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|Sheikh and Pir|
|• 2017-Present||Qaragüliyyâh Deñız Beg|
The Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī Qaragüliyyâh Ṭarīqah (Arabic: الإمامة القَرَگُلِييَه al-Qaraguliyyah) (Order) was founded by Qaragüliyyâh Deñız Beg, after the disestablishment of the Empire of Pavlov. It holds views inline with Islamic, and in general Shi'a (Ja'fari) jurisprudence, however differs in numerous fields from the Ja'fari Jurisprudence, the most notable being the Qaragüliyyâh not praying to Allah via the Ahl-al Kisa. It continuous to hold a prominent place in the society and politics of the successor states of the Empire of Pavlov.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Beliefs
- 3 Sheikh and Pir
- 4 Society
- 5 Jurisprudence
- 6 Prayer and Cem
- 7 Dietary laws
- 8 See also
- 9 References
The name Qaragüliyyâh consists of three parts, them being (1) Qara-, (2) -gül- and (3) -iyyah. Qara meaning Black in Oghuz Turkic languages, gül meaning Flower in Oghuz Turkic languages and iyyah, being an Arabic suffix to use foreign words in Arabic. In total the world meaning Black flowers [Shia Islam].
The followers of the Qaragüliyyâh tariqa (Order) acknowledge they are from the People of Ishmael, by stating that the last four holy books (Qu'ran, Gospel, Torah and Psalms) have the same degree of importance in guiding people to the Divine Truth.
We have believed in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.
Surah al-Baqarah 2:136
Articles of faith
The Qaragüliyyâh tariqa (Order) recognises seven articles of faith:
- Belief in the oneness of God
believe God is alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his actions, his theophanies. The totality of being therefore is he, through him, comes from him, and returns to him. God is not a being next to or above other beings, his creatures; he is being, the absolute act of being (wujud mutlaq). For, if there were being other than he (i.e., creatural being), God would no longer be the Unique, i.e., the only one to be. As this Divine Essence is infinite, his qualities are the same as his essence, Essentially there is one Reality which is one and indivisible.
- Belief in Justice
believe that there is intrinsic good or evil in things, and that Allah commands them to do the good things and forbade the evil. They believe that Allah acts according to a purpose or design, and human reason cannot comprehend this design or purpose in its entirety (though man must always strive to understand as much as he can).
- Belief in the Prophets
Allah has appointed prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion. Prophets are Messengers which are appointed by Allah to bring the message of Allah to people and spread that message while the Imam (leader) is appointed by Allah to protect that message since ordinary people will fail to do so.
- Belief in the day of Judgement
the day that one is judged by Allah, after a period of waiting. The belief is that one's soul waits in one's grave until the Day Of Judgement, when Allah judges you, preceding life after death.
- Belief in the books send by Allah
Belief in the Books sent by God. I.e. the Qur'an, the Gospel, the Torah and the Psalms.
- Belief in the angels
They are regarded as celestial beings who, unlike men, are not endowed with ability to make decisions and instead perform different tasks of Allah.
- Belief in Imamah
Allah has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind, a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise. According to Hadith, Muhammad said that the "imams" shall succeed him.
Four doors forty steps
The four gates are named the following:
- Sharīʿah ― The path /or/ law of /or/ to God.
- Tarīqah ― The inner path to God.
- Ma‘rifah ― The inner knowledge to the Mystical path of God.
- Haqīqa ― The being of one with the Mystical truth.
The day of Judgement
According to the Qaragüliyyâh tariqa (Order) the Day of Judgment is believed to be Allah's final assessment of humanity. The sequence of events is the annihilation of all creatures, return of the Imam al-Mahdi (AJ) and the Prophet Isa (SAW) to earth, resurrection of the body, and the judgment of all sentient creatures. It is a time where everyone would be shown his or her deeds and actions with justice.
Belief in Judgment Day is considered a fundamental tenet of faith. It is one of the six articles of faith. The trials and tribulations associated with it are detailed in both the Qu'ran and the hadith, sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. Hence they were added in the commentaries of the Islamic expositors and scholarly authorities such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaimah who explain them in detail. Every human, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, is believed to be held accountable for their deeds and are believed to be judged by God accordingly.
There are a number of major and minor signs of the end of days. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in time, although Islamic scholars typically divide them into three major periods.
Also Ibn Umar reported: The Messenger of God turned to us and said, “O emigrants, there are five things with which you will be tested, and I seek refuge with God lest you live to see them:
- Sexual immorality appears among people to such an extent that they commit it openly except that they will be afflicted by plagues and diseases unknown to their forefathers;
- They cheat in weights and measures (business, trades, etc.) and that they will be stricken with famine, calamity, and the oppression of rulers;
- They withhold charity from their wealth and that rain will be withheld from the sky, and were it not for the animals there would be no rain at all;
- They break their covenant with God and His Messenger and God will enable their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands;
- And unless their leaders rule according to the Book of God and seek every good from that which God has revealed, God will cause them to fight one another.”
Sheikh and Pir
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The Qaragüliyyâh tariqa (Order) views marriage as a state instituted and ordained by God for the relationship between one man and one woman as husband and wife. It is considered the most intimate of human relationships, a gift from God, and a sacred institution. It also teaches that sex is reserved for marriage. It calls sex with the wife of another, or sex with someone else other than the husband, the sin of adultery (fornication).
It recognises two types of marriage, the traditional Nikah, which is based on all four books of the recognised holy scripture and the Nikah al-Mutah, which is based on the Qu'ran An-Nisa 4:24, after listing those woman to whom marriage is forbidden, it states the following:
Lawful for you is what is beyond all that, that you may seek, using your wealth, in wedlock and not in license. So those of them whom you enjoy, give them their appointed wages; it is no fault in you in agreeing together, after the due apportionate. God the LORD is All-Knowing, All-Wise
The following marriages are prohibited:
- Marriage between people of the same sex
- Marriage between a man and his sister, half-sister, foster sister, mother, stepmother, foster mother, wife's mother, aunt, grandmother, great aunt, great-grandmother, etc.
- Marriage between a woman and her father, stepfather (unless his marriage to her mother was not consummated), husband's biological father, uncle, grandfather, great uncle, great-grandfather, etc.
- Marrriage of a man with women who are sisters or stepsisters or foster sisters of each other (except if marrying one who was separated from her husband by divorce or death)
- Marriage between a muslim and a person upholding a non-abrahamic religion (i.e. not belonging to the People of the Book)
- Marriage between a muslim woman and a non-muslim man.
It is necessary for both partners to give consent to the marriage except for the woman in case she is a virgin, in this case her guardian has to give permission. In the marriage contract, the Groom agrees to a specified dowry which has to be paid in full after consumation of the marriage.
Depiction of animate beings
The Qaragüliyyâh tariqa (Order) holds the depiction of animated beings is permissible if the art was not meant to be worshipped, and the creator did not intend to rival God (or intended any heresy) in the creation. This is due to the hadith that mentioned the Prophet had once asked his wife to move a picture of two birds in the room in which he prays somewhere else. However, he didn't ask the picture to be destroyed. This, along with other hadiths, made some believe that pictures of animated beings that are not worshipped or to be considered heresy, is permissible.
Qaragüliyyâh Fiqh or Jurisprudence is based for a big part on the Ja'fari school of thought.
Prayer and Cem
Unlike most other denominations of Islam, the Qaragüliyyâh pray in the Cem ceremony. With worship and other social activities taking place in a Cemevi. The ceremony's prototype is the Muhammad's nocturnal ascent into heaven, where he beheld a gathering of forty saints, and the Divine Reality made manifest in their leader, Ali. The Cem ceremony features music, singing, and Semah in which both women and men participate. Rituals are performed in local languages.
Immediately after the Cem ceremony(which takes place on Fridays only), the Dohr prayer is preformed.
There are twelve services performed by attendees of the cem.
- Murshid/Pir: This is the leader of the Cem who represents Muhammad and Ali. The Murshid/Pir receives confession from the attendees at the beginning of the ceremony. He also leads funerals, marriage ceremonies and circumcisions. The status of Murshid/Pir is hereditary and he must be a Sayyid or Sharif.
- Rehber: This position represents Husayn. The Rehber is a guide to the faithful and works closely with the Dede in the community.
- Gözcü: This position represents Abu Dharr al-Ghifari. S/he is the assistant to the Rehber. S/he is the Cem keeper responsible for keeping the faithful calm.
- Çerağcı: This position represents Jabir ibn Abd-Allah and s/he is the light-keeper responsible for maintaining the light traditionally given by a lamp or candles.
- Zakir: This position represents Bilal ibn al-Harith. S/he plays the bağlama and recites songs and prayers.
- Süpürgeci: This position represents Salman the Persian. S/he is responsible for cleaning the Cemevi hall and symbolically sweeping the carpets during the Cem.
- Meydancı: This position represents Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman.
- Niyazcı: this position represents Muhammad ibn Maslamah. S/he is responsible for distributing the sacred meal.
- İbrikçi: this position represents Kamber. S/he is responsible for washing the hands of the attendees.
- Muezzin: this position represents Ghulam Kaysan. S/he is responsible for calling the faithful to the Cem.
- Peyikçi: this position represents Amri Ayyari.
- Sakacı: represents Ammar ibn Yasir. Responsible for the distribution of refreshments.
Semah is a religious "dance" prescribed by Haci Bektash Veli and Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī. The Semah symbolise the connection of Allah and the universe. The rotations in the Semah stand for all matter turning around in the universe.
Mourning of Muharram
The Muslim month of Muharram begins 20 days after Eid ul-Adha. The Qaragüliyyâh observe a fast for the first twelve days, this is called the Mourning of Muharram. The Mourning culminates in the festival of Ashura, which commemorates the martyrdom of Husayn at Karbala. Many events are associated with this celebration, including the salvation of Husayn's son Ali ibn Husayn from the massacre at Karbala, thus allowing the bloodline of the family of Muhammad to continue.
According to the Quran, the only foods explicitly haram are meat from animals that die of themselves, blood, the meat of swine and animals dedicated to other than God (either undedicated or dedicated to idols). All vegetarian cuisine is halal and allowed for Muslims. This is stated in (Surah al-Ma'idah 5:3)
Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
However, a person would not be guilty of sin in a situation where the lack of any alternative creates an undesired necessity to consume that which is otherwise unlawful. (Surah al-Baqarah 2:173) This is the "law of necessity" in Islamic jurisprudence: "That which is necessary makes the forbidden permissible."
Contrary to most school of Islam, the Qaragüliyyâh Shia school holds that Alcohol is albeit being not recommended, not haram. Red wine being used in the Friday prayer at the Cemevi. The red wine (Dem) represents the intoxication of the lover in the beloved. During the ceremony Dem, is one of the twelve duties of the participants.
- Sunan Ibn Maajah 4019