Difference between revisions of "Ikonian Overseas Territories"

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(Created page with "{{redirect|BOTs||Bots (disambiguation)}} {{EngvarB|date=February 2019}} {{Use dmy dates|date=December 2015}} {{Infobox country | conventional_long_name = British Overseas Terr...")
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{{redirect|BOTs||Bots (disambiguation)}}
{{EngvarB|date=February 2019}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2015}}
{{Infobox country
{{Infobox country
| conventional_long_name = British Overseas Territories
| conventional_long_name = Ikonian Overseas Territories
|image_flag = Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
|image_flag = Flag of Ikonia (Pantone).svg
|flag_caption = [[Flag of the United Kingdom]]
|flag_caption = [[Flag of the Kingdom of Ikonia]]
|image_map = United Kingdom (+overseas territories) in the World (+Antarctica claims).svg
|image_map = ph.png
|map_caption = Location of the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories
|map_caption =  
|largest_settlement = [[George Town, Cayman Islands|George Town]], [[Gibraltar]], [[Road Town]]
|largest_settlement = Duclos
|largest_settlement_type = settlements
|largest_settlement_type = settlements
|languages = [[English language|English]]
|languages = [[English language|English]]
|languages_type = Official language
|languages_type = Official language
|leader_title1 = [[Monarchy of the United Kingdom|Monarch]]
|leader_title1 = [[Ikonian Monarchy|Monarch]]
|leader_name1 = [[Elizabeth II]]
|leader_name1 = [[Cameron I]]
|leader_title2 = {{nowrap|[[Foreign Secretary]]}}
|leader_title2 = {{nowrap|[[Foreign Secretary]]}}
|leader_name2 = [[Jeremy Hunt]]
|leader_name2 = [[Aidan Mcgrath]]
|leader_title3 = Minister of State
|leader_title3 = Minister of State
|leader_name3 = [[Tariq Ahmad, Baron Ahmad of Wimbledon|Tariq Ahmad]]
|leader_name3 = [[Luis Sanchez]]
|leader_title4 = Minister of State
|demonym = Ikonian, Ikonian Islander
|leader_name4 = [[Alan Duncan]]
|demonym = British, Briton
|membership_type = Territories
|membership_type = Territories
|membership =
|membership =
  {{collapsible list
  {{collapsible list
   |titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
   |titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
   |title = [[#Current overseas territories|14 territories]]
   |title = [[#Current overseas territories|1 territory]]
   |[[Akrotiri and Dhekelia]]|[[Anguilla]]|[[Bermuda]]|[[British Antarctic Territory]]|[[British Indian Ocean Territory]]|[[British Virgin Islands]]|[[Cayman Islands]]|[[Falkland Islands]]|[[Gibraltar]]|[[Montserrat]]|[[Pitcairn Islands]]|[[Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha]]|[[South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands]]|[[Turks and Caicos Islands]]}}
   |[[Baker Island]]}}
|population_estimate = 270,000
|population_estimate = 0
|population_estimate_year = 2018
|population_estimate_year = 2019
|area_km2 = 1727570
|area_km2 =  
|date_format = dd/mm/yyyy ([[Anno Domini|AD]])
|date_format = dd/mm/yyyy ([[Anno Domini|AD]])
The '''British Overseas Territories''' ('''BOTs''') or '''United Kingdom Overseas Territories''' ('''UKOTs''') are 14 [[Dependent territory|territories]] under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the [[United Kingdom]].<ref name=fco>{{cite web|title=Supporting the Overseas Territories|url=https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/protecting-and-developing-the-overseas-territories|publisher=UK Government|accessdate=8 November 2014|quote=There are 14 Overseas Territories which retain a constitutional link with the UK. .... Most of the Territories are largely self-governing, each with its own constitution and its own government, which enacts local laws. Although the relationship is rooted in four centuries of shared history, the UK government's relationship with its Territories today is a modern one, based on mutual benefits and responsibilities. The foundations of this relationship are partnership, shared values and the right of the people of each territory to choose to freely choose whether to remain a British Overseas Territory or to seek an alternative future.}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=What is the British Constitution: The Primary Structures of the British State|url=http://www.consoc.org.uk/other-content/about-us/discover-the-facts/what-is-the-british-constitution/in-detail/|publisher=The Constitution Society|accessdate=15 November 2014|quote=The United Kingdom also manages a number of territories which, while mostly having their own forms of government, have the Queen as their head of state, and rely on the UK for defence and security, foreign affairs and representation at the international level. They do not form part of the UK, but have an ambiguous constitutional relationship with the UK.|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141006173801/http://www.consoc.org.uk/other-content/about-us/discover-the-facts/what-is-the-british-constitution/in-detail/|archivedate=6 October 2014|df=dmy-all}}</ref> They are remnants of the [[British Empire]] that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories. These territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of [[Gibraltar]], are not part of the [[European Union]]. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and [[foreign relations]]. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. They all share the [[Monarchy of the United Kingdom|British monarch]] ([[Elizabeth II]]) as [[head of state]].
The '''Ikonian Overseas Territories''' ('''IKOTs''') or '''Ikonian Kingdoms Overseas Territories''' ('''IKKOTs''') are 1 [[Dependent territory|territories]] under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the [[Kingdom of Ikonia]]. There are 1 Overseas Territories which retain a constitutional link with the UK. .... Most of the Territories are largely self-governing
{{As of|April 2018}} the Minister responsible for the Territories excluding the [[Falkland Islands]], [[Gibraltar]] and the [[Sovereign Base Areas]] on [[Cyprus]], is the [[Foreign and Commonwealth Office#Ministers|Minister of State for the Commonwealth and the UN]]. The other three territories are the responsibility of the [[Minister of State for Europe|Minister of State for Europe and the Americas]].<ref>{{cite press release |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |title=New ministerial appointments at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office |url=https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-ministerial-appointments-at-the-foreign-and-commonwealth-office |publisher=[[Foreign and Commonwealth Office]] |date=19 July 2016 |access-date=20 September 2016}}</ref>
== Current overseas territories ==
== Current overseas territories ==
The fourteen British Overseas Territories are:<ref name="collections.europarchive.org">{{cite web |url=http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front%3fpagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1013618138295 |title=Overseas Territories |publisher=UK Overseas Territories Foreign & Commonwealth Office |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/68e5D4Buo?url=http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080205132101/www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket%2FXcelerate%2FShowPage&c=Page&cid=1013618138295 |archivedate=23 June 2012 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
The one Ikonian Overseas Territories are:
{| class="wikitable sortable"
{| class="wikitable sortable"
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| [[Akrotiri and Dhekelia]]
| [[Akrotiri and Dhekelia]]
| [[Geography of Cyprus|Cyprus]], [[Mediterranean Sea]]
| [[Geography of Cyprus|Cyprus]], [[Mediterranean Sea]]
| {{sort|0000255|{{convert|255|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4413 |title=SBA Cyprus |publisher=Jncc.gov.uk |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|07700|7,700}} <small>(Cypriots; estimate)</small><br>8,000 non-permanent <small>(UK military personnel and their families; estimate)</small>
| [[Episkopi Cantonment]]
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of Anguilla.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of Arms of Anguilla.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[Anguilla]]
| [[Caribbean]], North [[Atlantic Ocean]]
| "Strength and Endurance"
| {{sort|0000091|{{convert|91|km2|sqmi|1|abbr=on}}}}<ref name="jncc.gov.uk">{{cite web|url=http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4387 |title=British Antarctic Territory |publisher=Jncc.gov.uk |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|13500|13,500}} <small>(2006 estimate)</small><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140417/anguilla/ |title=Commonwealth Secretariat&nbsp;– Anguilla |publisher=Thecommonwealth.org |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101217044212/http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140417/anguilla/ |archivedate=17 December 2010 |df= }}</ref>
| [[The Valley, Anguilla|The Valley]]
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of Bermuda.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of Bermuda.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[Bermuda]]
| North Atlantic Ocean between the [[Azores]], the [[Caribbean]], [[Cape Sable Island]] and [[Canada]]
| "Quo fata ferunt" ([[Latin]]; "Whither the Fates carry [us]")
| {{sort|0000054|{{convert|54|km2|sqmi|1|abbr=on}}}}<ref name="data.un.org">{{cite web|url=http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=POP&f=tableCode%3A19 |title=UNdata &#124; record view &#124; Surface area in km2 |publisher=United Nations |date=4 November 2009 |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|71176|71,176}} <small>(2018 estimate)</small><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bd.html |title=North America :: Bermuda |publisher=CIA World Factbook |accessdate=9 April 2018}}</ref>
| [[Hamilton, Bermuda|Hamilton]]
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of the British Antarctic Territory.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of the British Antarctic Territory.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[British Antarctic Territory]]
| [[Antarctica]]
| "Research and discovery"
| {{sort|37645|{{convert|1709400|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}}}<ref name="jncc.gov.uk"/>
| {{sort|00000|0}}<br>50 non-permanent in winter, over 400 in summer <small>(research personnel)</small><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140419/british_antarctic_territory/ |title=Commonwealth Secretariat&nbsp;– British Antarctic Territory |publisher=Thecommonwealth.org |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110605042923/http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140419/british_antarctic_territory/ |archivedate=5 June 2011 |df=dmy }}</ref>
| [[Rothera Research Station|Rothera]] (main base)
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[British Indian Ocean Territory]]
| [[Indian Ocean]]
| "In tutela nostra Limuria" ([[Latin]]; "[[Limuria]] is in our charge")
| {{sort|0000046|{{convert|60|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4399 |title=British Indian Ocean Territory |publisher=Jncc.gov.uk |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|00000|0}}<br>3,000 non-permanent <small>(UK and US military and staff personnel; estimate)</small><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140420/british_indian_ocean_territory/ |title=Commonwealth Secretariat&nbsp;– British Indian Ocean Territory |publisher=Thecommonwealth.org |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110605042938/http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140420/british_indian_ocean_territory/ |archivedate=5 June 2011 |df=dmy }}</ref>
| [[Diego Garcia]] (base)
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of the British Virgin Islands.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[British Virgin Islands]]
| [[Caribbean]], North Atlantic Ocean
| "Vigilate" ([[Latin]]; "Be watchful")
| {{sort|0000153|{{convert|153|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}}}<ref name="http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4395">{{cite web|url=http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4395 |title=British Virgin Islands (BVI) |publisher=Jncc.gov.uk |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|27000|27,000}} <small>(2005 estimate)</small><ref name="http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4395"/>
| [[Road Town]]
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg|80px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of the Cayman Islands.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[Cayman Islands]]
| [[Caribbean]]
| "He hath founded it upon the seas"
| {{sort|0000264|{{convert|264|km2|sqmi|1|abbr=on}}}}<ref name="CIA">{{cite web|url=https://www.eso.ky/UserFiles/page_docums/files/uploads/the_cayman_islands_labour_force_survey_r-5.pdf|title=Economics and Statistics Office - Labour Force Survey Report Spring 2018|last=|first=|date=August 2018|website=www.eso.ky|publisher=[[Government of the Cayman Islands|Cayman Islands Economics and Statistics Office]]|accessdate=26 November 2018}}</ref>
| {{sort|64420|64,420}} <small>(2018 census)</small><ref name="CIA"/>
| [[George Town, Cayman Islands|George Town]]
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of the Falkland Islands.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[Falkland Islands]]
| {{sort|South Atlantic Ocean A|South Atlantic Ocean}}
| "Desire the right"
| {{sort|0012173|{{convert|12173|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}}}<ref name="data.un.org"/>
| {{sort|02955|2,955}} <small>(2006 census)</small><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140425/falkland_islands/ |title=Commonwealth Secretariat&nbsp;– Falkland Islands |publisher=Thecommonwealth.org |date=14 June 1982 |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110513201237/http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140425/falkland_islands/ |archivedate=13 May 2011 |df= }}</ref><br>1,350 non-permanent <small>(UK military personnel; 2012 estimate)</small>
| [[Stanley, Falkland Islands|Stanley]]
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of Gibraltar.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of Gibraltar1.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[Gibraltar]]
| [[Iberian Peninsula]], [[Continental Europe]]
| "Nulli expugnabilis hosti" ([[Latin]]; "No enemy shall expel us")
| {{sort|0000006.5|{{convert|6.5|km2|sqmi|1|abbr=on}}}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4400 |title=Gibraltar |publisher=Jncc.gov.uk |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|28800|28,800}} <small>(2005 estimate)</small><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140426/gibraltar/ |title=Commonwealth Secretariat&nbsp;– Gibraltar |publisher=Thecommonwealth.org |date=7 November 2002 |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/5o1nHWBjv?url=http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140426/gibraltar/ |archivedate=6 March 2010 |df= }}</ref><br>1,250 non-permanent <small>(UK military personnel; 2012 estimate)</small>
| [[Gibraltar]]
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of Montserrat.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of Montserrat.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[Montserrat]]
| Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean
| "A people of excellence, moulded by nature, nurtured by God"
| {{sort|0000101|{{convert|101|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}}}<ref name="http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4397">{{cite web|url=http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4397 |title=Montserrat |publisher=Jncc.gov.uk |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|04655|4,655}} <small>(2006 estimate)</small><ref name="http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4397"/>
| [[Plymouth, Montserrat|Plymouth]] (abandoned due to [[Soufrière Hills|volcano]]—de facto capital is [[Brades]])
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[Pitcairn Islands|Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands]]
| Pacific Ocean
| {{sort|0000045|{{convert|47|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4405 |title=Pitcairn Island |publisher=Jncc.gov.uk |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|00049|49}} <small>(2014 estimate)</small><ref>Rob Solomon and Kirsty Burnett (January 2014) [http://www.government.pn/Pitcairn%20Islands%20Economic%20Report%20-%20Final%20Report.pdf Pitcairn Island Economic Review]. government.pn. Retrieved 7 September 2016.</ref><br>6 non-permanent <small>(2014 estimate)</small><ref>[http://library.puc.edu/pitcairn/pitcairn/population.shtml "Pitcairn Residents"]. ''puc.edu''. Retrieved 7 September 2016.</ref>
| [[Adamstown, Pitcairn Islands|Adamstown]]
|- valign="top"
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | [[File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" |
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha A|[[Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha]],<br>including:}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|South Atlantic Ocean B|South Atlantic Ocean}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" |
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|0000420|{{convert|420|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|05530|5,530}} <small>(total; estimate)</small>
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | [[Jamestown, Saint Helena|Jamestown]]
|- valign="top"
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | [[File:Flag of Saint Helena.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | [[File:Coat of arms of Saint Helena.svg|center|x40px]]
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha B|[[Saint Helena]]}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|South Atlantic Ocean C|}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | "Loyal and Unshakeable" <small>(Saint Helena)</small>
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|0000419.9<!--NOTE: Included for sorting purposes, so that the sub-territory is listed under the main territory (having a hidden value of 0.1 less)-->|}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|05529.9<!--NOTE: Included for sorting purposes, so that the sub-territory is listed under the main territory (having a hidden value of 0.1 less)-->|4,255}} <small>(Saint Helena; 2008 census)</small><ref>{{cite web|url=http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/2010_PHC/Saint_Helena/Saint_Helena.pdf |title=UN Statistics&nbsp;– St Helena census 2008 |publisher=United Nations |accessdate=4 January 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140629183023/http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/2010_PHC/Saint_Helena/Saint_Helena.pdf |archivedate=29 June 2014 |df=dmy }}</ref>
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" |
|- valign="top"
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | [[File:Flag of Ascension Island.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | [[File:Coat of Arms of Ascension Island.svg|center|x40px]]
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha B|[[Ascension Island]]}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|South Atlantic Ocean C|}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" |
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|0000419.9<!--NOTE: Included for sorting purposes, so that the sub-territory is listed under the main territory (having a hidden value of 0.1 less)-->|}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|05529.9<!--NOTE: Included for sorting purposes, so that the sub-territory is listed under the main territory (having a hidden value of 0.1 less)-->|880}} <small>(Ascension; estimate)</small><ref name=BBCStHelena>{{cite news|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14123532 |title=St Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha profiles |publisher=BBC |date=16 March 2016 |accessdate=25 June 2016}}</ref><br>1,000 non-permanent <small>(Ascension; UK military personnel; estimate)</small><ref name=BBCStHelena/>
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" |
|- valign="top"
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | [[File:Flag of Tristan da Cunha.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | [[File:Coat of arms of Tristan da Cunha.svg|center|x40px]]
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha B|[[Tristan da Cunha]]}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|South Atlantic Ocean C|}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | "Our faith is our strength" <small>(Tristan da Cunha)</small>
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|0000419.9<!--NOTE: Included for sorting purposes, so that the sub-territory is listed under the main territory (having a hidden value of 0.1 less)-->|}}
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" | {{sort|05529.9<!--NOTE: Included for sorting purposes, so that the sub-territory is listed under the main territory (having a hidden value of 0.1 less)-->|300}} <small>(Tristan da Cunha; estimate)</small><ref name=BBCStHelena/><br>9 non-permanent <small>(Tristan da Cunha; weather personnel)</small>
| style="border-bottom:0px;border-top:0px" |
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands]]
| {{sort|South Atlantic Ocean D|South Atlantic Ocean}}
| "Leo terram propriam protegat" ([[Latin]]; "Let the lion protect his own land")
| {{sort|0004066|{{convert|4066|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}}}<ref>[http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact92/wf930224.txt Vital Statistics – SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS]. 22 January 1993. CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 1992 via the Libraries of the Univ. of Missouri-St. Louis.</ref>
| {{sort|00000|0}}<br>99 non-permanent <small>(officials and research personnel)</small><ref>{{cite web |url=http://population.mongabay.com/population/south-georgia-and-the-south-sandwich-islands/3426466/grytviken |title=Population of Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands |publisher=Population.mongabay.com |date=31 March 2009 |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110717220158/http://population.mongabay.com/population/south-georgia-and-the-south-sandwich-islands/3426466/grytviken |archivedate=17 July 2011 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
| [[King Edward Point]]
|- valign="top"
| [[File:Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg|border|center|x40px]]
| [[File:Coat of arms of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg|center|x40px]]
| [[Turks and Caicos Islands]]
| [[Lucayan Archipelago]], North Atlantic Ocean
| {{sort|0000430|{{convert|430|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}}}<ref name="http://www.starluxuey.com.en/websitepage-4398">{{cite web|url=http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4398 |title=Turks and Caicos Islands |publisher=Jncc.gov.uk |date=1 November 2009 |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
| {{sort|53701|53,701}} <small>(2018 estimate)<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tk.html |title=North America :: Turks and Caicos |publisher=CIA World Factbook |accessdate=9 April 2018}}</ref>
| [[Cockburn Town]]
Line 214: Line 59:
[[File:British Overseas.png|thumb|center|upright=3.4|
{{legend|#FF5050|British Overseas Territories}}
{{legend|#66FF66|United Kingdom}}
{{legend|#3399FF|[[Crown dependencies]]}}]]
==Collective titles==
[[File:Flag of the British Overseas Territories (unofficial).svg|thumb|right|Unofficial flag for the overseas territories used by ''Friends of the British Overseas Territories'', a charitable organisation.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://sites.google.com/fotbot.org/home/home|title=Fotbot.org|website=sites.google.com}}</ref>]]
{{Politics of the United Kingdom}}
The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the [[British Overseas Territories Act 2002]], replacing the term ''British Dependent Territory'', introduced by the [[British Nationality Act 1981]]. Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were officially referred to as ''[[Crown colony|British Crown Colonies]]''.
Although the [[Crown dependencies]] of [[Jersey]], [[Guernsey]], and the [[Isle of Man]] are also under the [[sovereignty]] of the British monarch, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gov.gg/ccm/navigation/about-guernsey/ |title=States of Guernsey: About Guernsey |publisher=Gov.gg |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101012142623/http://www2.gov.gg/ccm/navigation/about-guernsey/ |archivedate=12 October 2010 |df= }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gov.im/government/ |title=Government&nbsp;– Isle of Man Public Services |publisher=Gov.im |accessdate=8 December 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101218103416/http://gov.im/Government/ |archivedate=18 December 2010 |df= }}</ref> The British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the [[Commonwealth realm]]s, a group of 16 independent countries (including the United Kingdom) each having Elizabeth II as their reigning monarch, and from the [[Commonwealth of Nations]], a voluntary association of 53 countries mostly with historic links to the British Empire (which also includes all Commonwealth realms).
With the exceptions of the [[British Antarctic Territory]] and [[South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands]] (which host only officials and research station staff) and the [[British Indian Ocean Territory]] (used as a military base), the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. Permanent residency for the approximately 7,000 civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of [[Akrotiri and Dhekelia]] is limited to citizens of the Republic of [[Cyprus]].
Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people and a land area of about {{convert|1727570|km2|sqmi}}. The vast majority of this land area, {{convert|1700000|km2|sqmi}}, constitutes the almost uninhabited British Antarctic Territory, while the largest territory by population, Bermuda, accounts for almost a quarter of the total BOT population. At the other end of the scale, three territories have no civilian population; the Antarctic territory, the British Indian Ocean Territory (from which the Chagos Islanders were [[Expulsion_of_the_Chagossians|controversially removed]]) and South Georgia. [[Pitcairn Islands]], settled by the survivors of the [[Mutiny on the Bounty]], is the smallest settled territory with 49 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula.<ref>[http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091001004119/http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/|date=1 October 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.faqs.org/docs/factbook/print/sx.html |title=CIA&nbsp;– The World Factbook 2002 – South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands |publisher=Faqs.org |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref> The United Kingdom participates in the [[Antarctic Treaty System]]<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ay.html |title=CIA – The World Factbook |publisher=Cia.gov |date= |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref> and, as part of a mutual agreement, the British Antarctic Territory is recognised by four of the six other [[Territorial claims in Antarctica|sovereign nations making claims to Antarctic territory]].
== History ==
{{Main|British Empire|Territorial evolution of the British Empire|List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom}}
[[File:Bermuda-Harbour and Town of St George.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|[[St. George's, Bermuda|St. George's]] town, in the Islands of Bermuda, or "The Somers Isles". The colony was founded by the wrecking of the flagship of the [[London Company|Virginia Company]] in 1609. The Company's charter was extended to include Bermuda in 1612, and it has remained a British colony ever since. Since the rebellion of [[Virginia]], it has been the oldest-remaining British colony, and the town of St. George's is the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World.<ref name=Smithsonian>{{cite web|title=Bermuda – History and Heritage |date=6 November 2007 |publisher=Smithsonian.com |url=http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/destination-hunter/bermuda-history-heritage.html |accessdate=3 December 2008 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://archive.today/20120524174308/http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/destination-hunter/bermuda-history-heritage.html |archivedate=24 May 2012 |df= }}</ref>]]
Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were generally known as "[[Plantation (settlement or colony)|Plantations]]".
The first, unofficial, colony was [[Newfoundland (island)|Newfoundland]], where English fishermen routinely set up seasonal camps in the 16th century.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/nfldhistory/NewfoundlandHistory-EarlyColonizationandSettlementofNewfoundland.htm |title=Newfoundland History&nbsp;– Early Colonization and Settlement of Newfoundland |publisher=Faculty.marianopolis.edu |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref> It is now a province of Canada known as Newfoundland and Labrador. It retains strong cultural ties with Britain.
English colonisation of North America began officially in 1607 with the settlement of [[Jamestown, Virginia|Jamestown]], the first successful permanent colony in [[Colony and Dominion of Virginia|Virginia]] (a term that was then applied generally to North America). Its offshoot, Bermuda, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the [[Virginia Company]]'s charter extended to officially include the archipelago in 1612. [[St. George's, Bermuda|St. George's]] town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World (with some historians stating that – its formation predating the 1619 conversion of "James Fort" into "Jamestown" – St. George's was actually the first successful town the English established in the [[New World]]). Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but generally underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires. These include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, and the projection of naval power via the colony's [[privateer]]s, among other areas.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://uncpress.unc.edu/books/T-7164.html|title=UNC Press - In the Eye of All Trade|author=Copyright 2015 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill|publisher=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.essaysinhistory.com/review/2011/33|title=In the Eye of All Trade: Bermuda, Bermudians, and the Maritime Atlantic World, 1680-1783|publisher=|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120109220606/http://www.essaysinhistory.com/review/2011/33|archivedate=9 January 2012|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
The growth of the [[British Empire]] in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire nearly one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa. From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the larger settler colonies&nbsp;– in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa&nbsp;– first became [[Self-governing colony|self-governing colonies]] and then achieved independence in all matters except foreign policy, defence and trade. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada (in 1867), Australia (in 1901), South Africa (in 1910), and Rhodesia (in 1965). These and other large self-governing colonies had become known as [[Dominion]]s by the 1920s. The Dominions achieved almost full independence with the [[Statute of Westminster 1931|Statute of Westminster (1931)]].[[File:United Kingdom in its region (North America special).svg|thumb|right|Many of the overseas territories are in the Caribbean, as shown on the map.]]Through a process of [[British Empire#Decolonisation and decline (1945–1997)|decolonisation]] following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean gained independence. Some colonies became [[Commonwealth realm]]s, retaining the British monarch as their own [[head of state]].<ref>[http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Geo5/22-23/4/introduction Statute of Westminster 1931] (UK) CHAPTER 4 22 and 23 Geo 5</ref> Most former colonies and protectorates became [[member states of the Commonwealth of Nations]], a non-political, [[voluntary association]] of equal members, comprising a population of around 2.2&nbsp;billion people.<ref>[http://thecommonwealth.org/about-us The Commonwealth – About Us]; Online September 2014</ref>
After the independence of [[Southern Rhodesia]] (now [[Zimbabwe]]) in Africa in 1980 and [[British Honduras]] (now [[Belize]]) in Central America in 1981, the last major colony that remained was [[Hong Kong]], with a population of over 5 million.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hkstat/sub/so20.jsp |title=Population |date= |website=Census and Statistics Department |publisher=Hong Kong Statistics |accessdate=12 July 2013}}</ref> With 1997 approaching, the United Kingdom and China negotiated the [[Sino-British Joint Declaration]], which led to the whole of Hong Kong becoming a "[[Special administrative region (People's Republic of China)|special administrative region]]" of China in 1997, subject to various conditions intended to guarantee the preservation of Hong Kong's capitalist economy and its way of life under British rule for at least [[Hong Kong Basic Law|50 years after the handover]]. [[George Town, Cayman Islands|George Town]] in the [[Cayman Islands]] has consequently become the largest city in the Overseas Territories.
In 2002, the British Parliament passed the [[British Overseas Territories Act 2002]]. This reclassified the UK's dependent territories as ''overseas territories'' and, with the exception of those people solely connected with the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus, restored full British citizenship to their inhabitants.<ref>''[http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2002/ukpga_20020008_en_1 British Overseas Territories Act 2002]'' (text online): S. 3: "Any person who, immediately before the commencement of this section, is a British overseas territories citizen shall, on the commencement of this section, become a British citizen."</ref>
== Government ==
[[File:McKeeva Bush, Premier of the Cayman Islands 2.jpg|thumb|[[McKeeva Bush]], Premier of the [[Cayman Islands]] in 2012]]
=== Head of state ===
{{Unreferenced section|date=February 2011}}
The head of state in the overseas territories is the British monarch, Elizabeth II. The Queen's role in the territories is in her role as Queen of the United Kingdom, and not in right of each territory.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} The Queen appoints a representative in each territory to exercise her executive power. In territories with a permanent population, a Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the British Government. Currently (2019) all but two Governors are either career diplomats or have worked in other Civil Service departments. The remaining two Governors are former members of the British armed forces. In territories without a permanent population, a Commissioner is usually appointed to represent the Queen. Exceptionally, in the oversea territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, an Administrator is appointed to be the Governor's representative in each of the two distant parts of the territory, namely [[Ascension Island]] and [[Tristan da Cunha]].
The role of the Governor is to act as the ''de facto'' [[head of state]], and they are usually responsible for appointing the head of government, and senior political positions in the territory. The Governor is also responsible for liaising with the UK Government, and carrying out any ceremonial duties. A Commissioner has the same powers as a Governor, but also acts as the head of government.{{citation needed|date=February 2014}}
===Local government===
{{Main|List of current heads of government in the United Kingdom and dependencies#Overseas Territories}}
{{see also|List of leaders of dependent territories}}
All the overseas territories have their own system of government, and localised laws. The structure of the government appears to be closely correlated to the size and political development of the territory.{{Citation needed|date=November 2009}}
{| class="wikitable"
* [[British Antarctic Territory]]
* [[South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands]]
|| There is no native or permanent population; therefore there is no elected government. The Commissioner, supported by an Administrator, run the affairs of the territory.
* [[British Indian Ocean Territory|British&nbsp;Indian&nbsp;Ocean&nbsp;Territory]]
|| There is no elected government, as there is no native settled population. The [[Chagossians|Chagos Islanders]] – who were forcibly [[Expulsion of the Chagossians| evicted]] from the territory in 1971 – won a [[High Court of Justice|High Court]] Judgement allowing them to return, but this was then overridden by an [[Order in Council]] preventing them from returning. The final appeal to the [[Judicial functions of the House of Lords|House of Lords]] (regarding the lawfulness of the Order in Council) was decided in the government's favour, exhausting the islanders' legal options in the United Kingdom at present.
* [[Akrotiri and Dhekelia]]
|| There is no elected government. The Commander British Forces Cyprus acts as the territory's Administrator, with a Chief Officer responsible for day-to-day running of the civil government. As far as possible, there is convergence of laws{{Clarify|reason=Convergence is dynamic, but this is probably meant to refer to a static condition. Should this read "... the laws are consistent with those of the Republic of Cyprus" or "... the laws are written to conform with those of the Republic of Cyprus"?|date=April 2017}} with those of the Republic of Cyprus.
* [[Pitcairn Islands]]
|| There are an elected [[List of rulers of the Pitcairn Islands|Mayor]] and [[Island Council (Pitcairn)|Island Council]], who have the power to propose and administer local legislation. However, their decisions are subject to approval by the Governor, who retains near-unlimited powers of plenary legislation on behalf of the United Kingdom Government.
* [[Falkland Islands]]
|| The Government consists of an elected [[Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands|Legislative Assembly]], with the [[Chief Executive of the Falkland Islands|Chief Executive]] and the Director of Corporate Resources as ''[[ex officio]]'' members.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.falklands.gov.fk/assembly/ |title=Falkland Islands Legislative Assembly |publisher=Falklands.gov.fk |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
* [[Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha]]
|| The Government consists of an elected Legislative Council. The Governor is the head of government and leads the Executive Council, consisting of appointed members made up from the Legislative Council and two ''ex-officio'' members. Governance on Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha is led by Administrators who are advised by elected Island Councils.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2009/plain/uksi_20091751_en#sch1-pt3-ch5-l1g165 |title=Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009 (at OPSI) |publisher=Opsi.gov.uk |date=16 July 2010 |accessdate=8 December 2010}}</ref>
* [[Anguilla]]
* [[British Virgin Islands]]
* [[Cayman Islands]]
* [[Montserrat]]
|| These territories have a House of Assembly, Legislative Assembly (Cayman Islands and Montserrat), with political parties. The Executive Council is usually called a cabinet and is led by a [[Premier]] or a [[Chief Minister]] (in Anguilla), who is the leader of the majority party in parliament. The Governor exercises less power over local affairs and deals mostly with foreign affairs and economic issues, while the elected government controls most "domestic" concerns.{{Citation needed|date=October 2009}}
* [[Gibraltar]]
|| Under the [[Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006]] which was approved in Gibraltar by [[Gibraltarian constitutional referendum, 2006|a referendum]], Gibraltar now has a [[Gibraltar Parliament|Parliament]]. The [[Government of Gibraltar]], headed by the [[Chief Minister of Gibraltar|Chief Minister]], is elected. Defence, external affairs and internal security vest in the [[Governor of Gibraltar|Governor]].<ref>[http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/133-2007.pdf Press Release No. 133/2007]  {{webarchive|url=https://www.webcitation.org/5nmRM0aFO?url=http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/133-2007.pdf |date=24 February 2010 }}. Government of Gibraltar Press Office.</ref>
* [[Bermuda]]
|| Bermuda, settled in 1609, and self-governed since 1620, is the oldest and most populous of the Overseas Territories. The bicameral [[Parliament of Bermuda|Parliament]] consists of a [[Senate of Bermuda|Senate]] and a [[House of Assembly of Bermuda|House of Assembly]], and most executive powers have been devolved to the head of government, known as the [[List of Premiers of Bermuda|Premier]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://parliament.bm/about/view/12|title=Bermuda Parliament|website=parliament.bm}}</ref>
* [[Turks and Caicos Islands]]
||The Turks and Caicos Islands adopted a new constitution effective 9 August 2006; their head of government now also has the title [[Premier of the Turks and Caicos Islands|Premier]], their legislature is called the House of Assembly, and their autonomy has been greatly increased.{{Citation needed|date=October 2009}}
===Legal system===
{{Infobox legislature
| name              = British Overseas Territories Joint Ministerial Council
| native_name        =
| native_name_lang  =
| legislature        =
| coa_pic            =
| coa_res            = 400px
| house_type        = Dialogue forum
| leader1_type      =
| leader1            =
| party1            =
| election1          =
| leader2_type      =
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| party2            =
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| leader3_type      =
| leader3            =
| party3            =
| election3          =
| members            = 28-30
| voting_system1    = All members elected either as MPs in the UK cabinet or as heads of Government or Ministers in Overseas Territories.
| session_room      =
| session_res        = 250px
| meeting_place      = [[Westminster]], [[London]]
| website            = {{url|https://www.gov.uk/government/topical-events/overseas-territories-joint-ministerial-council}}
| footnotes          =
Each overseas territory has its own legal system independent of the United Kingdom. The legal system is generally based on [[English common law]], with some distinctions for local circumstances. Each territory has its own attorney general, and court system. For the smaller territories, the UK may appoint a UK-based lawyer or judge to work on legal cases. This is particularly important for cases involving serious crimes and where it is impossible to find a jury who will not know the defendant in a small population island.{{Citation needed|date=April 2008}}
The [[Pitcairn sexual assault trial of 2004]] is an example of how the UK may choose to provide the legal framework for particular cases where the territory cannot do so alone.
===Joint Ministerial Council===
A joint ministerial council of UK ministers, and the leaders of the Overseas Territories has been held annually since 2012 to provide representation between UK Government departments and Overseas Territory Governments.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/overseas-territories-joint-ministerial-council-2015-communique|title=Overseas Territories Joint Ministerial Council 2015 Communique and Progress Report - Publications - GOV.UK|publisher=|accessdate=15 September 2016}}</ref>
== Relations with the United Kingdom ==
[[File:British_Overseas_Territories_Joint_Ministerial_Council_with_Cameron.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Leaders of the Overseas Territories with former Prime Minister [[David Cameron]] in 2012.]]
[[File:Tristanfromspace.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|[[Tristan da Cunha]] on 6 February 2013, as seen from space. The population was temporarily evacuated to the UK in 1961 because of an eruption. Postal code TDCU 1ZZ]]
[[File:Little Bay Montserrat.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Coastline at Little Bay, the site of the new capital of Montserrat replacing [[Plymouth, Montserrat|Plymouth]]. The project is funded by the<ref>{{cite web|url=http://projects.dfid.gov.uk/project.aspx?Project=113987 |title=Little Bay Development |publisher=Projects.dfid.gov.uk |date= |accessdate=28 April 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130425143223/http://projects.dfid.gov.uk/project.aspx?Project=113987 |archivedate=25 April 2013 |df=dmy }}</ref> UK's [[Department for International Development]].]]
[[File:British Overseas Territories (at the same geographic scale).svg|thumb|British Overseas Territories at the same geographic scale as the UK.]]
Historically the [[Secretary of State for the Colonies]] and the [[Colonial Office]] were responsible for overseeing all British Colonies, but today the [[Foreign and Commonwealth Office]] (FCO) has the responsibility of looking after the interests of all overseas territories except the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which comes under the jurisdiction of the [[Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)|Ministry of Defence]].<ref>''British Overseas Territories Law'', Ian Hendry and Susan Dickson, Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2011, p. 340</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.sba.mod.uk/web_pages/admin_background.htm | title = Sovereign Base Areas, Background | accessdate =7 October 2011 | publisher = Sovereign Base Areas, Cyprus}}</ref> Within the FCO, the general responsibility for the territories is handled by the Overseas Territories Directorate.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/about-us/what-we-do/overseas-territories|title=UK Overseas Territories|publisher=}}</ref>
In 2012, the FCO published ''The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability'' which set out Britain's policy for the Overseas Territories, covering six main areas:<ref>{{cite web|title=The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability|url=https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/14929/ot-wp-0612.pdf|publisher=Foreign & Commonwealth Office|accessdate=15 November 2014|date=28 June 2012}}</ref>
* Defence, security and safety of the territories and their people
* Successful and resilient economies
* Cherishing the environment
* Making government work better
* Vibrant and flourishing communities
* Productive links with the wider world
Britain and the overseas territories do not have diplomatic representations, although the governments of the overseas territories with indigenous populations all retain a representative office in London. The United Kingdom Overseas Territories Association (UKOTA) also represents the interests of the territories in London. The governments in both London and territories occasionally meet to mitigate or resolve disagreements over the process of governance in the territories and levels of autonomy.<ref>[http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/news-15149--28-28--.html British financial officials in the region for talks with dependent territories] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090325090541/http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/news-15149--28-28--.html |date=25 March 2009 }} – By Oscar Ramjeet, CaribbeanNetNews, (Published on Saturday, 21 March 2009)</ref>
Britain provides financial assistance to the overseas territories via the [[Department for International Development]]. Currently{{When|date=November 2010}} only Montserrat and Saint Helena receive budgetary aid (i.e. financial contribution to recurrent funding).{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} Several specialist funds are made available by the UK, including:
* The Good Government Fund which provides assistance on government administration;
* The Economic Diversification Programme Budget which aim to diversify and enhance the economic bases of the territories.
The territories have no official representation in the UK Parliament, but have informal representation through the All-Party Parliamentary Group,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.mercopress.com/2012/01/26/mp-proposes-british-overseas-territories-be-represented-in-westminster |title=MP proposes British Overseas Territories be represented in Westminster – MercoPress |publisher=En.mercopress.com |date= |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref> and can [[epetition|petition]] the UK Government through the [[Directgov]] e-Petitions website.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://epetitions.direct.gov.uk/ |title=HM Government e-petitions |publisher=Epetitions.direct.gov.uk |date= |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref> Only [[Gibraltar]] has representation in the [[European Parliament]] and it shares its Member with the region of [[South West England (European Parliament constituency)|South West England]].
Two national parties, [[UKIP]] and the [[Liberal Democrats (UK)|Liberal Democrats]], have endorsed calls for direct representation of overseas territories in the UK Parliament, as well as backbench members of the [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservative Party]] and [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour Party]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.gibraltarolivepress.com/2017/05/18/lib-dems-create-mp-gibraltar/|title=Lib Dems would create an MP for Gibraltar|date=18 May 2017|work=Gibraltar News Olive Press}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-04/06/c_136185390.htm|title=UKIP leader defends call for Gibraltar to become part of Britain - Xinhua - English.news.cn|website=news.xinhuanet.com}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gibraltarpanorama.gi/15209/188427/a/spain-must-treat-gibraltar-as-an-equal-part-of-the-british-family-says-rosindell|title=Spain must treat Gibraltar as an equal part of the British family, says Rosindell|website=www.gibraltarpanorama.gi}}{{Dead link|date=December 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.gibinwestminster.com/|title=gibraltar|website=gibraltar}}</ref>
=== Foreign affairs ===
{{See also|Special member state territories and the European Union}}
[[File:BritishAntarcticTerritory.svg|thumb|Map showing the portion of [[Antarctica]] claimed by the UK as [[British Antarctic Territory]].]]
[[File:Gibraltar aerial view looking northwest.jpg|thumb|right|Gibraltar is the only overseas territory included in the European Union]]
Foreign affairs of the overseas territories are handled by the FCO in London. Some territories maintain diplomatic officers in nearby countries for trade and immigration purposes. Several of the territories in the Americas maintain membership within the [[Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States]], the [[Caribbean Community]], the [[Caribbean Development Bank]], [[Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency]], and the [[Association of Caribbean States]]. The territories are members of the [[Commonwealth of Nations]] through the United Kingdom. The inhabited territories compete in their own right at the [[Commonwealth Games]], and three of the territories ([[Bermuda]], the [[Cayman Islands]] and the [[British Virgin Islands]]) sent teams to the [[2008 Summer Olympics]].
[[Gibraltar]] is the only overseas territory that is part of the [[European Union]] (EU), although it is not part of the European Customs Union, the European Tax Policy, the European Statistics Zone or the Common Agriculture Policy. Gibraltar is not a member of the European Union in its own right. The Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus are not part of the European Union, but they are the only British overseas territory to use the euro as official currency. None of the other Overseas Territories are members of the EU, the main body of EU law does not apply and, although certain slices of EU law are applied to those territories as part of the EU's Association of [[Overseas Countries and Territories]] (OCT Association), they are not commonly enforceable in local courts. The OCT Association also provides overseas territories with structural funding for regeneration projects.
Since the return of full [[British nationality law|British citizenship]]<ref>[http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2002/8/crossheading/british-citizenship] ''Any person who, immediately before the commencement of this section, is a British overseas territories citizen shall, on the commencement of this section, become a British citizen.''</ref> to most 'belongers' of overseas territories (mainly since the [[British Overseas Territories Act 2002]]), the citizens of those territories hold concurrent European Union citizenship, giving them rights of free movement across all EU member states.
Five nations dispute the UK's sovereignty in the following overseas territories:
* [[British Antarctic Territory]]&nbsp;– Territory overlaps Antarctic claims made by [[Chile]] and [[Argentina]]
* [[British Indian Ocean Territory]]&nbsp;– claimed by [[Mauritius]] and [[Seychelles]]
* [[Falkland Islands]]&nbsp;– claimed by [[Argentina]]
* [[Gibraltar]]&nbsp;– claimed by Spain
* [[South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands]]&nbsp;– claimed by [[Argentina]]
=== Citizenship ===
{{Main|British Overseas Territories citizen}}
None of the overseas territories has its own nationality status, and most residents hold two forms of [[British nationality]]: [[British Overseas Territories citizen]]ship (BOTC) and [[British citizenship]]. Only the latter grants the right of abode in a specific country or territory, namely, the United Kingdom proper which includes its three [[Crown Dependencies]]. Individual overseas territories have legislative independence over immigration, and consequently, BOTC status does not automatically grant the right of abode in any of the territories, as it depends on the territory's immigration laws. A territory may issue [[belonger status]] to allow a person to reside in the territory that they have close links with. The governors of the territories may also allow naturalization of non-BOTCs as BOTCs.
[[File:Gibraltar National Day 011 (9719769048) (3).jpg|thumb|Thousands of [[Gibraltarian people|Gibraltarians]] dress in their national colours of red and white during the 2013 [[Gibraltar National Day]] celebrations. Gibraltarians were the only group of overseas territories residents who could apply for full British citizenship without restrictions before 2002.]]
From 1949 to 1983, the nationality status of [[CUKC|Citizenship of UK and Colonies]] (CUKC) was shared by residents of the UK proper and residents of overseas territories, although most residents of overseas territories lost their automatic right to live in the UK after the ratification of [[Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968]] that year unless they were born in the UK proper or had a parent or a grandparent born in the UK.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1968/9/pdfs/ukpga_19680009_en.pdf|title=Section 1 of the 1968 Act|publisher=}}</ref> In 1983, CUKC status of residents of overseas territories without the right of abode in the UK was replaced by British Dependent Territories citizenship (BDTC) in the newly-minted [[British Nationality Act 1981]], a status that does not come with it the right of abode in the UK or any overseas territory. For these residents, registration as full British citizens then required physical residence in the UK proper. There were only two exceptions: Falkland Islanders, who were automatically granted British citizenship and was treated as a part of the UK proper through the enactment of [[British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983]] due to the [[Falklands War]] with Argentina, and Gibraltarians who were given the special entitlement to be registered as British citizens upon request without further conditions because of its individual membership in the [[European Economic Area]] and the [[European Community]].<ref>Section 5 of British Nationality Act 1983</ref>
5 years after the [[handover of Hong Kong]] to China in 1997, the British government amended the 1981 Act to give British citizenship without restrictions to all BDTCs (the status was also renamed BOTC at the same time) except for those solely connected with [[Akrotiri and Dhekelia]] (whose residents already held [[Cypriot citizenship]]).<ref>[[British Overseas Territories Act 2002]]</ref>. This restored the right of abode in the UK to residents of overseas territories after a 34-year hiatus from 1968 to 2002.
=== Military ===
[[File:Mount Pleasant Airport - Donald Morrison.jpg|thumb|right|[[RAF Mount Pleasant]], Falkland Islands]]
Defence of the Overseas Territories is the responsibility of the UK. Many of the overseas territories are used as military bases by the UK and its allies.
* [[Ascension Island]] (part of [[Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha]]) – the Base known as [[RAF Ascension Island]] is used by both the [[Royal Air Force]] and the [[United States Air Force]].
* [[Bermuda]]&nbsp;– became the primary [[Royal Navy]] base in North America, following US independence. The Naval establishment included an admiralty, a [[Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda|dockyard]], and a naval squadron. A considerable [[Bermuda Garrison|military garrison]] was built up to protect it, and Bermuda, which the British Government came to see as a base, rather than as a colony, was known as ''Fortress Bermuda'', and the ''Gibraltar of the West'' (Bermudians, like Gibraltarians, also dub their territory "The Rock").<ref>[http://www.avalanchepress.com/FortressBermuda.ph Bermuda]{{dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} at avalanchepress.com</ref> Canada and the USA also established bases in Bermuda during the Second World War, which were maintained through the [[Cold War]]. Four air bases were located in Bermuda during the Second World War (operated by the Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, US Navy, and US Army/Army Air Force). Since 1995, the [[Military of Bermuda|military force in Bermuda]] has been reduced to the local [[Territorial Army (United Kingdom)|territorial]] battalion, the [[Royal Bermuda Regiment]].
* [[British Indian Ocean Territory]]&nbsp;– the island of [[Diego Garcia]] is home to a large naval base and airbase leased to the United States by the United Kingdom until 2036 (unless renewed). There are British forces in small numbers in the BIOT for administrative and immigration purposes.
* [[Falkland Islands]] – the [[Military of the Falkland Islands|British Forces Falkland Islands]] includes commitments from the [[British Army]], [[Royal Air Force]] and [[Royal Navy]], along with the [[Falkland Islands Defence Force]].
* [[Gibraltar]] – [[British Forces Gibraltar]] includes a Royal Navy [[Cammell Laird Gibraltar|dockyard]] (also used by [[NATO]]), [[RAF Gibraltar]] – used by the RAF and NATO and a local garrison&nbsp;– the [[Royal Gibraltar Regiment]].
* The Sovereign Base Areas of [[Akrotiri and Dhekelia]] in Cyprus – maintained as strategic British military bases in the eastern [[Mediterranean Sea]].
* [[Montserrat]] – the [[Royal Montserrat Defence Force]], historically connected with the Irish Guards, is a body of twenty volunteers, whose duties are primarily ceremonial.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm83/8374/8374.pdf|title=UK Government White Paper on Overseas Territories, June, 2012. Page 23.|publisher=}}</ref>
== Languages ==
[[File:Gough and Inaccessible Islands-113070.jpg|thumb|[[Cliff]]s at [[Gough and Inaccessible Islands]].]]
Most of the languages other than English spoken in the territories contain a large degree of English, either as a root language, or in [[codeswitching]], e.g. Llanito. They include:
*[[Llanito]] or Yanito and [[Spanish language|Spanish]] ([[Gibraltar]])
*[[Cayman Creole]] ([[Cayman Islands]])
*[[Turks-Caicos Creole]] ([[Turks and Caicos Islands]])
*[[Pitkern]] ([[Pitcairn Islands]])
*[[Greek language|Greek]] and [[Turkish language|Turkish]] ([[Akrotiri and Dhekelia]])
Forms of English:
*[[Bermudian English]] ([[Bermuda]])
*[[Falkland Islands English]]
== Currencies ==
{{Main|List of British currencies}}
The many British overseas territories use a varied assortment of currencies, including the euro, pound, US dollar, NZ dollar, or their own currencies, which may be pegged to one of these.
{| class="wikitable"
!Location!!Native currency!!Issuing authority
* Akrotiri and Dhekelia
[[European Central Bank]]
* British Antarctic Territory
* Tristan da Cunha{{sup|1}}
* South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
'''[[Pound sterling]]'''
[[Bank of England]]
* Falkland Islands
'''[[Falkland Islands pound]]''' <small>(parity with pound sterling)<br>
'''Pound sterling''' (widely circulated and accepted universally)</small>
[[Politics of the Falkland Islands|Government of the Falkland Islands]]
* Gibraltar
'''[[Gibraltar pound]]''' <small>(parity with pound sterling)<br>
'''Pound sterling''' (widely circulated and accepted universally)<br>
'''Euro''' (accepted unofficially in most establishments)</small>
[[Government of Gibraltar]]
* Saint Helena and Ascension Island{{sup|1}}
'''[[Saint Helenian pound]]''' <small>(parity with pound sterling)<br>
'''United States dollar''' (accepted unofficially on Ascension Island)</small>
[[Politics of Saint Helena|Government of Saint Helena]]
* British Virgin Islands
* Turks and Caicos Islands
'''[[United States dollar]]'''<br>
<small>'''[[Bahamian dollar]]''' (accepted unofficially in the Turks and Caicos Islands)</small>
[[Federal Reserve System|US Federal Reserve]]
* Anguilla
* Montserrat
'''[[East Caribbean dollar|Eastern Caribbean dollar]]''' <small>(pegged to US dollar at 2.7ECD=1USD)</small>
[[Eastern Caribbean Central Bank]]
* Bermuda
'''[[Bermudian dollar]]''' <small>(parity with US dollar)<br>
'''United States dollar''' (widely circulated and accepted universally)</small>
[[Bermuda Monetary Authority]]
* Cayman Islands
'''[[Cayman Islands dollar]]''' <small>(pegged to US dollar at 1KYD=1.2USD)</small>
[[Cayman Islands Monetary Authority]]
* Pitcairn Islands
'''[[New Zealand dollar]]'''<br>
<small>'''United States dollar''' (accepted unofficially)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.demtullpitcairn.com/2016JanFebMarch.pdf|title=demtullpitcairn.com|website=www.demtullpitcairn.com|access-date=3 January 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160509141817/http://www.demtullpitcairn.com/2016JanFebMarch.pdf|archive-date=9 May 2016|dead-url=yes|df=dmy-all}}</ref><br>[[Pound sterling]] is also accepted.<ref>Asia and Pacific Review 2003/04 p.245 {{ISBN|1862170398}}</ref><br>'''[[Pitcairn Islands dollar]]''' (parity with New Zealand dollar; commemorative issue only)</small>
[[Reserve Bank of New Zealand]]
* British Indian Ocean Territory
'''United States dollar''' <small>(''de facto'')</small><ref>[http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/asia-oceania/british-indian-ocean-territory?profile=all FCO country profile] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100610203832/http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/asia-oceania/british-indian-ocean-territory?profile=all |date=10 June 2010 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/io.html|title=The World Factbook|publisher=}}</ref><br>
'''Pound sterling''' <small>(''de jure'')</small><ref>{{cite web|url=http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/asia/british-indian-ocean-territory/currency-british-indian-ocean-territory/index.htm |title=British Indian Ocean Territory Currency |publisher=Wwp.greenwichmeantime.com |date=6 March 2013 |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref><ref>Commemorative UK Pounds and Stamps issued in GBP have been issued.  Source:[http://www.joelscoins.com/oops.htm], [http://www.biotpostoffice.com/index.asp]</ref>
US Federal Reserve<br>
Bank of England
{{sup|1}} Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
== Symbols and insignia ==
[[File:Overseas Territories flags (8958664223).jpg|thumb|Overseas Territories flags in Parliament Square in 2013]]
Each overseas territory has been granted its own flag and coat of arms by the British monarch. Traditionally, the flags follow the [[Blue Ensign]] design, with the [[Union Flag]] in the [[flag terminology|canton]], and the territory's coat of arms in the fly. Exceptions to this are Bermuda which uses a [[Red Ensign]]; British Antarctic Territory which uses a [[White Ensign]]; British Indian Ocean Territory which uses a Blue Ensign with wavy lines to symbolise the sea; and Gibraltar which uses a banner of its [[Coat of arms of Gibraltar|coat of arms]] (the [[Flag of Gibraltar|flag of the city of Gibraltar]]).
Akrotiri and Dhekelia and [[Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha]] are the only British overseas territories without their own flag. The [[Union Flag]] is used in these territories.
== Sports ==
[[Bermuda]], the [[British Virgin Islands]] and the [[Cayman Islands]] are the only British Overseas Territories with recognised [[National Olympic Committee]]s (NOCs); the [[British Olympic Association]] is recognised as the appropriate NOC for athletes from the other territories, and thus athletes who hold a British passport are eligible to represent Great Britain at the Olympic Games.<ref>[https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201012/cmselect/cmfaff/writev/overseas/overseas.pdf Overseas Territories]. House of Commons Foreign Affairs Select Committee.</ref>
[[Shara Proctor]] from [[Anguilla]], [[Delano Williams]] from the [[Turks and Caicos Islands]], [[Jenaya Wade-Fray]] from Bermuda<ref>{{cite web|author=Stephen Wright |url=http://www.royalgazette.com/article/20120728/SPORT21/707289987 |title=Representing Britain...and Bermuda &#124; Bermuda Olympics 2012 |publisher=Royalgazette.com |date=28 July 2012 |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref> and [[Georgina Cassar]] from [[Gibraltar]] strived to represent [[Team GB]] at the [[London 2012 Olympics]]. Proctor, Wade-Fray and Cassar qualified for Team GB, with Williams missing the cut, however wishing to represent the UK in 2016.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fptci.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3692:williams-olympic-hopes-on-hold-for-4-more-years&catid=27:community&Itemid=71 |title=Williams' Olympic hopes on hold for 4 more years |publisher=Fptci.com |date=29 June 2012 |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Purnell |first=Gareth |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/sport/olympics/news/at-last-phillips-idowu-tracked-down-in-team-gb-photo-7979737.html |title=At last! Phillips Idowu tracked down... in Team GB photo – Olympic News|work=The Independent |date=27 July 2012 |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref>
The [[Gibraltar national football team]] was accepted into [[UEFA]] in 2013 in time for the 2016 European Championships. It has been accepted by [[FIFA]] and went into the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying, where they achieved 0 points.
== Biodiversity ==
{{BOT UNESCO World Heritage Sites image map|right|frame|}}
The British Overseas Territories have more biodiversity than the entire UK mainland.<ref name="ukotcf.org">{{cite web|url=http://www.ukotcf.org/about/biodiversity.htm |title=About the Biodiversity of the UK Overseas Territories |publisher=UKOTCF |date= |accessdate=17 June 2016}}</ref> There are at least 180 [[Endemism|endemic plant species]] in the overseas territories as opposed to only 12 on the UK mainland.  Responsibility for protection of biodiversity and meeting obligations under international environmental conventions is shared between the UK Government and the local governments of the territories.<ref name="kew.org">{{cite web |url=http://www.kew.org/science/ukots/Pages/biodiv.htm |title=Science: UK Overseas Territories: Biodiversity |publisher=Kew |date= |accessdate=28 April 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130502221314/http://www.kew.org/science/ukots/Pages/biodiv.htm |archivedate=2 May 2013 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
Two areas, [[Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands)|Henderson Island]] in the [[Pitcairn Islands]] as well as the [[Gough and Inaccessible Islands]] of [[Tristan Da Cunha]] are listed as [[UNESCO World Heritage Site]]s, and two other territories, the [[Turks and Caicos Islands]], and [[Saint Helena]] are on the United Kingdom's tentative list for future [[UNESCO World Heritage Site]]s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5682/ |title=Turks and Caicos Islands – UNESCO World Heritage Centre |publisher=Whc.unesco.org |date=27 January 2012 |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5675/ |title=Island of St Helena – UNESCO World Heritage Centre |publisher=Whc.unesco.org |date=27 January 2012 |accessdate=28 April 2013}}</ref> Gibraltar's [[Gorham's Cave]] Complex is also found on the UK's tentative UNESCO World Heritage Site list.<ref>{{cite web|title=Gorham's Cave Complex|url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5674/|website=UNESCO|publisher=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|accessdate=30 June 2016|date=27 January 2012}}</ref>
The three regions of biodiversity hotspots situated in the British Overseas Territories are the [[Caribbean]] Islands, the [[Mediterranean Basin]] and the [[Oceania ecozone]] in the Pacific.<ref name="kew.org"/>
The UK created the largest continuous [[marine protected area]]s in the world, the [[Chagos Marine Protected Area]], and announced in 2015 funding to establish a new, larger, reserve around the Pitcairn Islands.<ref>{{cite news|title=World's Largest Single Marine Reserve Created in Pacific|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/03/150318-pitcairn-marine-reserve-protected-area-ocean-conservation/|accessdate=19 March 2015|work=National Geographic|publisher=World's Largest Single Marine Reserve Created in Pacific|date=18 March 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Pitcairn Islands get huge marine reserve|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-31943633|accessdate=19 March 2015|publisher=BBC|date=18 March 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Pitcairn Islands to get world's largest single marine reserve|url=https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/mar/18/pitcairn-islands-marine-reserve-budget-2015|accessdate=19 March 2015|work=The Guardian|location=London|date=18 March 2015}}</ref>
In January 2016, the UK government announced the intention to create a marine protected area around [[Ascension Island]]. The protected area would be 234,291 square kilometers, half of which would be closed to fishing.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-35216313|title=Ascension Island to become marine reserve|date=3 January 2016|accessdate=3 January 2016}}</ref>
<gallery widths="200px" heights="150px">
File:Stoplight Parrotfish.jpg|A [[Stoplight Parrotfish]] in Princess Alexandra Land and Sea National Park, [[Providenciales]], [[Turks and Caicos Islands]]
File:South Georgia Photo by Sascha Grabow.jpg|[[Penguins]] in [[South Georgia Island|South Georgia]], 2010.
File:Henderson.JPG|[[Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands)|Henderson Island]] in the [[Pitcairn Islands]]
File:Rothera from reptile.jpg|[[Rothera Research Station]].
== See also ==
* [[Depopulation of Chagossians from the Chagos Archipelago]] to enable building of a UK-US military base in the [[British Indian Ocean Territory]]
* [[Postcodes in the United Kingdom#Overseas territories|List of postcodes]]
* [[List of current heads of government in the United Kingdom and dependencies#Overseas Territories|List of leaders of Overseas Territories]]
* [[List of British Army installations]]
* [[British overseas territory citizens in the mainland United Kingdom]]
* [[War Department (UK)|Colonial Department]]
* [[Secretary of State for the Colonies]]
* [[Colonial Office]]
* [[List of universities in British Overseas Territories|Universities in British Overseas Territories]]
* [[United Kingdom Overseas Territories Association]] (UKOTA)
* [[UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum]]
* [[List of stock exchanges in the United Kingdom, the British Crown Dependencies and United Kingdom Overseas Territories]]
* [[Tax haven#Tax haven lists|Tax haven lists]]
== References ==
== Further reading ==
* Charles Cawley. ''Colonies in Conflict: The History of the British Overseas Territories'' (2015) 444pp
* Harry Ritchie, ''The Last Pink Bits: Travels Through the Remnants of the British Empire'' (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1997)
* [[Simon Winchester]], ''[[Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire]]'' (London & New York, 1985)
* George Drower, ''Britain's Dependent Territories'' (Dartmouth, 1992)
* George Drower, ''Overseas Territories Handbook'' (London: TSO, 1998)
* Ian Hendry and Susan Dickson, "British Overseas Territories Law" (London: Hart Publishing, 2011)
* [[Ben Fogle]], ''The Teatime Islands: Adventures in Britain's Faraway Outposts'' (London: Michael Joseph, 2003)
* {{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=kesL--n3YN4C&pg=PA58|author=Bonham C. Richardson|title=The Caribbean in the Wider World, 1492–1992|publisher=Cambridge University Press|date=16 January 1992|accessdate=8 December 2010}}

Revision as of 23:22, 1 May 2019

Ikonian Overseas Territories
Flag of Ikonian Overseas Territories
Largest settlementsDuclos
Official languageEnglish
DemonymIkonian, Ikonian Islander
• Monarch
Cameron I
Aidan Mcgrath
• Minister of State
Luis Sanchez
• 2019 estimate
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)

The Ikonian Overseas Territories (IKOTs) or Ikonian Kingdoms Overseas Territories (IKKOTs) are 1 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the Kingdom of Ikonia. There are 1 Overseas Territories which retain a constitutional link with the UK. .... Most of the Territories are largely self-governing

Current overseas territories

The one Ikonian Overseas Territories are:

Flag Arms Name Location Motto Area Population Capital
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Cyprus, Mediterranean Sea
Overall 1,727,570 km2 c. 250,000