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The first written records for the history of Juclandia date back to the year of its foundation, 2001. However, few documents remain from the period before the Socialist era, when the government starts developing a system of official records and legal acts. Most of Juclandia's history from 2001 to 2005 is therefore based on oral history and objects such as flags, posters, as well as the plush toys themselves.
The best documented part of Juclandia's history starts in 2010, when the micronation goes online and starts publishing its own website and newspaper. However, many historical sources from this era have also been lost, particularly Skype conversations and Facebook posts. There is an ongoing effort to digitalise the physical archives in Juclandia in order to provide an accurate portrait of Juclandia's history.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Historical eras
- 3 Foundation Era (2001-2003)
- 4 Consolidation Era (2003-2005)
- 5 Socialist Era (2005-2008)
- 6 Republican Era (2008-2010)
- 7 Mature Development Era (2010-2014)
- 8 Co-operative Era (2014-2017)
- 9 Modern Juclandian Era (2017-present)
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 See also
For the purposes of respecting official Juclandian terminology, as well as using a more straightforward description of the complex nature of Juclandia's dual human-plush existence, this article will use human sector to refer to any part of Juclandian history which mostly involved human activities, and national sector to refer to that part of Juclandian history which mostly involved plush toy activities.
In order to present a more accurate description of Juclandian history, Juclandian historiography has been divided into historical eras, which are mostly linked to either a specific fundamental document in the country's history (the Declaration of Independence or various Constitutions), or an event which triggered a fundamental shift in Juclandian politics and history.
|1||Foundation Era||September 2001||September 2003||Country of Toys|
|2||Consolidation Era||September 2003||September 2005||State of Toys|
|3||Socialist Era||September 2005||August 2008||Socialist Democratic State of Romania|
|4||Republican Era||August 2008||August 2010||Socialist Republic of Juclandia|
|5||Mature Development Era||August 2010||August 2014||Kingdom of Juclandia|
|6||Co-operative Era||August 2014||August 2017||Kingdom of Juclandia|
|7||Modern Juclandian Era||August 2017||present||Juclandian Pragma, Juclandian Republic|
Foundation Era (2001-2003)
The first Juclandian state entity has its roots in the stateless community of Juclandians which was formed by the founder of Juclandia in his abode. In the process of world discovery that the founder was engaged in, he took a particular interest in public affairs that involved governments, political parties, public transportation, the building of communities, and wars. In doing so, the grandmother of the founder, Elena Iliescu, known after her death as the “Mother of Juclandia”, helped him get a grasp of the name and nature of the institutions of government. In the summer of 2001, on a gradual basis, the young founder set up the community of Juclandians in the form of a pre-state entity ruled by an “Assembly of the Elders”, made up of those Juclandians that were biggest in physical size. Later, the “Assembly of the Elders” was made up of the entire community of Juclandians. A name was also given to the community, which was considered to be a country, “the Country of Toys” (Romanian: Țara Jucăriilor). In September 2001, this slow development took a faster pace with the creation of the offices of President and Prime Minister of the Country of Toys. Modern translations, such as those provided by the Telenot news agency, prefer to translate the country’s first name to “the Land of Toys” or even “Toyland”. This would not be completely correct, although it would be in line with the general meaning of the historical term “Țara” (coming from Latin, “terra” meaning “land”). The first Prime Minister of the country was Ursu Viselinschi, back then called Ursu Reformescu. He was replaced after 6 months, in March 2002, with the first and only human Prime Minister in Juclandia’s history, Elena Iliescu herself. In August 2002, she was replaced in turn with another ethnic Juclandian, Pisica Democrescu, and a custom was developed that the head of state and the head of the Cipimania Province (Elena Iliescu) should always be humans, while the other offices of state should be filled with ethnic Juclandians. Their relatively short terms as heads of government were due to the fact that initially, the President planned to have a rotating Prime Minister on a quasi-monthly basis, whereas the head of the Cipimania Province lobbied against such measure. In terms of policies, these first three governments mostly focused on building and strengthening basic state institutions and giving a general shape to the structure of the state.
The spark that created a micronation
Consolidation Era (2003-2005)
For the next two years, stability secured the existence of the Country of Toys, which was at one point renamed to the State of Toys, but official documents do not show how much this name lasted, nor do they show if this was the last name of the nation before the Socialist era. A political party was founded on the idea that it would be the only party and it'd represent all possible ideologies, and thus it ended having the name the Communist Christian-Democratic Liberal Ecologist Party. The party never ceased to exist, and its current incarnation is the Socialist Christian-Democratic Party, which is as of 2013 the biggest party in Juclandia by seats in the Great National Assembly and has always hold influence in Juclandia's politics. In the summer of 2003, the President traveled to France, only to discover more of the world. Losing interest in the position of president, he resigned and with the help of Elena Iliescu and his friends at the time, he got Bestia Reformescu, a plush animal, be elected the new President of the Country. The position of head of state became then a merely figurehead position, with the real power being held by Elena Iliescu, which was no longer Prime Minister but the Governor of Cipimania, and Ciprian, who assumed the title of General Medical Doctor of Toys. Gradually, as Elena Iliescu was getting older and older, and with Ciprian becoming more mature, he renounced those titles and returned as President of the Country of Toys in the summer of 2005. Elena Iliescu died on the 10th of September 2005, right exactly on the birthday of Ciprian. The death came as a shock to the whole family, despite the fact that Elena Iliescu was ill and already was 93 years old. The President, visibly depressed by the death, lost again interest in the Country of Toys, and at one point intended to donate all his plush animals to an orphanage. In the autumn of 2005, the Country of Toys was being in a huge political crisis, risking to be abandoned and disbanded. Ciprian decided to keep the plush animals and the Country of Toys, as a memory of Elena Iliescu, while his political ideas were going further to the left-wing spectrum. He started spreading left-wing ideas to his friends as well, and this finally resulted in a big political move in the Country of Toys.
Death of Elena Iliescu
Socialist Era (2005-2008)
Finding itself in a crisis of identity in the autumn of 2005, after the death of Elena Iliescu, and with the human citizens moving further to the left after propaganda by Ciprian of Juclandia, the Country of Toys had its first big political reform since foundation. In November 2005, with Elena Iliescu being no longer in the material world for about two months, the President decided to assemble all his friends in the house of Elena Iliescu (that was, after her death, kept in a good condition by her family) and together declared the formation of the Socialist Democratic State of Toys from the ashes of the Country of Toys. In December 2005, a move deemed strange by everyone commenced: the President nominated Pisica Democrescu, right-wing politician and founder of the Democratic Party (only founded in October 2005), as Prime Minister of Juclandia. 2006 was considered a very politically unstable year for the nation, as Elena Iliescu was no longer there to moderate the President's wish for continous change. The instability was marked by the existence of 3 Prime Ministers in only one year: something considered very controversial, as it never happened before during the life of Elena Iliescu.
In 2006, Gori Jucărescu arrived in the SDST. Gaining popularity on the political scene, he was named Prime Minister of Juclandia by President Ciprian of Juclandia. After two failed governments in less than 8 months, nobody expected the Government of Gori Jucărescu last more than 6 months. Nevertheless, when the work on a Constitution started in the summer of 2006, signs that the Jucărescu Cabinet would be a stable and strong one started to appear. At the same time, the government started making provisions for a more organised culture and economy, and made a plan for developing the agricultural output in Cipimania (after the death of Elena Iliescu in September 2005, the economy of Cipimania virtually crashed, and the agriculture got down with it). After the Constitution of 2006 passed in September, one year after the death of Iliescu, it was set to enter into force fully only on the 1st of January 2007, at the same time with Romania's accession to the European Union. The name of the country was modified, with the mention "Toys" being replaced with the name of Romania, thus formally the Socialist Democratic State of Romania. In October 2006, the Parliament set up by the Constitution assembled for the first time, and a new government was chosen, with Gori Jucărescu serving again as Prime Minister. This move made some claim that the government did indeed last less than 6 months, as it was thought by most of the people. The Gori II Cabinet lasted until April 2007 (which coincided with the suspension of the President of Romania) and brought out more reforms than any other Cabinet since the 2001 foundation: it has seen the SDST transition to SDSR, it has presided over the implementation of the first economic policy and the currency of the country, the Leu, it has successfully relaunched Cipimania's economy, it has started the path for the founding of certain educational and cultural institutions and it developed the transport infrastructure.
The first year of the country being surrounded by the European Union came with great economic prosperity that indirectly derived from Romania, who was at the time considered the Economic Tiger of the European East. 2007 was also the year the country started approaching more leftist policies, and the government tacitly claimed the Socialist Democratic State of Romania was the actual successor of the Socialist Republic of Romania. Although not as politically stable as it was before Elena Iliescu died, the country started to flourish economically and politically: with formalised laws and a Constitution, the democracy started to actually made itself felt. It was also the year Cipimania started to be rebuilt after almost two years of remaining in nothing more than a ruin. But this also started with conflicts over who would hold the leadership in Cipimania, things that made the region be separated in East and West. While the West remained under the control of the central government in Jucărești, the East became nothing more than a garden in Romania. The situation remained unchanged until the winter of 2009/2010, when a reconciliation was obtained and a reunified Cipimania was granted autonomous status within Juclandia.
2008 came out as one of the most successful years, if not the most successful, in the history of Juclandia. The economic output was the greatest to be ever known since the 2001 foundation, and the politics started to be stable again. A period of distancing from Romania and Romanian customs also started. In July 2008, the government of Jucărescu realised that the country never formally declared independence from Romania. Only one week later, an official press release announced that a ceremony of presenting a Declaration of Independence was planned for 23th August 2008. In the month preceding the ceremony, the government started planning a new face for the Socialist Democratic State of Romania. The reform started with a new name for the country: after almost two weeks of searching for a name, at an assembly of human citizens in Cipimania, Adela I. presented the idea of renaming the country to Jucia, coming from The land of toys. The idea seemed ridiculous to some, but another two citizens find it inspiring and thus a final conclusion was reached with a unanimous decision: the new name of the country was going to be Juclandia.
A shift to the left
What is particular to this period is the nature of the dominant ideology: while SSDR did proclaim itself a socialist state, this designation does not have a traditional Western meaning. The socialist tradition in Juclandia was more in line with the Eastern European understanding of paternalist politics: this involved an active role of the state in the formulation of economic policy, but it also involved conservative policies in the social sphere. For instance, Socialist Juclandia opposed abortion and LGBT rights and saw the family as the main unit of Juclandian society. This also helps explain why, even in the national sector, the citizens playing the most important role and undertaking the most powerful positions all belonged to just a few families, notably Jucărescu, Democrescu, Novac and Comuneanu.
A new name for the country: Juclandia
Republican Era (2008-2010)
On 23 August 2008, the Socialist Democratic State of Romania officially transitioned into the Socialist Republic of Juclandia. This was marked with protests of the opposition, which sought to remove any mention of socialism from the name and institutions of the new state. Nevertheless, the amended version of the Constitution yet again mentioned it, despite the Democratic Party members of the Assembly leaving in protest when the amendment was passed. The position of President was again vested into the person of Ciprian of Juclandia, also head of state under the SDSR and SDST. In September 2008, the President named Gori Jucărescu in the office of Vice President of the Republic, and thus Jucărescu had to resign from his office as Prime Minister, ending his two years old rule as head of government. Shortly after, the Great National Assembly given confidence to Leopold Jucărescu for the formation of the Cabinet, which nominally had a minority in the parliamentary assembly, but ruled with an agreement with the Liberal Democratic Party, on the basis that the Government would name Bursuc Novac as Governor of the National Bank of Juclandia. The government's main activity was that of assuring a successful transition from SDSR to Juclandia, which sorted out to be more harder to implement than planned. For the next months after the transition, the official seal of the State and much of the symbols and infrastructure were still using the name "Socialist Democratic State of Romania".
In March 2009, dissatisfied with the activity of the Leopold Cabinet, the Liberal Democratic Party withdrew its support for him and the government lost a confidence vote in the Great National Assembly. After days of negotiation, the President successfully managed to impose Bestia Reformescu as Prime Minister, with the support of the Socialist Christian-Democratic Party, the Liberal Democratic Party and the Ecologist Party. Reformescu's government started reforms shortly after receiving confidence from the Great National Assembly. A financial reform was started, along with a reform of the election system. The economic prosperity, though, was halted by the indirect implication of the economic problems in Romania and the drought that happened in the summer of 2009, which resulted in great economic losses for Cipimania. The Government focused instead on developing Jucărești, which went through a total modernisation stage that resulted in the construction of new buildings for the Government, the Great National Assembly and nevertheless for extensive blocks of apartments that assured a new immigration wave in Juclandia. The country's biggest shopping center, Unirea was also renovated starting January 2010 (and was re-opened in August that year). The government's activity in developing the infrastructure of the country assured Reformescu a high degree of popularity among the people, which resulted in two consecutive losses for the opposition in the Parliament: from 45% at the start of 2009 to 42.5% in August 2009 and 38% in February 2010. The spring of 2010 brought a new political crisis in Juclandia, started by a conflict between President Ciprian of Juclandia, the government of Juclandia and the authorities in Cipimania. Since 2006, the Eastern part of the province hasn't been under the de facto control of the authorities in Jucărești, but instead has been controlled by a separatist government with proclaimed independence and then autonomy under a Romanian rule. In the spring of 2010, part of Eastern Cipimania was put again under the control of Juclandia, with the other part building a fence at the border with the Juclandian-controlled area. This resulted in a crisis which only ended in 2011, when a comprehensive agreement was signed that gave Cipimania a large degree of autonomy from the government in Jucărești in return for the whole region coming back under Juclandian rule, both de jure and de facto. At the same time, a monarchic feeling was gaining influence in the Juclandian society. With the President already holding a title in pretense of King of the Juclandians, some political factions thought it'd be most appropiate to transform Juclandia into a monarchy. In May 2010 the Great National Assembly started discussing the proposed political reform, and in June the President resigned from his post, Gori Jucărescu taking over as Acting President from his position as Vice President. In July 2010 the Great National Assembly approved the constitutional amendment which transitioned Juclandia into a monarchy, and on 23 August 2010, exactly two years after the Declaration of Independence, Ciprian of Juclandia was coronated in Juclandia by the Patriarch as Ciprian, King of Juclandia.
Declaration of Independence
Proclamation of the monarchy
Mature Development Era (2010-2014)
The Mature Development Era is probably the richest era of Juclandia in terms of number and relevance of historical events. It is for this reason that in Juclandia, we prefer to divide this era in two sub-parts: the first one, the Transitional Period, is considered to have taken place from the proclamation of the Kingdom in August 2010 to the inauguration of the Bestia Reformescu cabinet in January 2011. A second sub-part is called the Presidency of Gori Jucărescu and Pisica Democrescu, which forms the rest of the Mature Development Era.
As the monarchy was finally put in place, the thing it needed the most was stability. As the original republican Constitution was preserved (the monarchy being established by a constitutional amendment rather than a brand new basic law), most of its provisions were also of republican inspiration and a lot of things related to the normal functioning of a monarchy (such as succession and the clear powers of the monarch) were ambiguous or not mentioned at all. As the Liberals, by tradition supporters of the republic, have retired from the government, Bestia Reformescu made a grand coalition with the Democratic Party, which was sworn in by the new monarch a day after the coronation, on 24 August 2010. To avoid conflicts, the National Workers' Bloc and the Democratic Party signed an agreement on basic principles of governing the country, which brought great stability in the next months and helped the government focus on other things apart from politics.
The grand coalition cabinet of Bestia Reformescu started reforms right after it was sworn into power in August 2010. The first reform was to introduce a new currency, the Juclandian leu. Despite being reformed to Juclandia in 2008, the country continued to use the old currency of the Socialist Democratic State. With the leu introduced, the cabinet was able to continue the economic reforms by founding several companies in the secondary and tertiary sector of the economy. An initial unitary wage of JŁ100 was given to all citizens of Juclandia, for the first time in history. As governmental spendings increased, the economy developed and the importance of the local currency grew at the expense of the Romanian leu. More services for the ethnic Juclandians were implemented, and as such, traditional Juclandian provinces such as Jucărești, Culinar and Paradissi experienced an economic boom.
In November 2010 the government adopted a foreign policy that ended, for the first time, the isolation of Juclandia on the international stage. Various letters of greetings have been sent to member states of the United Nations and the country has also started being represented in the micronational community, such as MicroWiki. In January 2011 the country has signed the first mutual recognition treaties with foreign nations and has joined the Organisation of Active Micronations as a full member. With a quite fast ascendancy on the intermicronational stage, the head of state of Juclandia became Vice Secretary-General of the Organisation of Active Micronations in March 2011.
But as Juclandia was developing her foreign affairs, Reformescu started the plans for a brand new Constitution, so as to eliminate the republican-inspired Constitution that was in place, which had a great level of ambiguity. However, the ideas for the Constitution within the coalition were conflicting and the Democrats have decided to withdraw from the government in February 2011. As a response, the King of Juclandia dissolved the Great National Assembly and called for snap elections, but at the same time suspended the Constitution. Until the election, Reformescu moved away the attention of the electorate from more important things by founding the Football Society of Juclandia through a governmental decree, while he officially served just as caretaker Prime Minister. After the election, in March 2011, the left-wing have decreased their share of the votes but managed to form a government on their own, with the support of the Liberals and the Christian Democrats. They successfully drafted a new Constitution in a relatively short time, and in April 2011 it was approved in a referendum.
The left-wing government sworn into office in March 2011 increased spending by 75% and yet again changed the shape of the capital Jucărești. From a city dominated by socialist messages and murals, advertisements and company signs filled the streets of the city, as well as the streets of the rest of Jucăreni. It was considered a sign of economic prosperity and of a healthy market. However, Reformescu's government never endorsed private initiative and tried to suppress it. Instead, it subsidised cooperatives and collectives. These economic actions have brought economic advancement, but it is not known whether this prosperity would have been greater or would have not existed at all whether private, instead of collective initiative, would have been promoted.
At the same time, the government reformed the administrative divisions of the country and granted some degree of devolution to its constituent region, with Cipimania (now divided into the provinces of Lenia and Grădinari) getting a very high level of devolution, which created a discrepancy between it and the rest of Juclandia, which developed differently. After 23 August 2011 the government started a law reform, and got the Great National Assembly, with the approval of the King, to cancel all previous legislation and start a new one from beginning. The first three laws passed by the legislative assembly and proposed by the government was the Statute of the Government of Juclandia, the Law on National Economy and the Statute of the Royal Army of Juclandia. The last law finally brought into existence armed forces for the nation. In December 2011, general elections were organised for the first time on the planned date and were not postponed. The election concluded with a defeat of the left-wing parties.
On 28 January 2012, almost a month after the fifth legislature of the Great National Assembly convened, for the first time in history, a government which had no left-wing parties in it was given confidence by the Assembly after it has been nominated by the King. The government, led by Iepurica Democrescu, has promised economic and social reforms focused on the individual, rather on the collective. However, a radical change couldn't be possible, as a large part of the reforms of the left-wing government were irreversible. The center-right government has however started its own foreign, social and economic policies, even if they remained under the influence of previous left-wing reforms. Democrescu focused on law and order and strengthened the Royal Army of Juclandia by adding a fourth division and raising the number of soldiers by 30%. Another important reform in the first months of her term was the foundation of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, which increased transparency and created a direct communication link between citizens and the government, at the same time increasing the online presence of the government. Democrescu continued with economic reforms and founded several state-owned enterprises (the most important being ELCAP S.A., the utilities company) and reformed Juktelecom and Teleradio Juclandia. After the economy was considered stable, Democrescu, with the endorsement of the Monarch, started a debate on a constitutional revision. Due to the ambiguity of the original 2011 constitution, it could be amended in every possible way, as there was no explicit article on what may not be changed in the Constitution. Thus, the government decided to change the Constitution by a revision rather than making a new one, and that way there was no need for a Constituent Assembly. The debate ended in July 2012 and the Constitution raised from 27 to 133 articles, which defined most things related to the general organisation of the state. Along with this, a territorial reform was made and Juclandia was divided for the first time in provinces, administrative divisions with a high level of devolution. Some have argued that the country was going on the path of federalisation, but Democrescu has denied this. Another important modification was the establishment of the High Court of Cassation and Justice, the first judicial body of Juclandia. Before it, the justice was entirely controlled by the monarch. The Great National Assembly was transformed into a bicameral legislative and local legislatures were also formally sanctioned by the Constitution.
The August election, for the presidency and the Council of State, is considered by public opinion to be the fairest election in history. Gori Jucărescu defeated Iepurica Democrescu and returned to the office of President for another one-year term. This way, the presidential/vice-presidential pair of Gori and Pisica got into its third term. Meanwhile, the government continued the road to reform and adopted several bills in the Assembly of Deputies, aimed at a better regulation of political parties, the creation of a freer market and the protection of the rule of law. The same year, overseas territories of Tianita, in June, and Sabia and Verona, in October, joined the Kingdom of Juclandia.
In 2013, Iepurica Democrescu's coalition lost the parliamentary election, and Teddy Populescu became Juclandia's first Communist Prime Minister, elected on a platform that vows the strengthening of Juclandia's cooperative system and the enhancement of the civil rights of the citizens.
Separation of Sabia and Verona
Co-operative Era (2014-2017)
The new party system
On 7 June 2015 the newly-formed political alliances made the final transition towards full-fledged political parties, which led to the dissolution of all the previous parties.
Constitution of 2015
End of Federal Juclandia
Revision of 2017: Pragma and Republic
Modern Juclandian Era (2017-present)
Royal Embassy of Juclandia
Statute of the Pragma