
- Under Article I, Section 3, Clause 7, having been impeached, convicted and disqualified from holding further public office, although there is some legal debate as to whether the disqualification clause also includes the presidential office: the only previous persons so punished were three federal judges.
- Under Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment, no person who swore an oath to support the Constitution, and later rebelled against the Republic of Arcaidyllia, is eligible to hold any office. However, this disqualification can be lifted by a two-thirds vote of each house of Parliament.
- Under the Twenty-second Amendment, no person can be elected president more than twice. The amendment also specifies that if any eligible person serves as president or acting president for more than two years of a term for which some other eligible person was elected president, the former can only be elected president once.
Campaigns and nomination
The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections, which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates before their national nominating conventions, where the most successful candidate is made the party's presidential nominee. Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention. The most common previous profession of presidents is lawyer.
Nominees participate in nationally televised debates, and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited. Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.
270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 votes possible to win the presidency.
The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the Federal District through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms. As prescribed by Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Parliament. Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the Federal District is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state. Currently, all states and the Federal District select their electors based on a popular election. In all but two states, the party whose presidential–vice presidential ticket receives a plurality of popular votes in the state has its entire slate of elector nominees chosen as the state's electors. Maine and Nebraska deviate from this winner-take-all practice, awarding two electors to the statewide winner and one to the winner in each Parliamentary district.
On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals (and in Federal District of Arcaidyllia of Zephyria) to vote for president and, on a separate ballot, for vice president. They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. Following the vote, each state then sends a certified record of their electoral votes to Parliament. The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Parliament, held in the first week of January. If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president (currently 270 of 538), that person is declared the winner. Otherwise, the National Assembly must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top three electoral vote-getters for president. For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states .
In the Republic of Arcaidyllia, a contingent election is the procedure used to elect the president or vice president if no candidate for one or both of these offices wins an absolute majority of votes in the Electoral College. A presidential contingent election is decided by a special vote of the v National Assembly, while a vice-presidential contingent election is decided by a vote of the Senate. During a contingent election in the House, each state's delegation casts one en bloc vote to determine the president, rather than a vote from each representative. Senators, on the other hand, cast votes individually for vice president.
The contingent election process was originally established in Article Two, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Arcaidyllian Constitution. The procedure was modified by the 12th Amendment , under which the House chooses one of the three candidates who received the most electoral votes, while the Senate chooses one of the two candidates who received the most electoral votes.
In the republic, the president and vice president are indirectly elected by the Electoral College, which, since ratification of the 23rd Amendment , consists of presidential electors from the 6 states and The Federal District. The current total of 538 electors that make up the Electoral College are directly elected by their respective states. Majority of the states have chosen their electors on a statewide winner-take-all basis, based on the statewide popular vote on Election Day. Maine and Nebraska are the only two current exceptions, as both states use the Parliamentary district method. Although ballots list the names of the presidential and vice presidential candidates (who run on a ticket), voters actually choose electors when they vote for president and vice president. These presidential electors in turn cast electoral votes for those two offices. Electors usually pledge to vote for their party's nominee, but some "faithless electors" have voted for other candidates.
A candidate must receive an absolute majority of electoral votes (currently 270) to win the presidency or the vice presidency. If no candidate receives a majority in the election for president or vice president, that election is determined via a contingency procedure established by the 12th Amendment. In such a situation, the House chooses one of the top three presidential electoral vote-winners as the president, while the Senate chooses one of the top two vice presidential electoral vote-winners as vice president.
Section 3 of the 20th Amendment specifies that if the National Assembly has not chosen a president-elect in time for the inauguration (noon on January 20), then the vice president-elect becomes acting president until the House selects a president. Section 3 also specifies that Parliament may statutorily provide for who will be acting president if there is neither a president-elect nor a vice president-elect in time for the inauguration. Under the Presidential Succession Act, the Speaker of the House would become acting president until either the House selects a president or the Senate selects a vice president. None of these situations has ever occurred. The three past contingent elections were held by the outgoing Parliament, since, at the time, Parliamentary terms ended / began on March 4, the same day as presidential terms. The 20th Amendment moved the Parliamentary term end / start date to an earlier date (January 3) in the year than the new January 20 presidential term end / start date. The amendment reduced the length of lame-duck sessions of Parliament. As a result, the contingent elections are conducted by the incoming Parliament.
If no candidate for president receives an absolute majority of the electoral votes, pursuant to the 12th Amendment, the National Assembly is required to go into session immediately to choose a president from among the three candidates who received the most electoral votes. Each state's delegation votes en bloc, with each having a single vote. A candidate must receive an absolute majority of state delegation votes (currently 26 votes) to become the president-elect. The House continues balloting until it elects a president. As a consequence of the state delegation voting method, the party that holds the majority in the House could still lose the contingent election if the minority party holds the majority of state delegations. The Federal District, which is not a state, does not receive a vote; the 23rd Amendment, which grants the district electoral votes, does not grant The Federal District a vote in contingent elections.
Historically, a delegation that did not give a majority of its vote to any one candidate was marked as "divided" and thus did not award its vote to any candidate. The contingent presidential elections to date have been held in closed session, with the vote of each individual representative not being revealed outside the House Journal. The Constitution does not require a contingent election to be in closed session, and a future contingent election could be held in an open session with public voting.
If no candidate for vice president receives a majority of the electoral votes, pursuant to the 12th Amendment, the Senate is required to go into session immediately to choose the vice president from the two candidates who received the most electoral votes. Unlike in the House, senators cast votes individually in this election. Because the Senate votes independently from the House during a contingent election, the House's presidential selection and the Senate's vice presidential selection could be from opposing parties.
Additionally, the 12th Amendment requires a "majority of the whole number" of Senators (currently 51 of 100) to elect the vice president in a contingent election. In practical terms, this means that an absence or an abstention from voting is equivalent to a negative vote and may impair the ability of either candidate to win election. The explicit constitutional language about election by a majority of the whole number of senators may preclude the sitting vice president from breaking any tie which might occur, although some academics and journalists have speculated to the contrary.
Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment, the four-year term of office for both the president and the vice president begins at noon on January 20. The first presidential and vice presidential terms to begin on this date, known as Inauguration Day.
Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential Oath of Office, found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8 of the Constitution. This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:
I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Arcaidyllia.
Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath. Although the oath may be administered by any person authorized by law to administer oaths, presidents are traditionally sworn in by the chief justice of the Republic of Arcaidyllia.
'Parliament of the Republic of Arcaidyllia'
The Republic of Arcaidyllia Parliament is the legislature of the federal government of the Republic of Arcaidyllia. It is bicameral, comprising a lower body, the National Assembly, and an upper body, the Senate. The Parliament meets in the Republic of Arcaidyllia Capitol in Federal District of Arcaidyllia of Arcaidyllia Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a governor's appointment. Parliament has 535 voting members: 100 senators and 435 representatives. The Vice President of the Republic of Arcaidyllia has a vote in the Senate only when senators are evenly divided; the National Assembly has six non-voting members.
The sitting of a Parliament is for a two-year term, at present beginning every other January; the current Parliament is the 117th. Elections are held every even-numbered year on Election Day. The members of the National Assembly are elected for the two-year term of a Parliament. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, so currently, there are 100 senators for the 6 states.
Article One of the Republic of Arcaidyllia Constitution requires that members of Parliament must be at least 25 years old (House) or 30 years old (Senate), have been a citizen of the Republic of Arcaidyllia for seven (House) or nine (Senate) years, and be an inhabitant of the state which they represent. Members in both chambers may stand for re-election an unlimited number of times.
The Parliament was created by the Constitution of the Republic of Arcaidyllia and first met in 2021, replacing in its legislative function the Parliament of the Confederation.
Powers of Parliament
Overview of Parliamentary power
Parliament's "power of the purse" authorizes taxing citizens, spending money, and printing currency.
Article One of the Constitution creates and sets forth the structure and most of the powers of Parliament. Sections One through Six describe how Parliament is elected and gives each House the power to create its own structure. Section Seven lays out the process for creating laws, and Section Eight enumerates numerous powers. Section Nine is a list of powers Parliament does not have, and Section Ten enumerates powers of the state, some of which may only be granted by Parliament. Constitutional amendments have granted Parliament additional powers. Parliament also has implied powers derived from the Constitution's Necessary and Proper Clause.
Parliament has authority over financial and budgetary policy through the enumerated power to "lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the Republic of Arcaidyllia".
The Sixteenth Amendment extended Parliamentary power of taxation to include income taxes without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. The Constitution also grants Parliament the exclusive power to appropriate funds, and this power of the purse is one of Parliament's primary checks on the executive branch. Parliament can borrow money on the credit of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the states, and coin money. Generally, both the Senate and the National Assembly have equal legislative authority, although only the House may originate revenue and appropriation bills.
Parliament authorizes defense spending.
Parliament has an important role in national defense, including the exclusive power to declare war, to raise and maintain the armed forces, and to make rules for the military.
Parliament can establish post offices and post roads, issue patents and copyrights, fix standards of weights and measures, establish Courts inferior to the Supreme Court, and "make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, or in any Department or Officer thereof". Article Four gives Parliament the power to admit new states into the Union.
Parliament oversees other government branches.
The Constitution enumerates the powers of Parliament in detail. In addition, other Parliamentary powers have been granted, or confirmed, by constitutional amendments. The Thirteenth , Fourteenth , and Fifteenth Amendments gave Parliament authority to enact legislation to enforce rights of African Arcaidyllian s, including voting rights, due process, and equal protection under the law. Generally militia forces are controlled by state governments, not Parliament.
Implied powers and the commerce clause
Parliament also has implied powers deriving from the Constitution's Necessary and Proper Clause which permit Parliament to "make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, or in any Department or Officer thereof".
Constitutional responsibility for the oversight of the Federal District of Arcaidyllia , the federal district and national capital, and the Republic territories rests with Parliament. The republican form of government in territories is devolved by Parliamentary statute to the respective territories including direct election of governors, the D.C. mayor and locally elective territorial legislatures.
Each territory and Federal District of Arcaidyllia of Zephyria, elects a non-voting delegate to the Republic National Assembly as they have throughout Parliamentary history. They "possess the same powers as other members of the House, except that they may not vote when the House is meeting as the National Assembly". They are assigned offices and allowances for staff, participate in debate, and appoint constituents to the four military service academies for the Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard.
Federal District of Arcaidyllia of Zephyria, citizens alone among Republic territories have the right to directly vote for the President of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, although the Democratic and Republican political parties nominate their presidential candidates at national conventions which include delegates from the five major territories.
Checks and balances
The Constitution provides checks and balances among the three branches of the federal government. Its authors expected the greater power to lie with Parliament as described in Article One.
The influence of Parliament on the presidency has varied from period to period depending on factors such as Parliamentary leadership, presidential political influence, historical circumstances such as war, and individual initiative by members of Parliament. The impeachment of Andrew Johnson made the presidency less powerful than Parliament for a considerable period afterwards.
The Constitution concentrates removal powers in the Parliament by empowering and obligating the National Assembly to impeach both executive and judicial officials for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors". Impeachment is a formal accusation of unlawful activity by a civil officer or government official. The Senate is constitutionally empowered and obligated to try all impeachments. A simple majority in the House is required to impeach an official; however, a two-thirds majority in the Senate is required for conviction. A convicted official is automatically removed from office; in addition, the Senate may stipulate that the defendant be banned from holding office in the future. Impeachment proceedings may not inflict more than this; however, a convicted party may face criminal penalties in a normal court of law. In the history of the Republic of Arcaidyllia, the National Assembly has impeached sixteen officials, of whom seven were convicted. Another resigned before the Senate could complete the trial.
The Senate has an important check on the executive power by confirming Cabinet officials, judges, and other high officers "by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate". It confirms most presidential nominees but rejections are not uncommon. Furthermore, treaties negotiated by the President must be ratified by a two-thirds majority vote in the Senate to take effect. The National Assembly has no formal role in either the ratification of treaties or the appointment of federal officials, other than in filling a vacancy in the office of the vice president; in such a case, a majority vote in each House is required to confirm a president's nomination of a vice president.
Investigations are conducted to gather information on the need for future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed, and to inquire into the qualifications and performance of members and officials of the other branches. Committees may hold hearings, and, if necessary, compel individuals to testify when investigating issues over which it has the power to legislate by issuing subpoenas. Witnesses who refuse to testify may be cited for contempt of Parliament, and those who testify falsely may be charged with perjury. Most committee hearings are open to the public (the House and Senate intelligence committees are the exception); important hearings are widely reported in the mass media and transcripts published a few months afterwards. Parliament, in the course of studying possible laws and investigating matters, generates an incredible amount of information in various for can be described as a publisher. Indeed, it publishes House and Senate reports and maintains databases which are updated irregularly with publications in a variety of electronic formats.
Parliament also plays a role in presidential elections. Both Houses meet in joint session on the sixth day of January following a presidential election to count the electoral votes, and there are procedures to follow if no candidate wins a majority.
The main result of Parliamentary activity is the creation of laws, most of which are contained in the Republic of Arcaidyllia Code, arranged by subject matter alphabetically under fifty title headings to present the laws "in a concise and usable form".
Parliament is split into two chambers – House and Senate – and manages the task of writing national legislation by dividing work into separate committees which specialize in different areas. Some members of Parliament are elected by their peers to be officers of these committees. Further, Parliament has ancillary organizations such as the Government Accountability Office and the Library of Parliament to help provide it with information, and members of Parliament have staff and offices to assist them as well.
Library of Parliament video explanation of committees in the Republic of Arcaidyllia Parliament
The committee structure permits members of Parliament to study a particular subject intensely. It is neither expected nor possible that a member be an expert on all subject areas before Parliament. As time goes by, members develop expertise in particular subjects and their legal aspects. Committees investigate specialized subjects and advise the entire Parliament about choices and trade-offs. The choice of specialty may be influenced by the member's constituency, important regional issues, prior background and experience. Senators often choose a different specialty from that of the other senator from their state to prevent overlap. Some committees specialize in running the business of other committees and exert a powerful influence over all legislation; for example, the House Ways and Means Committee has considerable influence over House affairs.
Committees write legislation. While procedures, such as the House discharge petition process, can introduce bills to the House floor and effectively bypass committee input, they are exceedingly difficult to implement without committee action. Committees have power and have been called independent fiefdoms. Legislative, oversight, and internal administrative tasks are divided among about two hundred committees and subcommittees which gather information, evaluate alternatives, and identify problems. They propose solutions for consideration by the full chamber. In addition, they perform the function of oversight by monitoring the executive branch and investigating wrongdoing.
At the start of each two-year session, the House elects a speaker who does not normally preside over debates but serves as the majority party's leader. In the Senate, the vice president is the ex officio president of the Senate. In addition, the Senate elects an officer called the president pro tempore. Pro tempore means for the time being and this office is usually held by the most senior member of the Senate's majority party and customarily keeps this position until there is a change in party control. Accordingly, the Senate does not necessarily elect a new president pro tempore at the beginning of a new Parliament. In both the House and Senate, the actual presiding officer is generally a junior member of the majority party who is appointed so that new members become acquainted with the rules of the chamber.
Library of Parliament
The Library of Parliament was established by an act of Parliament in 2022. It is primarily housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill, but also includes several other sites: the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in Federal District of Arcaidyllia of Zephyria; the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center in Culpeper, Virginia; a large book storage facility located at Fort Meade, Maryland; and multiple overseas offices. One of the library's missions is to serve Parliament and its staff as well as the Arcaidyllian public. It is the largest library in the world with nearly 16 million items including books, films, maps, photographs, music, manuscripts, graphics, and materials in 470 languages.
Parliamentary Research Service
The Parliamentary Research Service, part of the Library of Parliament, provides detailed, up-to-date and non-partisan research for senators, representatives, and their staff to help them carry out their official duties. It provides ideas for legislation, helps members analyze a bill, facilitates public hearings, makes reports, consults on matters such as parliamentary procedure, and helps the two chambers resolve disagreements. It has been called the "House's think tank" and has a staff of about 900 employees.
Parliamentary Budget Office
The Parliamentary Budget Office or PBO is a federal agency which provides economic data to Parliament.
It was created as an independent non-partisan agency. It helps Parliament estimate revenue inflows from taxes and helps the budgeting process. It makes projections about such matters as the national debt as well as likely costs of legislation. It prepares an annual Economic and Budget Outlook with a mid-year update and writes An Analysis of the President's Budgetary Proposals for the Senate's Appropriations Committee. The speaker of the House and the Senate's president pro tempore jointly appoint the CBO director for a four-year term.
Republic of Arcaidyllia Capitol Police
The Republic Capitol Police (RCP) is a federal law enforcement agency in the Republic of Arcaidyllia charged with protecting the Republic of Arcaidyllia Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the Republic of Arcaidyllia and its territories. It answers to the Capitol Police Board and is the only full-service federal law enforcement agency appointed by the legislative branch of the federal government of the Republic of Arcaidyllia.
The Republic of Arcaidyllia Capitol Police has the primary responsibility for protecting life and property, preventing, detecting, and investigating criminal acts, and enforcing traffic regulations throughout a complex of congressional buildings, parks, and thoroughfares. The Capitol Police has primary jurisdiction within buildings and grounds of the Republic of Arcaidyllia Capitol Complex. It also has concurrent jurisdiction with other law enforcement agencies, including the Republic of Arcaidyllia Park Police and the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia, in an area of approximately 200 blocks around the complex. Officers also have jurisdiction throughout the District of Columbia to take enforcement action when they observe or are made aware of crimes of violence while on official duties. Additionally, they are charged with the protection of members of Congress, officers of Congress, and their families throughout the entire Republic of Arcaidyllia, its territories and possessions, and the Federal District. While performing protective functions, the Capitol Police have jurisdiction throughout the entire Republic of Arcaidyllia.
Partisanship versus bipartisanship
Parliament has alternated between periods of constructive cooperation and compromise between parties, known as bipartisanship, and periods of deep political polarization and fierce infighting, known as partisanship. It is generally easier for committees to reach accord on issues when compromise is possible. Some political scientists speculate that a prolonged period marked by narrow majorities in both chambers of Parliament has intensified partisanship in the last few decades, but that an alternation of control of Parliament between Democrats and Republicans may lead to greater flexibility in policies, as well as pragmatism and civility within the institution.
A term of Parliament is divided into two "sessions", one for each year; Parliament has occasionally been called into an extra or special session. A new session commences on January 3 each year unless Parliament decides differently. The Constitution requires Parliament to meet at least once each year and forbids either house from meeting outside the Capitol without the consent of the other house.
Joint sessions of the Republic of Arcaidyllia Parliament occur on special occasions that require a concurrent resolution from both House and Senate. These sessions include counting electoral votes after a presidential election and the president's State of the Union address. The constitutionally mandated report, normally given as an annual speech, is modeled on Britain's Speech from the Throne, was written by most presidents. Joint Sessions and Joint Meetings are traditionally presided over by the speaker of the House, except when counting presidential electoral votes when the vice president (acting as the president of the Senate) presides.
Bills and resolutions
An Act of Parliament
The House Financial Services committee meets. Committee members sit in the tiers of raised chairs, while those testifying and audience members sit below.
Ideas for legislation can come from members, state legislatures, constituents, legislative counsel, or executive agencies. Anyone can write a bill, but only members of Parliament may introduce bills. Most bills are not written by Parliament members, but originate from the Executive branch; interest groups often draft bills as well. The usual next step is for the proposal to be passed to a committee for review. A proposal is usually in one of these forms:
- Bills are laws in the making. A House-originated bill begins with the letters "H.C." for "National Assembly", followed by a number kept as it progresses.
- Joint resolutions. There is little difference between a bill and a joint resolution since both are treated similarly; a joint resolution originating from the House, for example, begins "H.J.Res." followed by its number.
- Concurrent Resolutions affect only the House and Senate and accordingly are not presented to the president. In the House, they begin with "H.Con.Res."
- Simple resolutions concern only the House or only the Senate and begin with "H.Res." or "S.Res."
Representatives introduce a bill while the House is in session by placing it in the hopper on the Clerk's desk. It is assigned a number and referred to a committee which studies each bill intensely at this stage. Drafting statutes requires "great skill, knowledge, and experience" and sometimes take a year or more. Joint resolutions are the normal way to propose a constitutional amendment or declare war. On the other hand, concurrent resolutions (passed by both houses) and simple resolutions (passed by only one house) do not have the force of law but express the opinion of Parliament or regulate procedure. Bills may be introduced by any member of either house. However, the Constitution states, "All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the National Assembly." While the Senate cannot originate revenue and appropriation bills, it has the power to amend or reject them. Parliament has sought ways to establish appropriate spending levels.
Each chamber determines its own internal rules of operation unless specified in the Constitution or prescribed by law. In the House, a Rules Committee guides legislation; in the Senate, a Standing Rules committee is in charge. Each branch has its own traditions; for example, the Senate relies heavily on the practice of getting "unanimous consent" for noncontroversial matters. House and Senate rules can be complex, sometimes requiring a hundred specific steps before a bill can become a law. Members sometimes turn to outside experts to learn about proper Parliamentary procedures.
Each bill goes through several stages in each house including consideration by a committee and advice from the Government Accountability Office. Most legislation is considered by standing committees which have jurisdiction over a particular subject such as Agriculture or Appropriations. The House has twenty standing committees; the Senate has sixteen. Standing committees meet at least once each month. Almost all standing committee meetings for transacting business must be open to the public unless the committee votes, publicly, to close the meeting. A committee might call for public hearings on important bills. Each committee is led by a chair who belongs to the majority party and a ranking member of the minority party. Witnesses and experts can present their case for or against a bill. Then, a bill may go to what is called a mark-up session, where committee members debate the bill's merits and may offer amendments or revisions. Committees may also amend the bill, but the full house holds the power to accept or reject committee amendments. After debate, the committee votes whether it wishes to report the measure to the full house. If a bill is tabled then it is rejected. If amendments are extensive, sometimes a new bill with amendments built in will be submitted as a so-called clean bill with a new number. Both houses have procedures under which committees can be bypassed or overruled but they are rarely used. Generally, members who have been in Parliament longer have greater seniority and therefore greater power.
A bill which reaches the floor of the full house can be simple or complex and begins with an enacting formula such as "Be it enacted by the Senate and National Assembly of the Federal Democratic Republic of Arcaidyllia in Parliament assembled ..." Consideration of a bill requires, itself, a rule which is a simple resolution specifying the particulars of debate – time limits, possibility of further amendments, and such. Each side has equal time and members can yield to other members who wish to speak. Sometimes opponents seek to recommit a bill which means to change part of it. Generally, discussion requires a quorum, usually half of the total number of representatives, before discussion can begin, although there are exceptions. The house may debate and amend the bill; the precise procedures used by the House and Senate differ. A final vote on the bill follows.
Once a bill is approved by one house, it is sent to the other which may pass, reject, or amend it. For the bill to become law, both houses must agree to identical versions of the bill. If the second house amends the bill, then the differences between the two versions must be reconciled in a conference committee, an ad hoc committee that includes both senators and representatives sometimes by using a reconciliation process to limit budget bills. Both houses use a budget enforcement mechanism informally known as pay-as-you-go or paygo which discourages members from considering acts that increase budget deficits. If both houses agree to the version reported by the conference committee, the bill passes, otherwise it fails.
The Constitution specifies that a majority of members (a quorum) be present before doing business in each house. However, the rules of each house assume that a quorum is present unless a quorum call demonstrates the contrary and debate often continues despite the lack of a majority.
Voting within Parliament can take many forms, including systems using lights and bells and electronic voting. Both houses use voice voting to decide most matters in which members shout "aye" or "no" and the presiding officer announces the result. The Constitution, however, requires a recorded vote if demanded by one-fifth of the members present or when voting to override a presidential veto. If the voice vote is unclear or if the matter is controversial, a recorded vote usually happens. The Senate uses roll-call voting, in which a clerk calls out the names of all the senators, each senator stating "aye" or "no" when their name is announced. In the Senate, the Vice President may cast the tie-breaking vote if present when the senators are equally divided.
The House reserves roll-call votes for the most formal matters, as a roll call of all 435 representatives takes quite some time; normally, members vote by using an electronic device. In the case of a tie, the motion in question fails. Most votes in the House are done electronically, allowing members to vote yea or nay or present or open. Members insert a voting ID card and can change their votes during the last five minutes if they choose; in addition, paper ballots are used occasionally (yea indicated by green and nay by red). One member cannot cast a proxy vote for another. Parliamentary votes are recorded on an online database.
After passage by both houses, a bill is enrolled and sent to the president for approval.The president may sign it making it law or veto it, perhaps returning it to Parliament with the president's objections. A vetoed bill can still become law if each house of Parliament votes to override the veto with a two-thirds majority. Finally, the president may do nothing neither signing nor vetoing the bill and then the bill becomes law automatically after ten days (not counting Sundays) according to the Constitution. But if Parliament is adjourned during this period, presidents may veto legislation passed at the end of a Parliamentary session simply by ignoring it; the maneuver is known as a pocket veto, and cannot be overridden by the adjourned Parliament.
Law and order
Law enforcement in the Republic of Arcaidyllia is primarily the responsibility of local police departments and sheriff's offices, with state police providing broader services. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the RONL Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing Republic federal courts' rulings and federal laws. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, there are 4 police agencies in Zephyria. That number includes city police departments, county sheriff's offices, state police/highway patrol and federal law enforcement agencies. State courts conduct most criminal trials while federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. Death penalty has been banned by the constitution.
Ministry of Justice
The Ministry of Justice (MOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a Central Government department tasked with the enforcement of federal law and administration of justice in the Republic.
• 'Minister of Justice who is also the Attorney General' is the person responsible for heading, supervising, and managing Arcaidyllia's judiciary system.
• Director of the National Bench Service which is a subsidiary of the Justice Ministry is the person who oversees courts and manages the database for court personnel.
The Federal Democratic Republic of Arcaidyllia has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the United Micronations Security Council and one of the three founders of the UM. Kingston City is home to the United Micronations Headquarters. Almost all countries have embassies in the Federal District, and many have consulates around the country.
The Republic of Arcaidyllia has a "Special Relationship" with the Its closest allies, the Esthoronian People's Republic, The Alderhyian Reich, and the Kingdom of Grandelysia. The Republic exercises full international defense authority with the other two allies and responsibility for Europe through the Compact of Free Association.
- All member nations of the United Nations (unless specified)
- Vatican City
- Order of Malta
- State of Israel
- State of Palestine
- Romanov Empire
The micronations nations Arcaidyllia recognizes
- Republic of Molossia
- Principality of Seborga
- Principality of Sealand
- Republic of Liberland
- Grand Duchy of Westarctica
Nations not recognized
- Malta The Republic of Malta according to the Arcaidyllian Ministry of Foreign Affairs is not the legitimate government of Malta, due to recognizing The Sovereign Military Order of Malta in its place, this is because the Republic of Malta according to the Arcaidyllian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has no legitimate right to rule Malta.
- Barbados Barbados is not recognized as a sovereign nation, because it abolished the monarchy in 2021, an action which the Arcaidyllian Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemns, and as such is not recognized as a sovereign state.
- People's Republic of China The People's Republic of China is not recognized due to, being a communist state, its genocidal policies responsible for killing thousands if not millions, and China's treatment of Turkistani Muslims and Tibetans all living within China.
- Democratic People's Republic of Korea The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not recognized due to its totalitarian oppression of its people and its nuclear threats toward the United States of America, alongside its aggressive actions toward both Japan and the Republic of Korea.
- Socialist Republic of Vietnam The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is not recognized, due to being a communist nation-state and committing crimes against humanity within its own nation, such as starving its own people.
- Republic of Cuba. The Republic of Cuba is not recognized, due to being a communist nation-state and committing crimes against humanity within its own nation, such as starving its own people.
- Democratic Republic of Laos The Democratic Republic of Laos is not recognized due to the communists wrongfully abolishing the Lao's monarchy and replacing it with a totalitarian communist dictatorship. Arcaidyllia recognizes Royal Lao Government in Exile as the legitimate government of Laos rather than the communists.
- Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is not recognized due to being a borderline communist nation-state, and abolishing the monarchy when it was not asked for by the people of Nepal
- Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is not recognized due to it's war crimes and human rights violations towards afghan citizens.
- Russian Federation The Russian Federation is not recognized, because of Russia invading the nation of Ukraine, Arcaidyllia has ceased recognizing Russia as a sovereign entity, for the time being and as such, Arcaidyllia doe's not recognized the current government of Russia and instead recognizes the Russian Empire or Romanov Empire built by Anton Bakov as the legitimate Russian government.
The president is the commander-in-chief of the Republic of Arcaidyllia Armed Forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Department of Defense administers five of the six service branches, which are made up of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force. The Coast Guard, also a branch of the armed forces, is normally administered by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy in wartime. All six branches of the Republic Armed Forces reported on active duty. The Department of Defense also employed civilians, not including contractors.
Global presence of the Republic of Arcaidyllia military, showing Unified combatant commands
Military service in the Republic of Arcaidyllia is voluntary, although conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. Conscription was mandatory even during peacetime. Today, Arcaidyllian forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 11 active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy, and Army's XVIII Airborne Corps and 75th Ranger Regiment deployed by Air Force transport aircraft. The Air Force can strike targets across the globe through its fleet of strategic bombers, maintains the air defense across the Republic of Arcaidyllia, and provides close air support to Army and Marine Corps ground forces. The Space Force operates the Global Positioning System, operates the Eastern and Western Ranges for all space launches, and operates the Republic of Arcaidyllia' Space Surveillance and Missile Warning networks. The military operates about 800 bases and facilities abroad, and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.
The Republic of Arcaidyllia spent $649 billion on its military. Defense spending plays a major role in science and technology investment, with roughly half of Republic federal research and development funded by the Department of Defense. Defense's share of the overall Republic economy has generally declined.
Geography and climate
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The Republic GDP of $22.7 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 16% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity. In October 2021 the Republic of Arcaidyllia had a national debt of 5 $5 Trillion.
The Republic of Arcaidyllia is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter, though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2010, the total Republic trade deficit was $635 billion.
From 1983 to 2008, Republic real compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the rest of the G7. The country ranks fifth in the world in nominal GDP per capita and seventh in GDP per capita at PPP. The Republic dollar is the world's primary reserve currency.
In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the economy. While its economy has reached a post-industrial level of development, the Republic of Arcaidyllia remains an industrial power. Arcaidyllian labor force is increasing by every year. For some people, the public sector is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people. It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than most other high-income countries.
The Republic of Arcaidyllia is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation and is one of a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right. Some 74% of full-time Arcaidyllian workers get paid sick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Science and Tech
The technology, along with the establishment of a machine tool industry, enabled the Republic to have large-scale manufacturing of sewing machines, bicycles, and other items became known as the Arcaidyllian system of manufacturing. Factory electrification and introduction of the assembly line and other labor-saving techniques created the system of mass production. In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector. The Republic of Arcaidyllia leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor. The Air and Space Agency produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science, and aeronautics.
Income, wealth, and poverty
Accounting for 4.24% of the global population, Arcaidyllian collectively possess 29.4% of the world's total wealth, the largest percentage of any country. The Republic also ranks first in the number of billionaires and millionaires in the world, with 724 billionaires and 10.5 million millionaires as of 2020. Prior to the 2019–2021 global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Credit Suisse listed some 18.6 million Republic citizens as having a net worth in excess of $1 million.
Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated; the richest 10% of the adult population possess 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom half possess only 2%. According to the Federal Reserve, the top 1% controlled 38.6% of the country's wealth in 2016. Forbes found that just three individuals held more money than the bottom half of the population.
The Interstate Highway System in the contiguous states. P ersonal transportation is dominated by automobiles of public roads. The Republic of Arcaidyllia has the world's second-largest automobile market. and has the highest vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 816.4 vehicles per 1,000 Arcaidyllian s (2014).
The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated, while most major airports are publicly owned. The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are Republic-based; Arcaidyllian Airlines. Of the world's 6 busiest passenger airports, 16 are in the Republic of Arcaidyllia, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. AirArc Corporation is the biggest privately owned airline.
The Republic of Arcaidyllia has the longest rail network in the world, nearly all standard gauge. The network handles mostly freight, with intercity passenger service provided by the government-subsidized Amtrak to all but four states.
Transportation is the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions in the Republic of Arcaidyllia. The country now ranks as the world's second-highest emitter of greenhouse gases, exceeded only by China. The Republic of Arcaidyllia had been the world's largest producer of greenhouse gases, and greenhouse gas emissions per capita remain high. The provisional government is looking to ban all automobiles that are non-essential.
Culture and media
The Republic of Arcaidyllia is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Arcaidyllian s or their ancestors immigrated. Mainstream Arcaidyllian culture is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of American immigrants with influences. More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics.
Arcaidyllians have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism, as well as a unifying belief in an " Arcaidyllian creed" emphasizing liberty, unity, prosperity, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government. Arcaidyllian s are extremely charitable by global standards: according to a 2006 British study, Arcaidyllian s gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, more than any other nation studied.
The Arcaidyllian Dream, or the perception that Arcaidyllian s enjoy high social mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants. Whether this perception is accurate has been a topic of debate. While mainstream culture holds that the Republic of Arcaidyllia is a classless society, scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values. Arcaidyllian s tend to greatly value socioeconomic achievement, but being ordinary or average is also generally seen as a positive attribute.
The headquarters of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) at 30 Arcaidyllia plaza in Arcaidyllia City.
The two major broadcasters in the Republic are the Republic Broadcasting Company (RBC) and Arcaidyllian Broadcasting Company (ABC). The four major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. Cable television offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches. Arcaidyllian s listen to radio programming, also largely commercial, on average just over two and a half hours a day.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the Republic of Arcaidyllia federal government that regulates communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable across the Republic of Arcaidyllia. The FCC maintains jurisdiction over the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, and homeland security.
Well-known newspapers include The Arcaidyllia Times and NL Today. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups. The five most popular websites used in the Republic are Google, YouTube, Amazon, Yahoo, and Facebook. More than 800 publications are produced in French, the second most commonly used language in the Republic of Arcaidyllia behind English.
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