New Roman Republic

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New Roman Republic
Spqrflag.png

Motto
Senatus Populusque Romanus
Anthem
TBA
Capital cityRome
Official language(s)English, Latin
Official religion(s)Religio Romana
DemonymRoman
GovernmentRepublic
- Dictator (temporary)Publius Valerius Argentum
- Master of the Horse (temporary)Quintus Julius Tullius
LegislatureCentury Assembly and Tribal Assembly
Population6
CurrencyDenarius
Time zone(UTC+1)
National animalWolf
This nation is a member of the Organisation of Active Micronations

Official forum Website


The New Roman Republic is a micronation founded on 23 July 2011 (MMDCCLXIV AUC). It is a revival of the ancient Roman Republic that existed from 509 to 27 BC, and a continuation of the ancient republican constitution of Rome that has heavily influenced modern democratic systems.

Etymology

The Roman Republic is a term that is applied to the period of history in Rome and it's empire between the Roman Kingdom and the Roman Empire. As the New Roman Republic, or NRR, is a continuation of that republican constitution, and not the later imperial one, it uses the Roman Republic name.

History

There are different opinions on when exactly Rome transitioned from the Republic to the Empire. Some may claim that Julius Caesar's dictatorship in 44 BC was the end of the Republic, though the most excepted date is 27 BC, when Augustus became emperor.

In 2011 (or 2764 in Roman years), the New Roman Republic was founded by P. Valerius Argentum as a revival of the Roman Republic. The Republic is currently gaining citizens and will soon have enough to conduct the first democratic elections under the Roman constitution for over 2,000 years.

The citizens who vote in the first elections will be given patrician status in recognition of their importance in founding the NRR. Thereafter all new citizens will be plebeian.

Government and politics

The main principles of the the ancient and new Roman constitutions are regular elections, collegialty and limited terms of office. This means in the NRR that all positions are re-elected every six months, there are two or more people who hold each position and can veto each other, and a person may not be immedietly re-elected for the position he holds.

The NRR is largely a direct democracy with two consuls as head of state and government.

The first elections are due to be held sometime before 23 October 2011. These elections will also include votes on a flag, and on whether to adopt a codified constitution based on the ancient Roman constitution or use the ancient Roman principle of mos maiorum, or time-honoured principles similar to the British constitution. The positions in Government are: Consul, Praetor, Dictator and Quaestor.

Senate

The Senate is an advisory body to the magistrates and to the legislative assemblies, and is responsible for foreign affairs. The Senate also has the powers to create, modify and abolish provinces. The Senate can issue decrees of advice or instructions to magistrates called Senatus consultum, which if conflicts with a law passed by a legislative assembly, the law takes precedence.

The composition of the Senate is every citizen who has ever served as quaestor or higher. Senators may serve for life, but they may be removed due to crimes or inactivity by the censors with the consent of the Senate.

A meeting of the Senate may only be called by a consul, and that consul will preside over the meeting and initiate any votes or decrees.

Legislative assemblies

The main legislatures of the NRR are the legislative assemblies. There are two assemblies, the Century Assembly and Tribal Assembly, and every citizen is a member of each.

The Century Assembly is split into seven centuries. Citizens will be placed into centuries on the basis of Century Points. Points are earned by posting on the forum, and being elected to certain positions. From these points citizens will be placed into centuries as follows; Century I - All patricians Century II and III - Top 10% of plebeians Century IV and V - All plebeians with 21 points or over. Century VI - All plebeians with 1-20 points. Century VII - All plebeians with zero points, and any citizens that have been inactive for a year.

Each century has an equal vote and centuries vote in sequential order. This assembly therefore rewards activity with greater influence.

The Century Assembly elects consuls, praetors and censors, can pass laws, declare war and hear legal appeals involving a loss of citizenship.

The Tribal Assembly sees citizens grouped into 35 tribes of equal numbers. Each tribe has an equal vote, and voting is sequential, but in a random order. The Tribal Assembly elects curule aediles and quaestors, can pass laws and hears legal appeals.

An assembly may be convened by a consul, and each assembly much meet at least once every six months in order to elect magistrates.

Executive magistrates

The Corsus Honorum is the unofficial term describing the political ladder, starting with being elected quaestor and ascending the magistracies. , The Dictator and Master of the Horse are positions only occupied during states of emergency. Any magistrate can veto another magistrate of equal or lower rank.


Quaestor • Elected by Tribal Assembly. • The number of quaestors will equal the combined number of consuls, praetors and aediles. • Candidates must have 21 or more forum posts. • All quaestors are automatically made senators. Quaestor is the lowest ranking magistrate, but essential to holding higher offices later. In ancient Rome questors may mainly responsible for treasury administration, which is not as needed in the NRR, so quaestors’ primary function is to assist other magistrates. The consuls will oversee the process of quaestors being appointed to other magistrates. Quaestors may also investigate crimes and refer them to the Praetor Urbanis, and be appointed to assist a governor.

Curule Aedile • Two curule aediles elected by the Tribal Assembly. • Candidates must have been a quaestor or higher. The two sets of aediles are largely responsible for public games, social activities and promotion of the NRR. The aedileship is not a necessary part of the Corsus Honorum but is a good way of proving yourself worthy of election.

Praetor • Elected by the Century Assembly. • Numbers to be decided by the Senate; initially two. • Candidates must have been a quaestor or higher. Praetors are the deputies to the consuls, and are responsible for the departments of government. The Senate will define the roles for the praetors and then they will be assigned by the consuls.

Consul • Two consuls elected by the Century Assembly. • Candidates must have been a preator or higher. The consuls are the head of state and government. They have the power to overrule all magistrates below them, convene and preside over the Senate and convene and preside over the assemblies.

Censor • Two censors, one elected every six months by the Century Assembly for a 12 month term. • Candidates must have been a consul. The censors are very important people in the NRR. They are responsible for maintaining the census, presiding over citizenship applications, assigning people into tribes and centuries, nominating people for the Senate or initiating impeachment against senators or magistrates.

Governor • Governor of each province to be elected by citizens of the province using AV, annually. • Governors must be former consuls or praetors. The Senate has the power to create, dissolve, merge or alter provinces. A governor is chief administrator and judge in their provinces, but are answerable to the Senate.

Dictator If a state of emergency is declared by the Senate, the consuls must nominate somebody to be Dictator to the Senate. The dictator serves for a maximum of six months, and becomes the supreme magistrate, cannot be vetoed and has the power to temporarily amend the constitution.

Master of the Horse The Dictator must appoint a deputy, the Master of the Horse. The Master of the Horse will complete the Dictator’s term if the office becomes vacant prematurely.

Law and order

The chief judge in each province is the governor. The governor will settle disputes between citizens, or initiate legal proceedings against anyone who has broken the law. The Preator Urbanus performs this role for the City of Rome. Citizens may then appeal against the governor or Praetor Urbanus to the Tribal Assembly, and if the case involves the loss of citizenship, again to Century Assembly.

Foreign relations

The NRR is a member of the Organisation of Active Micronations.

In its first few months, the NRR has established diplomatic relations with the Federated Republics of A1, the Marxist People's Republic of Burkland, Kinsovea and the Kingdom of Independence.

Geography

The NRR claims the territory inside the traditional pomerium of the City of Rome as its historical and spiritual capital, but has no expectations of that being recognised by Italy in the short term, which is why most of the country's administration is run online, and is able to accept citizens from all over the world.

Citizens are grouped into provinces, based on their geographical location in the world. Each province elects a governor that administers the province and represents it on certain national bodies. The current provinces and their governors are;

Britannia (Great Britain); P. Valerius Argentum America (United States); L. Septimius Hibernia (Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland); Valeria Kelley

Culture