|This article refers to a micronation which is defunct and no longer exists. You can help make the article reflect that or ask on the talk page for further information.|
Neue Kronstadt (officially the Ashukov Federal Territory of the Free City of Neue Kronstadt and its Lands) is a micronation located in Europe. It claims a tiny piece of land in the proximity of the Romanian city of w:Brașov. It is a landlocked country. On the 14th of December, 2013, Neue Kronstadt (as the "Federal Republic of South-Eastern Carpathians") became a member state of the Ashukov Federation.
| 'Ashukov Federal Territory of the Free City of Neue Kronstadt and its Lands'
Ode to Joy
|Romania - Brasov county |
|Capital city||Neue Kronstadt|
|Official language(s)||English, Romanian, German|
|Government||Semi-presidential federal constitutional republic|
|- President||Sigmund Schmidt|
|- Federal Chancellor||(vacant)|
|Established||18th of February 2013|
|Currency||Ashukov denar (Ѥ)|
|Time zone||CET (CEST)|
|Neue Kronstadt is a state of Ashukovo|
The name of Neue Kronstadt is composed of two words:"neue" meaning "new",and "Kronstadt",the German name of the Romanian city of Brașov.
The oldest traces of human activity and settlements in Brașov date back to the Neolithic age (about 9500 BCE). Archaeologists working from the last half of the 19th century discovered continuous traces of human settlements in areas situated in Brașov: Valea Cetăţii, Pietrele lui Solomon, Șprenghi, Tâmpa, Dealul Melcilor, and Noua. The first three locations show traces of Dacian citadels; Șprenghi Hill housed a Roman-style construction. The last two locations had their names applied to Bronze Age cultures—Schneckenberg ‘Hill of the Snails’ (Early Bronze AgeTemplate:Sfn) and Noua 'The New’ (Late Bronze AgeTemplate:Sfn).
German colonists known as the Transylvanian Saxons played a decisive role in Brașov's development. These Germans were invited by King Géza II of Hungary to develop towns, build mines, and cultivate the land of Transylvania at different stages between 1141 and 1162. The settlers came primarily from the Rhineland, Flanders, and the Moselle region, with others from Thuringia, Bavaria, Wallonia, and even France.
In 1211, by order of King Andrew II of Hungary, the Teutonic Knights fortified the Burzenland to defend the border of the Kingdom of Hungary. On the site of the village of Brașov, the Teutonic Knights built Kronstadt – the city of the crown. Although the crusaders were evicted by 1225, the colonists they brought in remained, along with local population, as did three distinct settlements they founded on the site of Brașov:
- Corona, around the Black Church (Biserica Neagră);
- Martinsberg, west of Cetățuia Hill;
- Bartholomä, on the eastern side of Sprenghi Hill.
Germans living in Brașov were mainly involved in trade and crafts. The location of the city at the intersection of trade routes linking the Ottoman Empire and Western Europe], together with certain tax exemptions, allowed Saxon merchants to obtain considerable wealth and exert a strong political influence. They contributed a great deal to the architectural flavor of the city. Fortifications around the city were erected and continually expanded, with several towers maintained by different craftsmen's guilds, according to medieval custom. Part of the fortification ensemble was recently restored using UNESCO funds, and other projects are ongoing. At least two entrances to the city, Poarta Ecaterinei (or Katharinentor) and Poarta Șchei (or Waisenhausgässertor), are still in existence. The city center is marked by the mayor's former office building and the surrounding square (piaţa), which includes one of the oldest buildings in Brașov, the Hirscher Haus. Nearby is the "Black Church" (Biserica Neagră), which some claim to be the largest Gothic style church in Southeastern Europe. The cultural and religious importance of the Romanian church and school in Șchei is underlined by the generous donations received from more than thirty hospodars of Moldavia and Wallachia, as well as that from Elizabeth of Russia. In the 17th and 19th centuries, the Romanians in Șchei campaigned for national, political, and cultural rights, and were supported in their efforts by Romanians from all other provinces, as well as by the local Greek merchant community. In 1838 they established the first Romanian language newspaper Gazeta Transilvaniei and the first Romanian institutions of higher education (Școlile Centrale Greco-Ortodoxe - "The Greek-Orthodox Central Schools", today named after Andrei Șaguna). The Holy Roman Emperor and sovereign of Transylvania Joseph II awarded Romanians citizenship rights for a brief period during the latter decades of the 18th century.
In 1850 the town had 21,782 inhabitants: 8,874 (40.7%) Germans, 8,727 (40%) Romanians, 2,939 (13.4%) Hungarians. In 1910 the town had 41,056 inhabitants: 10,841 (26.4%) Germans, 11,786 (28.7%) Romanians, 17,831 (43.4%) Hungarians.  In World War I, the town was occupied by Romanian troops between 16 August and 4 October in 1916 during Battle of Transylvania.
In 1918, after the Union of Transylvania with Romania of Alba Iulia (adopted by the Deputies of the Romanians from Transylvania), Deputies of the Saxons from Transylavania supported it, with their vote to be part of Romania, and declared their allegiance to the new Romanian state. The inter-war period was a time of flourishing economic and cultural life in general, which included the Saxons in Brașov as well. However, at the end of World War II many ethnic Germans were forcibly deported to the Soviet Union, and many more emigrated to West Germany after Romania became a communist country.
Jews have lived in Brașov since 1807, when Aron Ben Jehuda was given permission to live in the city, a privilege until then granted only to Saxons. The Jewish community of Brașov was officially founded 19 years later, followed by the first Jewish school in 1864, and the building of the synagogue in 1901. The Jewish population of Brașov was 67 in 1850, but it expanded rapidly to 1,280 people in 1910 and 4,000 by 1940. Today the community has about 230 members, after many families left for Israel between World War II and 1989.
Like many other cities in Transylvania, Brașov is also home to a significant ethnic Hungarian minority.
During the communist period, industrial development was vastly accelerated. Under Nicolae Ceaușescu's rule, the city was the site of the 1987 Brașov strike. This was repressed by the authorities and resulted in numerous workers being imprisoned.
Early Neue Kronstadt
The early history of Neue Kronstadt began in August 2012, when its Governor(Sigmund Schmidt) created the "Republica Sociala Liberala Romania". It survived for a few weeks before it became inactive and dissolved. The leader of this nation wasn't involved in micronationalism again until February 2013. In February 2013,the head of state,Sigmund Schmidt attempted to create a micronation,the Federal Republic of South-Eastern Gallia,which finally emerged into the Federal Republic of South-Eastern Carpathians,which will eventually emerge into Neue Kronstadt. During its early days, it used the flag of the European Union as its national flag.
Formation of Carpathia
On 18 February 2013, the Federal Republic of South-Eastern Carpathians first established,being not known by the intermicronational community for a short-time before becoming a Kingdom.
On 12 May 2013, the Federal Republic of South-Eastern Carpathians changed its government, and Sigmund Schmidt (the founder and at the time President) became the King. Since late May, FKSEC became more known in the larger intermicronational community. It founded the Balkan Confederation, an organization for Balkan micronations based on the European Union.
New Austria was formed on 2 July 2013 after a coup d'etat in the Kingdom. It promoted the Germanic culture and people however (but) it also protected the other European minorities. It was ruled by the Kaiser and it was a constitutional monarchy, with the official name of the "Empire of New Austria". It eventually disestablished on 12 July 2013 when the Federal Kingdom of South-Eastern Carpathians was re-established through a second coup d'etat.
The Second Kingdom
On 12 July 2013, the FKSEC re-established with the same official name as before. Though it is known as the "Second Federal Kingdom of South-Eastern Carpathians" to avoid confusion between the pre-New Austrian FKSEC and the post-New Austrian FKSEC. It adopted a policy of neutrality and a friendly foreign policy, being open to diplomacy. The Government of the FKSEC has created a government program,with the name of Reform,the results of it being criminalizing racism,anti-semitism,anti-immigration,fascism,Nazism and propagating those activities,also criminalizing corruption although it also adopted a freedom of movement policy and a visa reciprocity policy.
It occured on 6 October 2013,at 03:37 (Carpathians state summer hour)/04:37 (Prut state summer hour) and it had a magnitude of 5.5 (5.3,according to some measurings),on the Richter scale. It is known as the first earthquake which was felt in the FKSEC,since its foundation on the 18th of February 2013. No deaths,injuries or damages are known. On the 14th of December 2013,Carpathia finally acceded the Ashukov Federation.
Government and politics
The Federal Republic of South-Eastern Carpathians is a semi-presidential federal republic,with a Federal President and a Federal Chancellor. They hold the central role in the Parliament of the FKSEC and they share the same executive power. Carpathia is a federal state, the executive power of the state comes from the central government. The president is elected for a 7-year term, and the Federal Chancellor can be appointed by the President or elected by popular vote. The Chancellor can be impeached following a referendum.
The Federal Republic of South-Eastern Carpathians is a semi-presidential federal republic, its Head of State is the President and its Head of Government is the Federal Chancellor. They share the same executive power and they act as the legislative power until elections will be held.
The current parties of the Federal Republic of South-Eastern Carpathians are the SDP, AER(Carpathia), the Orthodox Party of Carpathia and the other politicians of this state being independent. Any citizen of Carpathia can establish a party. In the FRSEC, parties with violent names and which had violent acts in their history are forbidden by law.
|Party Name||Logo||Short name||Leader||Position||Colours|
|Social Democratic Party||Social Democratic||Sigmund Schmidt||center-left||dark blue|
|AER(Carpathia)||AER||Emiel Hardy||center-center right||black, white|
|Orthodox Party||Orthodoxies||Hasan Çakar||center-left||blue, white|
The FRSEC shares a border with Romania,although it also shares a border with Moldova (Republic of Moldova;in the Prut state). The FRSEC's border with Romania is completely open. The FRSEC's fluvial border with Moldova cannot be crossed directly,crossing through Romanian territory being required.
The visa policy of the FRSEC is fully harmonized with the Schengen rules,since the 19th of December 2013.
The effective territory of the FRSEC is,in theory,guarded by the Defence Forces of the FRSEC,which only has defensive purposes,according to the Neutrality Treaty of the FRSEC,although,the claimed territory of the FRSEC is defended by the Romanian Military and by NATO forces,as it is not under the control of the Federal Government of the FRSEC.
The FRSEC is located in a mountainous area of Romania, but the Prut state is located in the meadow of the Prut river, with low elevation. The elevation of the FRSEC varies between 18 meters above sea level to over 1800 meters above sea level. It has a large diversity of flora and fauna (especially in the mountains).
The Federal Republic of South-Eastern Carpathians has a capitalist,market economy,based on the Western European principles of the w:Social market economy.
The FRSEC uses the Ashukov Denar, but the Romanian leu and the Euro are also freely accepted throughout the territory.
|Date (Gregorian calendar)||English name||Romanian name|
|1 January||New Year||Anul Nou|
|24 January||The Romanian Union of 1859||Unirea Principatelor Române de la 1859|
|18 February||Proclamation Day||Ziua Proclamării|
|April/May||Orthodox Easter||Paștele ortodox|
|1 May||Labor day||Ziua muncii|
|9 May||Europe day||Ziua Europei|
|12 May||Royalty day||Ziua Regalității|
|4 July||Confederation Day||Ziua Confederației|
|28 August||Micronational Day Against Discrimination||Ziua Micronațională împotriva discriminării|
|3 October||German Unity Day||Ziua Reunificării Germaniei|
|9 November||Fall of the Berlin Wall||Căderea Zidului Berlinului|
|22 December||Communism overthrow day||Ziua înlăturării comunismului din România|
|31 December||New Year's Eve||Ajunul Anului nou|
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The FRSEC is transited by 3 European roads:E60,E68 and E574,the most important road being E60. National roads of Romania which cross the FRSEC are DN1,DN11,DN13,DN13,DN73,DN73A,DN1A. The railways of the FRSEC are administered (in theory),by Carpatischer Bundesbahn,but are administered,de facto,by CFR (Căile Ferate Române),being one of the most important places for the Romanian and European transport,because it is also transited by the 4th Pan-European railway corridor and it's passed,everyday,by a large number of passenger and freight trains heading for various places in the EU and outside the EU. In the FRSEC,private operators as Regiotrans or Grup Feroviar Român operate alongside the national Romanian railway operator,since the liberalization of the railway transport of Romania. During the winter,the Federal Kingdom of South-Eastern Carpathians is passed by the renowned Trenurile zăpezii (Trains of the snow),heading for resorts in and out the FRSEC. Numerous international trains pass the FKSEC,as well,operated,especially by Căile Ferate Române,MAV (the Hungarian national railway operator) and OBB (the Austrian federal railway operator),towards destinations as Vienna and Budapest. The Brasov Airport is under construction,as of 18 August 2013,and is expected to be finished in 2015.
|Slin, Empyre (Empire) of||Informal friendship|
|25px Hasanistan, Republic of||Informal friendship|
|Mahuset, Eniak Kingdom of||Formerly alliance||The status of the diplomatic alliance between the two micronations is unknown as Mahuset ended relations with FKSEC.|
|Al-Ubudiyya, Sultanate of||Informal frienship|
|Porto Viva, Republic of||Informal friendship||Both nations are part of the Balkan Confederation.|
|Eleftheria, Kingdom of||Informal friendship||Both nations are part of the Balkan Confederation.|
|Państwo Braterskie, Imperial Republic of||Informal friendship||Both nations are part of the Balkan Confederation.|
|Tibet, Central Administration of||N/A||FKSEC's government has contacted the Tibetan Central Administration.|
|Democratic Republic of Leylandiistan now Leylandiistan & Gurvata||Treaty of Friendship||Both nations were in frequent contact with each other. The Confederation of Leylandiistan & Gurvata suspended the Treaty of Friendship with the FRSEC in September 2014, citing the FRSEC's new status as a Federal Territory as making it an unsuitable diplomatic partner for the Confederation.|
References and External Links
- Mediaeval studies, Volumes 17-18, Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1955, Toronto, Canada, An annual journal of scholarship, History, ISSN 0076–5872
- Erdély etnikai és felekezeti statisztikája