Orientism (political theory)

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Orientism is the official political ideology of the Empire of Pavlov. It is based on the concept that the Emperor of Pavlov, and other recognized Christian holders of the title of Emperor are successors of the Roman Emperors. Orientism has been and is to date a cornerstone of Pavlov and her worldview since 2015. Orientism is related to the Austenasian concept of Imperium albeit the two are not the same.

Concepts

The title of Emperor is the highest in diplomatic rank. Due to it being the highest in diplomatic rank and the connection to the Roman Empire, the title of Emperor cannot simply be unilaterally assumed. It can only be legitimately held by somebody who is the legitimate successor to an Emperor under the laws of that Empire and exercises sovereignty over at least part of that Empire; or claims the title of Emperor of land over which they exercise sovereignty and has been recognised by another Emperor as holding said title. All Emperors, by virtue of being Emperors, hold imperium; a special authority not held by other monarchs.

The Christian Emperor is a sort of Universal Monarch, holding actual total Imperium over the entirety of the Roman Empire. The Emperor by virtue of being the head of Christendom claims sovereignty over all other Kings even though in practice this can not be enforced. Hence in contemporary Orientism, it is viewed as a sort of titular and ceremonial sphere of influence over certain areas.

The Auctoritas Invicta considers the variations of the Imperial dignity during time, space and of course, the nature of the creation of authority with Imperial dignity. The previous elements, verified in principles that generate the precedent of recognition of Imperial dignity are:

  • Translatio Imperii, authority not only earned from a previous authority, but also with the ability to be transmitted in the future – continuous exercise of power;
  • Divine Right of the Kings, authority with huge dimension, absolute and a sort of divine authority – moral exercise of power;
  • Mandate of Heaven, authority that may not come from a noble birth, but acquired by moral force and effort beyond the ordinary – dignified exercise of power;
  • Divisio Imperii, authority over spheres of influence and historical precedent that solved old-fashioned gaps of the Translatio Imperii for modern cases – effective exercise of power.

Non-Christian Emperors may be recognized as “Emperor” but they are not considered a part of the indivisible Roman Empire. Such was the case when the Persian Monarchs were recognized as Supreme Basileus[1] by the Eastern Roman Emperors in 615.

Recognition of Empires

The following is a list of occasions when a monarch holding a throne which had not previously been imperial was recognised by a legitimate emperor as holding imperial rank, thus legitimising the claims of themselves and their successors to the title of Emperor. While the list includes non-Christian claim, they are not recognized as Roman Emperors, but as Emperors. Extant Empires in bold.

  • Shahanshah Khosrow II: Khosrow had been restored to his throne by Maurice, and they had remained allies until the latter's death. Thereafter, Khosrow seized the opportunity to attack the Byzantine Empire and reconquer Mesopotamia. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. In 615, in a letter delivered by his ambassadors, Heraclius acknowledged the Persian empire as superior, described himself as Khosrow's "obedient son" and even called Khosrow the "supreme emperor."
  • Emperor Charles I: Charles was crowned in 800 by the Pope as Emperor, however he was only recognized as Emperor of the Franks (and not as Emperor of the Romans) by the Roman Emperor Michael I Rangabe in 812. The Emperor John I Tzimiskes recognized Otto I as Emperor and married off his niece to the son of Otto I, Otto II.
  • Tsar Simeon I: During a hard moment for the Empire and the death of an Emperor, the care of the infant Constantine VII fell to the Patriarch of Constantinople. After an usurpation attempt by a member of the Doukid family, Simon invaded the Empire and in 924 the Patriarch was forced to recognize Simeon as Emperor of the Bulgarians and even crowned him as such.
  • Emperor Stephen Uroš IV Dušan: Dušan was crowned Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks by the recently proclaimed Patriarch of Serbia in 1346. As in 1347, relations with John VI Kantakouzenos worsened, he supported his rival John V Palaiologos, who in 1351 recognized him as Emperor of the Serbs.
  • Tsar Ivan III: Metropolitan Zosima, in a foreword to his work of 1492 Presentation of the Paschalion quite clearly expressed the transfer of the Imperial See from Constaninople to Moscow, calling Ivan III "the new Tsar Constantine of the new city of Constantine — Moscow.". The Russian Church declared itself autocephalous in 1448, on the basis of explicit rejection of the Filioque, and the doctrine of "Moscow as the Third and Final Rome" was born. Ivan, styled himself Tsar, after he had married Sophia Palaiologina in 1472. Sophia was a niece of Constantine XI, the last Byzantine emperor. By the rules and laws of inheritance followed by most European monarchies of the time, Ivan could claim that he and his offspring were heirs of the fallen Empire.[2] The son of Ivan, Tsar Vasili III was addressed in 1514 by Maximilian as Emperor and Ruler of all the Russians, further recognizing the Muscovite Imperial line. Alexander IV was recognized by the Russian World organisation as Emperor, and Pavlov as successor to Kyivan Rus' in 2019.[3] In 2021 an Apostolic Nuncio referred to Alexander IV as "Augustus", further recognizing the former's claim to the Imperial dignity.
  • Padishah Suleiman I: By the Treaty of Constantinople in 1533, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V recognised Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I as an Emperor, while Charles himself was mockingly be refered to as King of Spain and his brother Ferdinand as King of Germany baning them to name themselves as Emperor for one and a half century. The Ottomans also claimed the Imperial title based on blood relation.
  • Kangxi Emperor: The Kangxi Emperor was recognised by Peter I and Ivan V, Tsars of Russia in the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 as Holy Emperor of the Chinese.
  • Emperor Napoleon I: Napoleon was recognized by the Ottoman Sultan Selim III in 1806, after having pressured him into this since at latest 1804. Napoleon blackmailed Selim into this by threathening to cooperate with the Russians.
  • Emperor Maximilian I: Maximilian was installed as Emperor of Mexico by Napoleon III in the Treaty of Miramar of 1864. Maximilian was deposed in 1867 after a relatively short, uneventful and unsuccesful reign.
  • Empress Victoria I: One of Victoria's daughters was to marry the heir to the German Empire, outranking Victoria herself. This led to Victoria pushing the Prime Minister D'Israeli into making parliament grant Victoria the title of Kaisar-i-Hind or Emperor of India in 1876. The granting of the title of Emperor of India to Victoria was already discussed in the 1840s by a Governor-General of India. In the Treaty of Berlin of 1878, Victoria's title was recognized.
  • Emperor William I: After crushing the French Empire in 1871, William was proclaimed as German Emperor in the Palace of Versailles. His claim to the title was recognized by the Emperor of Austria in 1879 by the so-called Dual Alliance.
  • Emperor Meiji I: The Chinese Emperor Guangxu recognized the title of Emperor Meiji in the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 1895, ending the First Sino-Japanese War
  • Emperor Gojong I: Emperor Gojong declared himself Emperor in 1897, and was recognised as such by the Meiji Emperor in the preamble to a treaty signed between the two countries in 1904.
  • Emperor Kangde: Puyi was installed as Emperor of the Great Manchu Empire in 1934 by Shōwa Emperor as part of the Japan–Manchukuo Protocol.
  • Emperor Victor Emmanuel III: Victor Emmanuel was recognized as the Emperor of Ethopia in 1937 by Shōwa Emperor, after having captures Ethiopia in 1936.
  • Emperor-King Oscar I: was recognised as an Emperor by Alexander IV in 2020, having claimed the Imperial title since 2016. In a subsequent Treaty, "the Emperor of Karnia-Ruthenia [was] recognized as the direct linear successor to the heritage of Charlemagne and Otto".
  • Emperor Wilhelm I: was recognised as an Emperor by Alexander IV and Emperor-King Oscar I in 2020, having claimed the Imperial title since 2010. After a couple of months, Wilhelm abdicated the throne and proclaimed Oscar his successor, transferring his Imperium to the Karnia-Ruthenian one.

Legitimacy of the Pavlovian Emperor

According to Prince Potemkin (attributed to him by Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin) "If Rome and Byzantium represented two of the three international traditions of imperial legitimacy, the blood of Genghis Khan was the third"[4], with the House of Tezdzhan-Smahin being able to trace their family tree to Theodosius (Rome), the Komnemnid, Doukid and Palaiologan dynasties (Byzantium) and the Genghisid dynasty it is seen as only natural that the Head of the House holds the Augustan rank.

The Pavlovian ruler assumed the title of Emperor and Autokratōr to emphasize his claim to the Roman and Byzantine Imperial legacy. In a way similar to how Muscovy adopted Byzantine terms, rituals, titles, and emblems such as the double-headed eagle in 1472 after Ivan III married Sophia Palaiologina. The Pavlovians claim that since the Pavlovian Monarch remained the only legitimate ruler who can claim lineage from both the Third Romes (both Moscow and Istanbul), and from Genghis Khan, that Pavlov was the Fourth Rome, becoming the final lineal successor to Rome, Constantinople and Rus, the three centers of Christianity and of the Roman Empires of earlier periods. The "Fourth Rome" concept would resonate in the self-image of the Pavlovian people in future years, with HIH Tsesarevych Jaroslav proclaiming "Three Romes have fallen. The Fourth Rome still lives in our souls[..]"[5]

Alexander IV citing his claim on the title of Emperor to his connection to the four imperial bloodlines. The Pavlovians consider Tezdzhan-Smahin the legitimate 183rd Roman Emperor[6], his claim to the title was recognized by the Emperor-King of Karnia-Ruthenia in the Treaty of Dionysopol and in the subsequent Treaty of Theodosia also by HIM Emperor Wilhelm I. Alexander IV was furthermore recognized by the Russian World organisation as Emperor, and Pavlov as successor to Kyivan Rus'.[7] In 2021 an Apostolic Nuncio referred to Alexander IV as "Augustus", further recognizing the former's claim to the Imperial dignity.

List of Roman Emperors

Historical basis

Divisio Imperii: Two Emperors problem

Divisio Imperii - also known during the Roman times as Tetrarchy - is the solution to the problem of two or even more Emperors. It is the historiographical term for the historical contradiction between the idea of the universal monarchy, that there was only ever one true emperor at any one given time. “Universal monarchy” is a concept and political situation where just one monarchy is deemed to have either sole rule over everywhere or the predominant part of a geopolitical area or to have a special supremacy over all other states or at least all the states in a geopolitical area.

The Tetrarchy was initially utilized by the Emperor Diocletian to divide the Roman State administratively in two, and ultimately in four separate entities. In Medieval times, it had to be evolved into something more: the long-lasting dispute between the “Byzantine” (Eastern Roman) and Holy Roman emperors. To solve the issue between the the “Byzantine” (Eastern Roman) and Holy Roman emperors claiming the Imperial title and dignity, a solution was found recognizing both as Emperors of the undivided Roman (Christian) Empire which leads to the Divisio Imperii.

Soon after the last “Byzantine” (Eastern Roman) Emperor fell at the Battle of Constantinople, the Ottoman Sultan claimed the Imperial title and the problem resurfaced, albeit now also including a Muslim Emperor. With the Ottoman Sultan mockingly referring to the Holy Roman Emperor as King for one and a half-century, until the Ottoman sultans formally recognized the Imperial dignity of Holy Roman emperors in 1606, in an acceptance of Divisio Imperii, bringing an end to the dispute between Constantinople and Western Europe.

Prior to the embassy of Peter the Great in 1697–1698, the tsarist government had a poor understanding of the Holy Roman Empire and its constitution. Under Peter, use of the double-headed eagle increased and other less Byzantine symbols of the Roman past were adopted, as when the Tsar was portrayed as an ancient Emperor on coins minted after the Battle of Poltava in 1709. The Great Northern War brought Russia into alliance with several north German princes and Russian troops fought in northern Germany. In 1718, Peter published a letter sent to Tsar Vasily III by the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian I in 1514 in which the Emperor addressed the Russian as Kaiser and implicitly his equal. In October 1721, he took the title Imperator. The Holy Roman emperors refused to recognise this new title. Peter's proposal that the Russian and German monarchs alternate as premier rulers in Europe was also rejected. The Emperor Charles VI, supported by France, insisted that there could only be one emperor.

In 1726, Charles VI entered into an alliance with Russia and formally recognized the title of Imperator but without admitting the Russian ruler's parity. Three times between 1733 and 1762 Russian troops fought alongside Austrians inside the Holy Roman Empire. The ruler of Russia from 1762 until 1796, Catherine the Great, was a German princess. In 1779 she helped broker the Peace of Teschen that ended the War of the Bavarian Succession. Thereafter, Russia claimed to be a guarantor of the Imperial constitution as per the Peace of Westphalia (1648) with the same standing as France and Sweden. In 1780, Catherine II called for the invasion of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of a new Greek Empire or restored Eastern Roman Empire, for which purposes an alliance was made between Joseph II's Holy Roman Empire and Catherine II's Russian Empire. The alliance between Joseph and Catherine was, at the time, heralded as a great success for both parties. Neither the Greek Plan or the Austro-Russian alliance would persist long. Nonetheless, both empires would be part of the anti-Napoleonic Coalitions as well as the Concert of Europe. The Holy Roman–Russian dispute ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.

See also

References

  1. Fidler, Richard, 1964- author. (November 13, 2018). Ghost empire : a journey to the legendary Constantinople. pp. 159. ISBN 978-1681779010. OCLC 1023526060. 
  2. Nicol, Donald MacGillivray (1992) (in en). The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453 (2nd ed.). Hart-Davis. pp. 72. 
  3. Hussainov T.M. (2019) (in Russian). Russian world: Dynamics of scientific knowledge. National State Research University of Nizhny Novgorod. p. 243. ISBN 978-5-604237625. 
  4. Sebag Montefiore (2000). Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312278151. 
  5. Yaroslav Mar (11 June 2020). "It's time to bring Pavlov back". Pavlovian Pravda. Retrieved 15 June 2020..
  6. Devotshëm, Njeri (2020). Orientism: a Pavlovian ideology. University of St. Ahmed the Calligrapher. p. 7. 
  7. Hussainov T.M. (2019) (in Russian). Russian world: Dynamics of scientific knowledge. National State Research University of Nizhny Novgorod. p. 243. ISBN 978-5-604237625.