Politics of Adammia

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The Empire of Adammia is a unitary state governed by an executive constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The Monarch, currently Emperor Adam I, is the head of state, and the Prime Minister, currently Lord Sir Alex Helliker, is the head of government. The Monarchy and the legislature, known as the Ruling Council, have equal legislative power to each other, and are supposed to keep each other in check. They both oversee the executive, known as the Imperial Government. The Monarch also holds judicial power, acting as the judge of the Grand Court. Another key executive and judicial player is the Lord/Lady Chancellor, who runs the Office of State - intended as the impartial enforcer of the Empire's constitution, the Supreme Directive, acting as a constitutional court and organising elections. The system in place - a mixed parliamentary system and executive monarchy with a directly-elected head of government and an "administrative branch" - is considered to be unique in the world.

During the first era of Adammic history, the three political parties which held the balance of power were the Moderate Party, Liberal Party and Labour Party, in a state known as the centrist liberal consensus; populist parties such as the Adammic National Party struggled to gain ground in this era. However, since late 2017 several new populist parties broke the consensus, starting with the Nuclear So-and-so Party and the Dank Party; it was the Storm Party which finally broke through and came to power in late 2018. The Liberal and Moderate parties merged into the Liberal-Moderate Party, which now opposes the Storm; Labour, which now occupies the middle ground of Adammic politics, is currently in coalition with the Storm. Over the past year, a substantial independent presence has returned to the Ruling Council.

The Ruling Council is unicameral and is made up of both appointed nobles and elected Councilors for each of the five provinces; furthermore, due to the very low population, seats very rarely change hands, with many going uncontested year on year. As a result, the key to power is for a party to recruit as many Council members as possible, and to win the annual National Election, when the Prime Minister is directly elected by the population. No party has ever held a majority in the Ruling Council; therefore, in order to command a majority and get enough Council members to form a full Cabinet, a newly-elected Prime Minister must generally form a coalition government. Adammia uses instant-runoff voting (commonly known as alternative vote or AV) for its elections.

Monarchy

Main article: Monarchy of Adammia

The Monarch of Adammia is known as the Emperor if male, and Empress if female. The position is hereditary. The Monarch has significant powers that can be exercised through Imperial Decrees, one of the two main forms of legislation in the Empire. In addition to this, the Monarch occupies a number of positions, such as Grand Marshal of the Military of Adammia. The Monarch is considered by far the most powerful and influential office in the country; so far Emperor Adam I has been the only Monarch, him being responsible for founding Adammia and for the vast majority of its development.

The Monarch is represented by a political entity known as the Office of the Emperor, which is analagous to the "Crown" or "Throne" in other countries. It is this office which issues Imperial Decrees and exercises the Monarch's other powers. The powers of the Monarch are sweeping - they can sack the Prime Minister at any time, grant or revoke titles and citizenship at will, and call elections. Many of these powers, however, are kept in check by the Ruling Council - for example, the Council can veto the Monarch's decision to declare war.

The Monarch is also an important diplomatic figure. As head of state, the Monarch is one of Adammia's main representatives. Emperor Adam I serves as Adammia's delegate to the Grand Unifed Micronational.

Executive

Main article: Imperial Government (Adammia)

The long-form title of the executive is His Majesty's Imperial Government; however, despite this name, the Monarch does not have any direct control over the Government. The Monarch and the Council collectively scrutinise the Government.

The head of the Imperial Government is the Prime Minister, who is directly elected each August in a National Election. In order to stand in this election, the candidate must be a member of the Ruling Council; this is to ensure that the Prime Minister is accountable to the Council. The Prime Minister then appoints, from the members of the Council, a Deputy Prime Minister and Ministers for the five government departments; together these form the Cabinet, the political committee which runs the government and is the main source of executive authority. It is technically possible to appoint an individual who is not a Council member as a minister, but the Council must vote to approve this decision first; this was last used to make Sir Paul McKenna a minister in 2014, before he joined the Council or became Prime Minister.

Civil service

Main article: Imperial Civil Service

The Imperial Civil Service of Adammia is the impartial administrative arm of the Imperial Government. With the exception of the Office of State, it is controlled by the Cabinet. It is responsible for implementing the policy decisions made by ministers. It consists of support staff for ministers along with a range of government agencies.

The head of the Imperial Civil Service is the Lord Chancellor or Lady Chancellor. They are appointed for life by the Monarch and the Ruling Council collectively. They run the Office of State, which is responsible for organising elections, managing the Monarch's line of succession, keeping records of all Ruling Council meetings, archiving all legislation passed, and generally enforcing the Supreme Directive. The Chancellor is expected to remain completely impartial at all times and can be impeached by the Monarch and the Council if they fail to do so. The Office of State is not controlled by the Cabinet or the Prime Minister - instead it is held directly responsible to the Monarch and the Council.

The Chancellor's relation to the rest of the civil service is mostly ceremonial. The Prime Minister appoints a Cabinet Secretary, who is the highest-ranking civil servant at the Cabinet Office and the second-highest-ranking civil servant overall. The Chancellor must approve this appointment, though there is little reason for them to ever deny this permission. The Cabinet Secretary's job is to help the Prime Minister run the Cabinet.

In practice, the key distinction between political policy-making and non-political implementation means that, unlike the Cabinet which is filled by politicians, the civil service must be staffed by professionals. Emperor Adam I is generally considered the only individual with the time and committment to fill a civil servant role professionally, and as such he has become Lord Chancellor, Cabinet Secretary and the director of almost every single government agency. The political roles, which are easier to fulfil, are taken by a much more varied range of individuals.

Legislature

Main article: Ruling Council

The Ruling Council is the legislature of the Empire of Adammia. It has the power to make laws through Acts of Council, and to overturn Imperial Decrees issued by the Office of the Emperor. It is comprised of elected Councilors from each Province, the Duke or Duchess for each province, the Delegate of the Colonies and the Delegate of Abroad Citziens. The Monarch is the Chair of the Council, though they do not have a vote. The Prime Minister, Deputy PM and the Lord Chancellor are all Vice-Chairs.

Local elections take place each October to elect the four Councilors; candidates must be residents of the province they wish to stand in.

Council meetings are held a minimum of twice per year. They usually take place in Serkatia province. Historically, between 2013 and 2017, the Council met in White Gold Palace in Imperial City.

The Council has many functions which it can only exercise in tandem with the Monarch, such as choosing to declare war. It does, however, also have the ability to call for a Regency, giving the Monarch's powers to a Regent. The Monarch can overrule this, but only if the vote passed with less than 80% support. Although this power ostensibly exists so that functions of state can continue if the Monarch goes on holiday, goes missing or is otherwise unavailable, it also serves as deterrent to stop the Monarch abusing their power.

Judiciary

Main article: Law of Adammia

The legal system of the Empire of Adammia is a statutory civil law system. The main source of law is primary legislation, which takes the form of the Empire's constitution, known as the Supreme Directive, its subsequent amendments, Acts of the Ruling Council and Imperial Decrees issued by the Monarch. A three-tier court system has jurisdiction over Adammic law, with separate first instance and appeal courts for criminal and civil cases, followed by the Grand Court, overseen by the Monarch themselves, as a court of final appeal. In cases where the Supreme Directive may have been violated or interpretation of the Supreme Directive is required, responsibility instead goes to the Office of State, which has the power to act as a constitutional court, with the Chancellor acting as judge. In theory, this is to prevent the Monarch from violating the Supreme Directive and then using their position as judge of the Grand Court to acquit themselves.

In practice, due to a lack of legal disputes, no court in Adammia has yet heard a single case to date; crime is virtually non-existent and most issues that do arise are settled either by passing emergency legislation, or by arriving by consensus on an informal convention.

Elections

Main article: Elections in Adammia

There are two main types of elections in Adammia - local elections and the National Election. The former are used to elect Councilors for each province. Though they can be held individually as by-elections, such as if a new province joins the Empire mid-way through the term, they are usually all held on the same day, which is generally a week or two after the term ends in July of each year. They are open to all residents of the province in question. Each August, a few weeks after July's local elections, a National Election usually takes place. This elects the Prime Minister, and it is open to all full citizens of the Empire. Both Councilors and the Prime Minister have a maximum term length of two years, to allow for any delays that may arise in calling a regular annual election. All elections use first-past-the-post.

In practice, the low populations of many provinces make local elections a foregone conclusion, rendering the provinces similar to rotten boroughs. Local elections are seen as more ceremonial, a re-affirmation of a province's confidence in its current representative, rather than an actual contest. Alluria is currently the only seat considered to be "soft", but it is also non-partisan and tends to be a battle between independents. In contrast to most local elections, the National Election is seen as a genuine contest, with two or three parties and up to 30 votes at play. Historically, Adammic National Election candidates are notorious for putting almost no effort into their campaigns. The most recent National Election in November 2017 changed this trend, with the candidates producing detailed manifestos and using social media to campaign for the first time.

Political parties

There are currently six registered political parties in Adammia: the Storm Party, the Liberal-Moderates, Labour, the Nuclear So-and-So Party, the Dank Party, and the Adammic National Party (ANP). Two former parties, the Imperial Party and the Conservative Party, de-registered in 2016, with the former due to merging with the ANP. Political parties only became an active part of Adammic politics in 2015, when members of the Ruling Council started to group together as parties, encouraged by the Emperor. The Emperor's theory was that competition between parties would encourage the other politicians to come up with more of their own ideas, reducing dependence on himself.

Storm Party

Main article: Storm Party

The Storm Party is Adammia's current ruling party, and also its newest political party, founded in October 2018. It was founded by Sir Juliano Saunders and quickly became the first of the new wave of populist parties to break through, succeeding where the Nuclear So-and-so and Dank parties had failed, recruiting several disgruntled politicians and winning a landslide victory in the 2018 National Election. It has two seats on the Council, making it the second-largest party after the Liberal-Moderates. The party is committed to political reform, seeking to restrict the powers of the monarchy and to investigate the apparent corruption it believes to exist within the old Liberal-Moderate establishment. Its 2018 election campaign was unprecedented in Adammia, making heavy use of slogans and social media.

Liberal-Moderate Party

Main article: Liberal-Moderate Party

The Liberal-Moderate Party was formed in October 2018 by the merger of the Liberal Party, which was Adammia's oldest party founded in 2013, and the Moderate Party, founded in 2015. Prior to the merger, the Moderates had been the Empire's ruling party for longer than any other; it was founded by Adammia's first Prime Minister, Emperor Mother Jayne, and she was succeeded by Lord Helliker, who served a term immediately prior to the merger. The Liberals were founded by Emperor Adam I; they were quiet for many years, but in 2017 they became the first party to adopt a constitution and Liberal leader Prince Jake was elected Prime Minister. His successor, Lord General Panconi, was unsuccessful and finished third. During Lord Helliker's premiership, the Liberals and Moderates were in coalition, and the Moderates drifted ideologically until they were practically indistinguishable from the Liberals, which prompted the parties to consider merging.

Although members of both parties voted to approve the merger, the new party had a difficult start with disgruntled former members such as Lord Gurr defecting to the new Storm Party. This, along with poor economic news, is largely credited for the Liberal-Moderates' defeat in the 2018 election. Lord Helliker, as the new party's leader, subsequently became Leader of the Opposition. The party is still the largest in the Ruling Council.

At its core, the Liberal-Moderate Party is a social liberal party. Unlike most other parties, it is committed to defending the Empire's traditional political system and maintaining the monarch's powers.

Labour Party

Main article: Labour Party (Adammia)

The Labour Party, or Labour for short, is one of the two parties founded on 18 July 2015. It was founded by Sir Reginald Hall in a move that surprised Adammic Express pundits, who had expected Hall to join Emperor Mother Jayne's party (the Moderates). When it recruited Sir Paul McKenna as a second member, it became the first party in Adammic history to have multiple members. However, the party struggled to write a manifesto, and McKenna, its 2015 National Election candidate, lost to the Emperor Mother. Then, as 2016's election results came in, it shocked observers again. Not only had it won two new seats in local elections by recruiting Sir David Hall and because of its candidate Eleanor Hall unexpectedly beating the Liberal candidate in Myway, making it the joint-largest party by seats, but it had actually won the National Election by a single vote, making McKenna the Empire's second Prime Minister.

Labour were heavily defeated at the August 2017 National Election and subsequently failed to recruit any members on the new Ruling Council based in Birmingham. It went several months without any Council representation, but was recently thrown a lifeline after Lord Maude joined the party.

Throughout its early history, Labour's ideology was vague; despite its name implying a socialist outlook, Hall was frequently one of the more fiscally conservative members of the Ruling Council. Lord Maude took the party in a more anti-establishment direction, giving it some Storm-like policies on constitutional reform and restricting the monarch's powers, whilst also opposing many Storm policies such as conscription, positioning itself as the middle-ground party. It finished third in the 2018 election, and Lord Maude became Deputy Prime Minister.

Dank Party

Main article: Dank Party

The Dank Party was founded by Lady Peace in June 2018 and is currently part of the governing coalition. So far, the party only has one member and it remains to be seen whether or not it will find wider success. The party runs on a novelty platform. In the run-up to the 2018 election, Lady Peace announced that she was withdrawing in order to endorse the Storm Party.

Nuclear So-and-so Party

Main article: Nuclear So-and-so Party

The Nuclear So-and-so Party was the first of the new political parties to emerge after the Ruling Council moved to the new Birmingham provinces in late 2017. Founded by Lady Admiral Simpson, it successfully managed to secure the status of official opposition party. However, after Simpson graduated from university and left the area, the party lost its only council seat, and it is currently inactive.

The party has a left-wing and progressive ideology, but with a particular focus on arming Adammia with nuclear weapons, hence the party's name.

Adammic National Party

Main article: Adammic National Party

The Adammic National Party, or ANP for short, was founded in early 2016 by Cavan Garfield and Euan Carey in response to vandal attacks against Adammia's MicroWiki articles, proposing a hard-line response. It soon evolved to what it describes as an alt-right party, and began proposing more controversial policies using its two seats on the now-defunct Colonial Council. One of these was to hold a referendum on changing the national anthem to a song from Garfield's album Succ, which was voted down by the Ruling Council. The ANP came close to having a majority on the Colonial Council as it controlled the then-colonies of El Grandens, Kappania and, after merging with the Imperial Party, Midgard. In December 2016, it became the largest party by membership. However, it has not been able to recruit any members of the Ruling Council or indeed any resident of the provinces, leaving it unable to field candidates in local elections. Its leaders become increasingly frustrated with the Emperor at what they saw as an inability to gain power, and heated debates between the ANP and the Liberal leader became common in late 2016. This came to a head following the US Presidential elections, when the Emperor issued a decree withdrawing recognition of the USA. The ANP promptly challenged the Emperor for his Ruling Council seat, the Delegate of the Colonies, which is effectively the only seat they can run for. An election was held, which Garfield lost to the Emperor by a single vote, leaving the ANP without any seat on the Ruling Council for the foreseeable future.

Current political landscape

Currently, the Storm-Dank-Labour coalition has a minority on the Ruling Council, with four out of ten seats. The opposition Liberal-Moderates also have four seats. The two independent members appear to be split, with one (Hasioszyn) supporting the government and the other (Davies) supporting the opposition, meaning that the Council is very finely balanced. However, since the Prime Minister constitutionally has a deciding vote, the government is theoretically safe and can pass legislation. Although the current Council is arguably the most divided ever along partisan lines, the traditional spirit of cross-party cooperation remains strong and the government has worked with the opposition on certain matters.

Local government

Each province of Adammia has its own local government, consisting of its noble and its Councilor. They have the power to create their own local laws, provided they do not contradict primary legislation. However, local governments are almost completely inactive bodies. The only function they usually carry out is naming locations under their jurisdiction.

International organisations

The only international organisation Adammia has any kind of relationship with is the Grand Unified Micronational, of which it is an observer state.