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Total population
Regions with significant populations
MMBS Rank Republic of Bolgajna 33
 Republic of Hungary 67



Christianity , Atheism

The Bolgánys are the Carpathian basin, primarily the small, unrecognized Finno-Ugric ethnic group in the north of Transdanubia. An ethnic group with its own dialect and culture steeped in history. Bolgánys who do not live in Bolgajna are called the Bolgány diaspora. Today, the rank republic of Bolgajna is primarily responsible for nurturing and spreading Bolgány culture.

The Bolgány culture is built mainly from the elements of the peasant culture of the North Transdanubia. It also contains many notes taken over the course of history, mainly from Slovak, Kun, Croatian, Turkish and Hungarian traditions.

According to the measurement of the Rank Republic of Bolgajna, a total of 33 people in the world claim to be Bolgány and another 60 people have Bolgány cultural traditions.

Despite their small number, the Bolgánys did not assimilate into the Hungarian population. This is mainly due to the cultural protection effect of the Rank Republic of Bolgajna. The number of butterflies generally tends to increase every year.


The origin of the word Bolgány has always been a controversial issue in Bolgajna, and even in the entire Central European culture. However, Bolgajna conducted research that showed a very special result. Márton Gerhát had the biggest role in the Bolgajna research


There is a small settlement in Serbia in the southern part of Vojvodina, whose Hungarian name was Bolgyán, and in the past it was Bolgány. The Serbian name of the village is Buđanovci, which, according to our research, may mean a coin foundry. However, it is unlikely that the word Bolgán really originates from here, since the word money-casting form cannot be connected to the other areas with Bolgány local names, and there is no evidence that there is any connection between the Hungarian and Serbian names of the village.

According to some, the word Bolgány originates from the Romanian language, the Olách dialect, within it also from the word balc. Which means casting area. Although it is indeed a good assumption from a topographical point of view, it is unlikely that Romanian language influence ever prevailed in the Szigetköz.

According to one theory, the word bolgány can be derived from the name of a prickly plant called thistle. Which in Hungarian is called "bogáncs". This could even be possible, since the thistle is a very common plant in the Szigetköz area. However, this is not very convincing, since no historical information points to this.

For some, the word bolgány is a so far unrecognized local word whose meaning we do not know. Although it is indeed a non-Hungarian word, it is not a landscape word either.

To the south of Bolgánymajor (the historical settlement inhabited by Bolgánys) there is a village probably once inhabited by Kuns, Kunsziget, which is why it was important to investigate whether a word similar to Bolgány can be found in Kun or other Kipchak languages. you can find a term very similar to bulgány, balkány. This is even more interesting after we know that in the Bolgány dialect, it is common for the tone of "a" to be more closed in the syllable after "á", which is why it sounds more like o. By the way, balkán means swamp in the Kun language, and a seasonal lake in the Pecheneg language. Bolgánymajor The often marshy area near the Mosoni-Danube, so it is very likely that the word Bolgány and the folk name originate from here. This is currently the most accepted theory.


The first mention of the Bolgány people dates from 1878

The Bolgánys lived in the Ural region in ancient times. They belonged to the ancient Finno-Ugric people. They lived mainly from fishing and hunting. As a result of the southwest migration, they learned animal husbandry and crop cultivation from the Iranian peoples around 2000 BC. At the end of the Bronze Age, the ancestors of today's Bolgajna could separate from the community of Ugrian peoples and lead an independent life. This is sometime the i. e. It may have happened around the 12th century as a result of a climate change. It was then that the Bolgánys moved to the steppe, to an Iranian-speaking environment. not many cultural characteristics can be discovered between Bolgánys and Iranians. Around 500 BC, the Bolgánys migrated east. In 670, the Bolgánys marched to Levédia. Smaller ancient Bolgány cultural peculiarities can also be found in today's Bolgány culture, since many ancient Slavs lived in Levédia at that time. In the seventh-ninth centuries, they continued to migrate to Etelköz. Around 900, the ancient ancestors of the Bolgánys reached Bolgajna, i.e. the northern Transdanubian region.

The ancestors of the Bolgánys carried out a series of adventurous campaigns throughout Europe. Only the defeat at Augsburg in 955 put an end to the successes. István (King of the Hungarian-majority kingdom of Mdence in the Carpathians) formed a close alliance with the first two and founded a Western-type Christian kingdom. From then on, many Western European nobles and townspeople moved to the country, mixing with the Bolgánys.

The age of petty kings began in Hungary in the 13th century. This meant that the various upper nobles were so-called provincial lords, i.e. a person who is a nobleman who rules a large part of the country autonomously. These nobles used their own privileges to form their states. All of them governed a contiguous area and most of them had a claim to the Hungarian throne. One of these provincial lords was Henrik Köszegi, who governed entirely in the territory of Bolgajna and identified with today's Bolgány regional culture. He probably had a serious ambition to create an independent state. He also minted his own money but also acquired several noble titles during his reign, the center of his country was Sopron. Although according to many Bolgánys he was a national hero, it is important to mention that in the Middle Ages there were no nation-states, but every state was built to represent the interests of an upper class, since this was made possible by the system of feudalism. Finally, after just a few decades, Köszegi's reign came to an end and Hungary annexed its territories.



Dandelion is the national plant of Bolgajna. which is why it is used in many dishes, for example salad, but it is also added to pasta. Eating chicken is the most widespread in the country, this tradition was also taken over from the Cserpangs. Eating habits can vary greatly from region to region, due to the different climates. The national dish is Ébrencs, which is a pie-like dish. The national drink is fekker, originally from the Osztróvian bolgánys. The regional national drink of the Pórfayz province is rosehip honey tea, which is called borbuna there. In the Nosztre province, the seasoning is more Mediterranean, with thyme, lavender and rosemary being the most common spices. The folk drink of Nosztre is Kakkukfekker, which is a thyme sweet drink.

Traditional costume

The national costume is generally embroidered with a floral pattern, both for men and women. For men, usually white shirts, blue or green plants are often embroidered into the clothes. The pants are usually brown canvas pants. The shoes were also usually decorated with plant patterns. It is common for the shirt to be worn with a vest, usually brown, blue or black. Men often have long hair, which is also braided on holidays. Beret caps are also common in the Pórfayz region. The women's national costume is typically Central European. wearing a fancy skirt, waistcoat and white shirt is common. The hair is often decorated with ribbons.

Folk music

Bolgány folk decoration

The Bolgány music is largely influenced by Central Europe, many songs are similar to Hungarian and Slovak folk songs. The most frequently used instrument is the zither, the drum, and the horn. In local folk music, instruments are classified in several ways. Drums are used in medium size, small size and giant size. The giant size is also called batkora. Horns are usually made of copper. Zithers are used in two ways, the so-called zither guitar is a unique and rarer version, while in addition to this, zithers with a tenor sound are also used. Musical instruments are often decorated with floral designs. Customs may vary in different provinces. Whistles and horns made of reeds are also widespread in the Nosztre province. In Osztróvia Province, many people also use small steel horns to play music.

folk decoration

The decoration of the owl is usually blue, white, green and rarely, especially in Austria, red. Butterfly patterns can appear on any device or clothing. It usually consists of easy-to-draw patterns. Decorations may vary depending on the ethnographic landscape. flowers and plant patterns are common. The appearance of animals in the decoration is very rare.


The national flag has been changed many times throughout history, the current one has been valid since 2021. However, similar formats have been used in the past. The meaning of the colors is according to folk tradition, Blue means national self-awareness, white means freedom, and green means the homeland. The national coat of arms was adopted at the same time as the flag. The meanings of the four stars, the four provinces, the blue background have the same meaning as the blue color of the flag, the wings represent liberation, while the crown represents the Armonika ruling house. Many other national symbols have also been officially adopted.


Name Date description
The feast of the csarab The second Saturday of January This is when the blooming of the csarab is celebrated. It is customary at this time to eat honey flavored with lavender and mint harvested in the summer.
Hazelnut Tree Blossoming Festival Last Sunday of January This is when the flowering of the hazelnut tree/bush is celebrated. Around this time, it is a tradition for people to go to the forest and pick a plant from its barberry flowers and say it on the fields to create abundance.
The holiday of driving away winter The last day of February This is when the last day of winter and the beginning of spring are celebrated. They light a fire, burn the festive tree and bring warmth to the spring.
Tulip Blooming Festival March 20 This is when the blooming of the tulip is celebrated. In such cases, it is tradition to pin a tulip flower to the left part of the dress and put a bouquet of tulips on the door.
Dandelion festival Second Saturday of April Dandelion is the national plant of Bolgajna and therefore one of the most important holidays. It is excellent as a spice, syrup, and vinegar flavoring, but its roasted root can even be used as a coffee substitute.
Spring Festival April 17 This is one of the most significant holidays. At this time, the tradition is that everyone puts grass, herbs and fruits in a small basket. After that, they wait a little while for an animal to come (a guinea pig in Central povince folklore), which in return gives gifts PL: syrup, chocolate, sugar, honey, toys, etc. to.
Festival of abundance Third Sunday of May Summer is near at this time, it is customary to pick the flowers of the plants and scatter them in the forest. Then it is customary to present some small gift to the others and it is important to remember that it is customary to drink fresh mint lemonade at this time.
Lavender holiday June 19 This holiday has the greatest significance in the province of Nosztre, and it is also held in the Central povince, as there is also a small lavender stock there.
Stone Rose Flowering Festival July 23 The stone rose is a very important plant for Bolgajna. Stone roses are found in all provinces. It is a naturally occurring plant in the Nosztre region. On this day, everyone traditionally plants stone roses in order to further spread the stock and so on.
Shooting Star Day August 13 On this holiday, Bolgajna members go out into nature at dawn and watch shooting stars from there. In such cases, after the disappearance of the meteorite swarm, it is customary to build a fire and tell each other stories. This holiday is celebrated everywhere because shooting stars are everywhere.
Water mint flowering First Sunday of September This holiday is celebrated only in central County, as the only water mint grows here. at this time, it is customary to go out into the forest to find this plant and make tea from what has been harvested.
State Founding Day October 29 Commemorates the founding of the Rank Republic of Bolgajna, sums up its past and plans for its future. The celebration begins with the presidents' speeches, after which they can choose from a variety of unique dishes from the four provinces at the "big table".
Night of the Dead October 31 This celebration is specifically held in the province of Osztróvia. The origin and shape of the holiday were mainly played by the Haui death cult and the Cserpang funeral rituals.
Pumpkin Festival Day November 11–13 Although it is a very important holiday in Osztróvia province, it does not play a big role elsewhere.
Milokán Day December 6 Milokán is celebrated on this day. It is held in every province. According to tradition, Milokán brings gifts to the children on this day. This is also the case in Bolgajna, Santa Claus surprises all children with small gifts, e.g.: chocolates, sweets or toys
Pine Festival December 24–26 One of the most important holidays, when it is customary to decorate a pine tree (mainly juniper in Pórfayz province). The biggest holiday of the year is held on this day. At night, the gifts arrive under the decorated tree. These events take place on the first day of the holiday. They keep the gifts they receive for the next two days.
Farewell to the New Year December 31 This holiday is celebrated on the last day of the year. Held in all provinces, people stay up until at least midnight to await the anniversary. Then fireworks are shot into the sky, a beautiful sight. Then a big ball goes off.
Labor city in the twentieth century.

Distribution today

Bolgánys do not constitute a majority in any Hungarian settlement. The largest proportion are in Dunaszeg and Veszprémfajsz. The majority of Bolgánys live in Bolgajna. In Hungary, Bolgánys have repeatedly raised the issue of the establishment of Bolgány ethnic self-governments. However, this is not possible due to the small number of staff.

Bolgány ethnographic landscapes

Bolgánys call their ethnographic landscapes provinces. There are four such ethnographic landscapes: Nosztre, Pórfayz, Thury and Osztróvia.