Pontunian language

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The Pontunian language, shortened Pontunian (Pontunian: Puntunius) is a constructed language used in Pontunia, where it is an official language and is regulated by the Union of Pontunian Speakers. It is estimated that Sprakk is spoken by 3 people as a second language. Pontunian was created in 2020 at about the same time as the namesake country, As a constructed language, Pontunian is constantly being expanded and developed. It was intended to be a simple, easy-to-learn, practical, and fun language. Sprakk is somewhat difficult for English speakers to learn, due to the poetic nature of the language. There are many grammatical rules in Pontunian, but no irregular verbs, only two articles, and few conjugations.

Pontunian
Puntunius
Spoken in Pontunia
Total users ~3
Language family Constructed language (Pontic)
Language source English (primary)
Language type Constructed language
Writing system Latin Alphabet
Official Status
Official language in Pontunia
Regulated by
ISO 639 codes Pn/PON


Government Use

Though an official language in Pontunia, Pontunian was not used often in official government business. The language was primarily used for ceremonial purposes, and most often in writing.

Writing System

Pontunian falls under the category of "poetic languages" under the category "constructed languages." Its purpose is not communication, but rather a poetry.

Alphabet

The Pontunian alphabet consists of all 26 English letters, those are as follows:

Alphabet
Uppercase
A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Lowercase
a b d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Grammar

Syntax

Pontunian is "subject-verb-object (SVO)" language, in which the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object last. For example, in the sentence De Duken helfen de Volksan (the Duke helps the people), Duken is the subject, helfen is the verb, and Volksan is the object. Similarily in the sentence de Volksan faken Natzios (the people create nations), de Volksan is the subject, faken is the verb, and Natzios is the object.

Articles

There are two articles and one plural suffix in the Pontunian language, av, de, and os. Av is an indefinite article, corresponding to a/an in English. De is a definite article, corresponding to the in English. The articles are placed before the noun. Os is a plural suffix, shared by all nouns in the language. Unlike languages such as English, French, German, or Swedish, there are no variations of the av article in Pontunian, it exists only in one form. It remains the same regardless of the noun. The os suffix also always remain the same.

Definite and indefinite article and plural

Singular
Plural
Indefinite
(av) Dog

(a) dog
Dogos

dogs
Definite
de Dog

the dog
de Dogos

the dogs

Genitive

To indicate genitive, the most common method is the Apostrophe Genitive. It is similar to the 's used in English, with the difference being that the s is not written, only pronounced.

In addition to the Apostrophe Genitive, the Auf Genitive can be used. It is used mainly in formal or poetic contexts, and can be used to either indicate ownership, or modify the noun. It is used in cases where esthetic appeal is important. It can be compared to the English word of or the German word von. In fact, auf can be used almost interchangeably. The word Auf (of), is placed between the nouns. For example, De Herzogen auf Puntunius (The Duchy of Pontunia).

Personal Pronouns

The personal pronouns are:

Singular Plural
Person Nominative Objective Possessive Person Nominative Objective Possessive
1 jaag miig majn 1 vii viig viit
2 duu diig dajn 2 nii niig niit
3 Masc. haan haanig haant 3 deem deemig deemt
3 Fem. hoon hoonig hoont
3 Com. de de de'
3 Indef. ajn ("one") ajn ajnt
(3 Refl.) saj sajt

Genetive Examples

Sprakk
English
de vaaren Lisa' Book that is Lisa's book
de Pressidennt auf Staten the president of the State (formal)
Staten' Pressidennt the president of the State (informal)
de vaaren majn Book it is my book
de Book vaaren majn the book is mine
niit Tag your (ya’ll’s) day (second person plural)
dajn Tag your day
de Plejs' Natzionos the world's countries
de Natzion' Pressidennt the country's president

Nouns

Nouns are capitalized in Pontunian. To avoid confusing verbs for nouns and vice versa, all nouns that would formerly end with -en now end with -an. An example would be the noun Volksan (people), which was changed from its original form Folksen to Volksan to avoid any confusion that might occur, since all verbs in Sprakk have the -en suffix. Another example is the noun Essan (food), which was changed from Essen for the same reason.

Noun Examples

Pontunian
English
Pontunian language
majn Book my book
Ministern minister
Kristos Christ
Frau woman
Frauon women


Adjectives

Most adjectives in Pontunian end with the -u suffix. In this case, the adjective comes before the object. For example, de grossu Natzion (the large country), de gootu Volksan (the good people), and elektronishu Klottern (electronic signature). Adjectives in the language are never inflected, regardless of for example gender or plural.

To compare adjectives, the words "plus" and "svaj" are used, similar to Newspeak.

Adverbs

To change an adjective into an adverb, the -u suffix is changed to -ut. For example, in the sentence honn vandere langsamut (she walked slowly), the adverb langsamut (slowly) has been made from the adjective langsamu (slow).

Adjective Examples

Sprakk
English
de gootu Book the good book
de gootu Bookos the good books
av tuffu Natzion an independent state
dett gootu Dog the good dog
dett plus gootu Dog the better dog
dett svaj plus gootu Dog the best dog
duu essen langsamut you eat slowly


Verbs

All verbs end with -en and are inflected only when the tense changes. Unlike for example in German, there are few cases when verbs are inflected. Verbs are not inflected dependent on the subject, gender, or plural.

For example, in the sentence jaag lissen ajn Book (I am reading a book), the verb is lissen (to read) and is in the present tense. If one were to replace jaag with duu (you), de Ministernos (the ministers) or Lisa, the verb would remain the same.

The only time verbs are conjugated is when speaking in different tenses. In the sentence de Pressidennt sprakke nysst (the president spoke yesterday), the verb sprakken (to speak), is changed from its stem sprakken into sprakke to indicate past tense. In the sentence jaag haaren gesprakken Puntunius (I have spoken Pontunian), the verb haaren (to have) acts like an auxiliary verb to indicate that gesprakken is in perfect tense. To use imperfect tense, the auxiliary verb vaaren is used.

Since all verbs in the Sprakkish language have the same suffix, the -en suffix, all verbs are conjugated this way, including vaaren (to be), haaren (to have), and all other auxiliary verbs.

Verb Conjugations

Group Stem Imperative Infinitive Present Perfect Infinitive Pluperfect Future English
Regular tjuv- tjuven! tjuven -en tjuven -en tjuve -e getjuven -en getjuvenu -enu tjuvena -a to steal
Regular slag- slagen! slagen -en slagen -en slage -e geslagen -en geslagenu -enu slagena -a to strike
Regular vaar- vaaren! vaaren -en vaaren -en vaare -e gevaaren -en gevaarenu -enu vaarena -a to be

Verb Examples

Sprakk
English
jaag sprakken Sprakkska I speak Sprakk
honn sprakken Sprakkska she speaks Sprakk
jaag klottere dett Sellvstyr-foorklaar nysst I signed the Declaration of Independence yesterday
duu esse dett Essan you ate the food
Nicolas Cage haaren getjuven dett Sellvstyr-foorklaar Nicolas Cage has stolen the Declaration of Independence
honn haaren gelissen ajn Book she has read a book
villen duu faren zu Glebia morgen? Do you want to travel to Glebiania tomorrow?
jaag villen tjuven dett Sellvstyr-foorklaar I will steal the Declaration of Independence
dett Sellvstyr-foorklaar vaaren getjuvenu the Declaration of Independence is stolen

External links