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Kingdom of Bohemia
| Kingdom of Bohemia |
Indivisibiliter ac inseparabiliter
|Official language(s)||Czech, German, Latin, Polish|
|- King||Jan II.|
|- Prime Minister||Jan Bednařík|
|Area claimed||136 000 km²|
Kingdom of Bohemia is a constitutional monarchy in Central Europe, led by Jan II.
The Czech Principality
The beginnings of the Czech state fell into the second half of the 9th century, when the first documented Czech prince of the Bohemia I dynasty of Přemyslids was baptized. During the 10th and 11th centuries the state consolidated and the territory of Moravia was joined. The Czech principality gradually acquired the features of a more or less autonomous medieval state, which was part of the Holy Roman Empire (the Prague bishopric was founded in 973, the main national saint became St. Wenceslas).
However, the Kingdom of Bohemia was founded only in 1198, when the German King recognized the Czech royal title as hereditary, as confirmed by the Emperor Frederick II. The Štauf's year 1212 Gold will be the Sicilian exhibition of the Premyslid King Přemysl Otakar I, including other privileges of the Czech Kingdom. The Czech monarch was then freed from all duties to the Holy Roman Empire until he attended the Reichs. Wenceslas I, but especially his son Přemysl Otakar II, then built a large estate that ranged beyond the Alps and the Adriatic Sea. Václav II. turned his attention to the north and east, where he managed to acquire land across Poland to the Baltic Sea and his ten-year-old son, Wenceslas III. he temporarily won the Hungarian Royal Crown. After the assassination of Wenceslas III. the Czech kingdom was in chaos, but the election of John of Luxembourg to the Czech King allowed a new rise, culminating in the reign of John's son, Charles IV. (1316-1378). Between 1319-1329, the Upper Lusatia was annexed to the Kingdom of Bohemia and in 1335 also the town of Vratislav, to which a large part of Silesia belonged. After 1348 Braniborsko was connected in time.
Already during the reign of Charles IV. we can see the beginnings of the Czech reform movement that sought to deepen personal piety and to redress the enlightened church and thus to re-establish the whole society. Religious disputes were raised during the reign of Charles IV, son of Wenceslas IV. After the burning of Master Jan Hus in 1415 in the German Constans, the tension between Hus's supporters and his opponents went into open hostility, and the events resulted in the Hussite war. Radical Hussites founded the city of Tabor, which became the center of the Hussite revolution. Jan Žižka of Trocnov and Prokop Holý then defeated all four crusades in Bohemia. The war ended with an agreement between the Basel Council and the moderate Hussites called the Basle Compact in 1436. In the person of Jiří of Poděbrady, the country even chose a moderate Hussite king. However, King George's external pressure caused the Czech throne of the Jagellon family to be removed for tactical reasons. But when the second Jagellon fell on the Czech throne at the battle of Mohács (1526), Ludvik was captured by the Habsburgs, who, together with the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, ruled the country for nearly 400 years.
In 1526, Ferdinand I of Habsburg and the Habsburg dynasty were elected to the Czech throne, which gradually incorporated the country into the Habsburg monarchy. Ferdinand's grandson Rudolf II. still (as the last Habsburg) he chose Prague as a settlement and, although Catholic, he was partially tolerant of Czech Protestantism (the Rudolph Majesty). After his death, however, the era of tolerance ended and the religious tension grew again. In 1618 an armed uprising of Czech Protestant states broke out against the Catholic Sovereign. The defenestration of imperial governors in 1618 became the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. A troop of Czech states was defeated in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, and the Estonian leaders were publicly executed in Prague.
The violent re-Catholization of Czech Protestants began. The extensive property of Bohemian exile nobility and intelligence fell to the loyal supporters of the Habsburgs. By the middle of the 17th century the population in Bohemia and Moravia had dropped by almost 30% to about 1.75 million inhabitants. In 1627, a renewal of the land was issued in the Czech Republic, to which the Habsburgs obtained the Czech royal title inheritance, the only permitted religion was declared Catholic and the German language was formally equated with the Czech, but was in fact preferred.
With the administrative reforms of Maria Theresa in 1749, the Czech Crown countries were de facto connected with Austria to the unitary state, but Czech kings continued to be crowned within the Czech Kingdom. During the famine in 1771-1772, at least 250,000 people died, resulting in extensive non-warfare. Religious tolerance and abolition of serfdom have brought about the reform of Joseph II. in 1781. Centralization of the monarchy took place from the 17th to the beginning of the 19th century. This centralization helped to favor the German language in state and church administration. In response to the pontification of the nation and its culture, the Czech national revival began to rise in the Czech lands in the late 18th century, ie the effort to revive Czech culture and language, and later to gain political power by parties representing the interests of Czech ethnicity.
In the second half of the 19th century, during the long reign of Emperor Franz Joseph I., a significant economic development took place in the Czech Republic. Most (about 70%) of the Austro-Hungarian industry concentrated in the Czech lands, including the populated Germans. Czech political elites, especially František Palacký and Franz Ladislav Rieger, came to the conclusion that the federalized and generally democratically organized Austria (or Pre-Litva) could be the most favorable living space for the Czech nation and other Slavic nations of Central and Southern Europe. This was accompanied by the idea of so-called Austro-Slavism, which was to some extent the ideological backing of the policy of Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Slovenes and Croats in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Powers were also to protect against the adverse influences of powerful states in the West and the East, namely Germany and the Russian Empire.
The period of the all-round boom of the Czech nation in the fields of politics, economy, culture and education within Austria-Hungary ended with the outbreak of the First World War in July 1914. This later the worldly destructive conflict started by the Viennese politicians after the Sarajevo assassination of the Austro-Hungarian successor to the throne of Franz Ferdinand d'Este on June 28, 1914, in the belief that the war against the small Kingdom of Serbia would be an easy matter for the seemingly powerful Austro-Hungarian Empire. Gradually, however, Austria-Hungary became a mere pendant of the German Empire, the so-called Vilem's Germany, in its attempt to emerge from this war as a victorious power. One of the accompanying phenomena of the war events was the end of the Austro-Slavic dreams of some leading Czech politicians, among others Karel Kramář. For Austria-Hungary, the war ended a complete disaster and its disintegration.
After the break-up of Austria-Hungary he passed the title of the Czech Crown Prince on Ota of Habsburg, the territory of the Czech Kingdom became part of the Czechoslovak Republic. The title of Prince Ota of the Habsburgs later came and the position of the Czech monarch was finally relaxed. Between 1939 and 1945, a partial incorporation of Czechoslovakia into Nazi Germany took place, the state extinct, but the exile government emerged. After World War II, Czechoslovakia was restored. Between 1948 and 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc. An attempt to free the Communist regime in 1968, the so-called Prague Spring, was violently suppressed by the invasion of the Warsaw Pact troops. In 1989, during the Velvet Revolution, the communist regime ended. In 1993, Czechoslovakia was divided into the Czechoslovakia and Slovakia, but in 2014 the Czechoslovak Socialist Confederation Republic was rebuilt and transformed into the Czechoslovak Federation on 11 January 2015 by the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Moravian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Czechoslovak Federation ceased to exist on May 11, 2015, uniting with the New Bohemian Federation and transforming the Czechoslovak Socialist Federation. CSSF changed to the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic on 28 October. President František Otta eventually decided to divide Czechoslovakia into Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia and became president of the Moravian republic. In 2018, the Czechoslovak Republic was formed by unification of Bohemia and Slovakia, which later negotiated with Moravia on its territory.
Restoration of the monarchy
The Czech kingdom was restored in September 2018, when the current King John II. declared the Czech king, ending a hundred years without a king. The question was the boundaries of the renewed kingdom, but after several negotiations the boundaries were established according to the boundaries of the Bohemian Bohemian Countries from the period before the Thirty Years' War, ie with the connection of Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia.