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|Spoken in|| Empire of Austenasia|
|Language family||Constructed language|
|Language source||Note: the language is partly a priori.|
|Language type||Artistic language|
|Writing system||Dazhódyy Latin alphabet|
|Official language in||nowhere|
|Regulated by||HG Lord Karanys Dómynus|
|ISO 639 codes||TBA|
The Dazhódyy language (Dazhódyy: Dazhódyylóng) is a constructed language created by Lord Karanys Dómynus of the Empire of Austenasia. The current version was made to be the language of the Dazhódyy people, and has become a key part of Dazhódyy culture and identity. The language project initially began in 2011 as a version of the English language known as "Domanglian English". Over the years it was edited and recreated until it evolved into the modern Dazhódyy conlang in 2013. The language is partly a priori and partly a posteriori, being derived from Germanic, Celtic and Italic languages, all Indo-European.
- 1 Writing system
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Stress
- 4 Syntax
- 5 Modifiers
- 6 Gender
- 7 Punctuation
- 8 Affixes
- 9 Grammatical particle markers
- 10 Adpositions
- 11 Articles
- 12 Personal pronouns
- 13 Impersonal pronoun
- 14 Other pronouns
- 15 Polite requests
The Dazhódyy language uses its own alphabet- the Dazhódyy Latin alphabet. The Dazhódyy Latin alphabet is a version of the Latin alphabet, and it is based on the ISO basic Latin alphabet (otherwise known as the English alphabet) and the Old English Latin alphabet. The current version of the writing system, in the modern letter order, was completed on the 10th July 2013 by Lord Karanys Dómynus. Each letter has a name. Here are the names of each letter respectively in the International Phonetic Alphabet: /ɛə̯t/, /iːm/, /æɬ/, /kɛə̯/, /diː/, /ɔf/ / /ɔθ/, /tɐɣ/, /ˈhiːmɔn/, /kɪ/, /zæɫk/, /mɛ̝t/, /wøːv/, /nɐʒ/, /kæd͡z/, /ɔs/, /ɹɪd/, /tɑ̃k/, /søːn/, /ɪç/, /ɹiːd/, /ɐz/, /ɯ̽ɫ/, /d͡zɑːv/, /wɪn/, /jɐɫ/, /zɪd/ and /ɑːt͡s/.
The lower case is used in the Dazhódyy tounge for nearly everything. The upper case is only used for the first letter of each verb, noun (excluding verbs and nouns that go by the rule in this link) and first word of sentences. The upper case is also used for every letter of initialisms and for all Dazhódyy numerals.
The Dazhódyy numerals mentioned above are capital letters from the Dazhódyy Latin alphabet also shown above. The Dazhódyy numeral system was invented by Karanys Dómynus on the 15th September 2013. Unlike in other languages, these symbols are always used to represent numbers - there are no Dazhódyy long-word forms of numbers such as the English thirty-two. Thus, these symbols can be considered to be actual words. The basic Dazhódyy numerals are shown below.
|Basic Dazhódyy numerals|
As you can see, the Dazhódyy numeral system is duodecimal (twelve is its radix). You would say XD (12) in the Dazhódyy tongue as "/ɑːt͡s/ ónu /diː/", literally "X and D"/"1 and 0", aka. "1 dozen and 0 units". One gross (144 in the decimal system) in the Dazhódyy language is pronounced "/ɑːt͡s/ ónu /diː/ /ɑːt͡s/ ónu /diː/kyh" ("twelve twelves", literally "1 and 0 1 and 0s", or "1 dozen and 0 units 1 dozen and 0 unitses"). Although being pronounced in the Dazhódyy language as "X and D and X and D" it is still spelt "XDD". One great gross (1728 in the decimal system) in the Dazhódyy language is pronounced "/ɑːt͡s/ ónu /diː/ /ɑːt͡s/ ónu /diː/ /ɑːt͡s/ ónu /diː/kyh" ("twelve gross", literally "1 and 0 1 and 0 1 and 0s", or "1 dozen and 0 units 1 dozen and 0 units 1 dozen and 0 unitses") and is represented as "XDDD". From this you can see how the rest of the Dazhódyy numerals are written and pronounced.
Dazhódyy phonology and phonetics are derived from the Old English, Modern English, Welsh, Spanish, French and German phonologies and phonetics. Also, the use of gh as the voiced palatal approximant comes from the name of the Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There character called Haigha (with the gh pronounced as the voiced palatal approximant). It should be noted that the grand majority of the phonology and phonetics come from the Modern English language and a priori.
Notice that a few Dazhódyy letters and multigraphs represent more than one sound. For example, "f" may be pronounced as either /f/ or /θ/. How you pronounce a letter/multigraph with multiple methods of pronunciation is entirely up to the speaker. However, a particular letter or multigraph will always have a “more common” way/s of it being pronounced, depending on the word it is used in.
It may be interesting to know that the Dazhódyy language has no bilabial stops, has no voiced velar stop (instead having a voiced velar fricative, a priori), has no voiceless palato-alveolar fricative (instead having a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative- it should be known that the Dazhódyy language's adoption of the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a priori, despite claims that it comes from the Welsh language), and has its own letter for the glottal stop (“x”, which is also used for the glottal stop in the Pirahã language, although this is a coincidence).
As you can see, the Dazhódyy language has an abundance of alveolar consonants and fricatives. When two consonants are placed in a row without a vowel already in-between them then an invisible /ɑ̃/ is pronounced between them. The only occasions where this does not happen is with the consonant combinations ⟨nɹ⟨ and ⟨ɫk⟨ (as long as ⟨ɫk⟨ takes place after a vowel in a word) and with alveolar affricates.
|Plosive||/t/ t, dt /d/ d||/k/ k, ck, q2||/ʔ/ x 4|
|Nasal||/m/ m||/n/ n||/ŋ/ ng5|
|Fricative||/f/ f /v/ v||/θ/ f||/s/ s /z/ z /ɬ/ lsh, sch, x1||/ʒ/ zh||/ç/ c||/ɣ/ g||/h/ h4|
|Approximant||/w/ ƿ4||/ɹ/ r, ŕ3, 4 /ɫ/ l||/j/ ǰ, gh4|
|Trill||/ɾɾ/ r, ŕ4|
|Tap||/ɾ/ r, ŕ4|
|Affricate||/t͡s/ ts, tz /d͡z/ q, dz, ds|
1As the gottal stop (/ʔ/) is not allowed to be used at the very front or end of a word, when "x" (the symbol that usually represents the glottal stop) is at the very front or end of a word then instead of being pronounced /ʔ/, it is pronounced /ɬ/.
2"Q" represents the voiced alveolar affricate when not at the very front or end of a word, but when it is at the very front or end of a word then instead of being pronounced /d͡z/, it is pronounced /k/, as seen here.
3"R" and "ŕ" are usually pronounced /ɾ/ or /ɾɾ/, but when at the front of a word, directly after an /n/, or directly next to /ɑ̃/ they must be pronounced /ɹ/ and when directly next to /ɑː/ they may either be pronounced /ɾ/, /ɾɾ/ or /ɹ/.
4These consonants are not allowed to be at the end of any word.
5This consonant may only be at the very front or very end of a word (or both, as in the word -Ngung, meaning "tea"). If it finds itself in the middle of a word due to something like affixation then it will immediately transform into /n/ (the "ng" thus being replaced by the "n" symbol).
Unless forming a diphthong, vowels may not be next to each other in the Dazhódyy language. They must be separated by consonants (or punctuation marks if at the sides of words). As you can see below, some Dazhódyy vowels are longer than others. A long vowel is likely to be in the first syllable of a word (as the first syllable of a word in multi-syllable words is the one that has lexical stress applied to it in the Dazhódyy tounge) while short vowels tend to be in the cores of words. You may have noticed that the Dazhódyy tounge has only two rounded monophthongs. This is due to Karanys Dómynus' belief that rounded vowels cause wrinkles due to the fact they stretch the skin around your mouth. The two rounded monophthongs that exist are both symbolised by letters that have a ring and an upwards dash ("ó" and "ø"). Although, in truth, this is somewhat of a coincidence, the rings of these letters are now traditionally believed to represent the roundedness of the vowels, while the upward dashes are said to represent voice.
|IPA representation||Name||Dazhódyy letter/multigraph that represents the vowel|
|/iː/||Close front unrounded vowel||yy|
|/ɯː/||Close back unrounded vowel||w1|
|/øː/||Close-mid front rounded vowel||ø, ewŕ|
|/ɛ̝/||Mid front unrounded vowel||e, eh|
|/æ/||Near-open front unrounded vowel||æ, æh|
|/ɪ/||Near-close near-front unrounded vowel||y, yh|
|/ɐ/||Near-open central vowel||u, uh|
|/ɯ̽/||Near-close near-back unrounded vowel||w|
|/ɔ/||Open-mid back rounded vowel||ó|
|/ɑː/||Open back unrounded vowel||a, ah, uhŕ|
|/ɑ̃/||Open back unrounded vowel||no symbol- see this link|
|IPA representation||Dazhódyy letter/multigraph that represents the vowel|
|/aʊ/||æw, aw, au|
1This vowel is only used in the prefixes W and Wn. These are the only occasions where the letter "w" is pronounced in this way (usually, when on its own, it is pronounced /ɯ̽/).
In correct Dazhódyy speak, lexical stress is placed upon the first syllable of every word with more than one syllable in the Dazhódyy language, as mentioned previously. However, in Dazhódyy slang, some multi-syllable'd words may be stressed entirely, while others may not be stressed at all. Words with single syllables are not usually stressed.
The Dazhódyy language is object-subject-verb/object-agent verb (OSV/OAV) a lot of the time. This means that instead of saying something like Ysch'ǰan'fezh'tem'Dalkæh'æd'cad'ǰan'zyy'Lódæh ("I physically harmed the king"), you would say Zyy'Lódæh'ysch'ǰan'fezh'tem'Dalkæh'æd'cad'ǰan ("The king I physically harmed"). When an auxiliary verb is present, however, the entire word order is in reverse - it is verb-subject-object (VSO) instead. So "I can defeat that wicked warrior" in the Dazhódyy language is J̌an'fezh'æd'Radæfeyŕlæh'tem'cad'ǰan'ǰan'fezh'æd'Næwkæh'tem'cad'ysch'ǰan'mnyy'ǰan'fezh'tem'Ræwsæh'æd'cad'ǰan'Kyyguhkæh (literally: "Defeat can I that wicked warrior"). This practice is loosely derived from the German tongue. In Dazhódyy poetry and slang, VSO may be used all the time, even when there is no auxiliary verb present. The subject-object-verb (SOV) system is used for emphasis in the Dazhódyy tongue, and also fills entire Dazhódyy poems.
As well as being an OSV/OAV/VSO/SOV language, the Dazhódyy conlang is also nominative-accusative.
The Dazhódyy language makes relative clauses by transformations. The language only uses two transformations. These are as follows, in English examples: "The hat [that I had put on my head] turned blue" and "That was the car [that someone brought that bicycle and it].
Dazhódyy conditional sentences are handled in a similar way to the way they are handled in the English language and other tongues. Dazhódyy conditional sentences are always written like "I am a prince if you are an emperor", rather than "If you are an emperor, I am a prince". The Dazhódyy equivalent of "then" is never used in these sentences. The Dazhódyy equivalent of "if" is ós, derived from the Welsh os, also meaning "if".
The Dazhódyy tongue lacks the causative.
It may be interesting to know that zyy (meaning "the") is derived from a version of the English "the", Lódæh (meaning "king") is derived from the English "lord", ysch (meaning "I") is derived from the German "ich", ǰan (meaning "did" here) is originally derived from the German "ja", Næwkæh (meaning "can" here) is derived from the English "know", mnyy (meaning "that") is derived from the English nickname Monty, Ræwsæh (meaning "being wicked" here) is derived from the English "gross", Kyyguhkæh (meaning "warrior") is derived from the German "Krieger", and Radæfeyŕlæh (meaning "defeat" here) has a stem (feyŕl) which is derived from the English "fail", showing the defeated one's failure.
It is important to know that the Dazhódyy language has absolutely no adjectives or adverbs. The language gets around this by having an abundance of verbs (especially participles; however, the Dazhódyy tongue has absolutely no dangling participles). Most Dazhódyy modifiers (including participles, and modifying phrases/clauses) are "premodifiers", meaning that they come before what they describe. The only "postpositions" (coming after what they describe) of the conlang are numerals.
Three grammatical genders exist in the Dazhódyy language. There is one gender for vertebrates (such as HRH Prince Richard of Gloucester, elephant shrews, and things that are almost entirely/actually entirely composed of vertebrates, such as Monarchy New Zealand), one for invertebrates (such as porifera and colossal squids), and another for things that are neither vertebrates nor invertebrates (such as fox nut or sofas). However, all nouns that are in the nominative case are subsequently part of the "vertebrate" gender, whether they refer to actual vertebrates or not, all nouns that are in the vocative case are subsequently part of the "invertebrate" gender, whether they refer to actual invertebrates or not, and all nouns that are in the accusative case are subsequently part of the "other" gender, whether they refer to actual non-invertebrates/non-vertebrates or not. You see, the nominative marker and the invertebrate gender suffix, the vocative marker and the vertebrate gender suffix, and the accusative marker and the other gender suffix are one and the same.
Punctuation in the Dazhódyy language generally follows the same rules as the English language. However, there are some major differences between Dazhódyy and English punctuation, those of which are listed below.
Punctuation in questions
The Dazhódyy language uses opening and closing question marks (like other things in the Dazhódyy language, this comes from the Spanish language). It should be noted that there are no spaces after an opening question mark or before a closing question mark in the Dazhódyy language. As well as this, at the start of a question (but not before the opening question mark, so the person/people being asked know that they are being asked a question, is the Dazhódyy word for “question” (Nutey) immediately followed by a colon. This is derived from an informal way of questioning in the English language (for example: “Umm…question: who will finance this project?”). So, the Dazhódyy translation of "Are you a tailor?" is ¿Nutey: Tazhyǰeyŕlónódósæh'dw?.
Apostrophes are used in the Dazhódyy language to separate words (instead of space marks). Apostrophes are not used like this after other marks of punctuation, like colons or full stops, and between Dazhódyy family names and Dazhódyy first names, where spaces are usually used instead. Another instance where apostrophes are not used is in the following rule: if the last word-marker of the final modifying verb of a modified word ends with a consonant (which all do) while the modified word begins with a vowel then the apostrophe between the word-marker and the modified word would be removed and the first letter of the modified word would be transformed from upper to lower case. Although the word-marker and the modified word seem like one word, they are still officially two. An example of this would be in the Dazhódyy J̌an'fezh'tem'Dyynyd'æd'cad'ǰanwnynys, which means "Great Isle" (referring to the island of Great Britain). It contains the words ǰan, fezh, tem, æd and cad (verb-markers, a priori), Dyynyd (verb, other gender, "great" or "being great", its stem, myykyl, is derived from the Icelandic mikill, meaning roughly the same thing) and Wnynys (noun, other gender, "island" or "isle", the ynys part is a loanword from the Welsh language).
Commas in lists
Lists of nouns/verbs in the Dazhódyy language do not include commas. The Dazhódyy words for “and” (óg/ónu/qaƿen/zewŕ) are used instead of these commas. For example, the Dazhódyy translation of "I like guinea pigs, sparrows and potatoes" is J̌an'fezh'tem'Adwmæh'æd'cad'ǰan'Kufyykæhkyh'zewŕ'Tymæhkyh'zewŕ'Cakæhkyh’ysch.
The Dazhódyy language keenly makes use of affixes. Most Dazhódyy affixes are prefixes. As you can see below, there are always two or three affixes with the same purpose- suffixes beginning with vowels/consonants will be attached to words ending with consonants/vowels, and prefixes ending with vowels/consonants will be attached to words beginning with consonants/vowels.
|yy, ø, ewŕ, ah, uhŕ→a
ó, u, uh, w, y, yh, /ɑ̃/, æ, æh, eh→e
|Simulfix||Used on a verb. A marker that shows that the said verb has been transformed into the invertebrate gender due to inflection.|
|k, t, dt, c, ts, tz, d, q, dz, ds→n
m, n, ƿ, ǰ, gh, x, r, ŕ, l, s, z→d
zh, g, h, lsh, sch→v
|Simulfix||Used on a verb. A marker that shows that the said verb has been transformed into the other gender due to inflection.|
|kyh, yh||Suffixes||Added to nouns to form plural nouns, and also to form pluralia tantum. Note: not all plural words use one of these two suffixes, although most do. Derived from the Spanish plural suffix i.|
|lóng, ælóng||Suffixes||Added to words, usually verbs, to form names of languages- the subsequent nouns either being singular or plural, depending on the usage.|
|æh, kæh||Suffixes||Added to nouns. Markers that show that the said nouns are in the nominative case (and thus of the vertebrate gender). These suffixes are also at the back of all non-nominative nouns of the vertebrate gender, and are added to verbs of that noun due to inflection.|
|eh, keh||Suffixes||Added to nouns. Markers that show that the said nouns are in the vocative case (and thus of the invertebrate gender). These suffixes are also at the back of all non-vocative nouns of the invertebrate gender. Derived from the vocative singular suffix e in the Latin munde.|
|æzh, kæzh||Suffixes||Added to nouns. Markers that show that the said nouns are in the dative case.|
|óken, ken||Suffixes||Added to nouns. Markers that show that the said nouns are in the ablative case.|
|yn, kyn||Suffixes||Added to nouns as diminutives.|
|W, Wn||Prefixes||Added to nouns. Markers that shows that the said nouns are in the accusative case (and thus of the other gender). These prefixes are also at the front of all non-accusative nouns of the other gender.|
|Møk, Møky||Prefixes||Added to verb stems to form the imperatives of the said verbs. May also be added to personal pronouns or nouns as cohortative verb-clitics, the equivalents of the English "let".|
|Lshad, Lsha||Prefixes||Added to nouns or pronouns. Prepositions, the equivalents of the English "to" or "for" (in the direction of, and arriving at).|
|Mazh, Mazhæ||Prefixes||Added to verbs, nouns or pronouns. Prepositions, the equivalents of the English "to" (used to indicate purpose).|
|San, Sanæ||Prefixes||Added to nouns or pronouns. Prepositions, the equivalents of the English "to" (used to indicate result of action).|
|Øt, Øten||Prefixes||Added to nouns or pronouns. Prepositions, the equivalents of the English "from" (with the source or provenance of or at; with the origin, starting point or initial reference of or at).|
|Ƿyys, Ƿyyse||Prefixes||Added to nouns or pronouns. Prepositions, the equivalents of the English "from" (with the separation, exclusion or differentiation of).|
|Dahv, Dahvu||Prefixes||Added to nouns or pronouns. Prepositions, the equivalents of the English "in" and "on" (contained/surrounded by; part of; a member of; positioned at the upper surface of, touching from above).|
|Yyfed, Yyfe||Prefixes||Added to verbs. Prepositions, the equivalents of the English "in" (by virtue of; by means of).|
|Cyyl, Cyyly||Prefixes||Added to nouns or pronouns. Prepositions, the equivalents of the English "on" (dealing with the subject of, about, or concerning something; immediately after).|
|Radól, Radó||Prefixes||Added to verb stems to form past tense/past participle verbs. Added to nouns to form verbs meaning “before (in time) the said noun”.|
|Radæl, Radæ||Prefixes||Added to verb stems to form either infinitive verbs or future tense/future participle verbs expressing probable futures.1|
|Ratyl, Raty||Prefixes||Added to verb stems to form future tense/future participle verbs expressing unlikely futures.|
|Raqyn, Raqy||Prefixes||Added to verb stems to form nouns meaning “the action/result of the said verbs”.|
|Tazhyl, Tazhy||Prefixes||Added to verb stems to form agent nouns meaning “a person or thing that does an action indicated by the said verb”.|
|Newŕtyl, Newŕ||Prefixes||Added to nouns to form nouns meaning “the condition/state/quality of being the thing or being in the role denoted by the word that has been affixed”.|
|Lamwl, Lamw||Prefixes||Added to words to form nouns meaning a follower of what those words means, like "artist" or "socialist" in the English language.|
|Tyynet, Tyyne||Prefixes||Added to verb stems to “reverse/undo them”.|
|Tagel, Tage||Prefixes||Added to words to show agreement with or support for whatever those words mean. Mainly used when communicating with another/others or to get a point across.|
|Nakwng, Nakw||Prefixes||Added to verbs to form verbs meaning "to do the said verbs again".|
|Kalexel, Kalexe||Prefixes||Added to verbs to form verbs meaning "to do the said verbs again".|
|Adæl, Adæ||Prefixes||Added to nouns to form nouns meaning “the former (nouns)”.|
|Nalævyl, Nalævy||Prefixes||Added to verbs to form verbs meaning “(the said verbs) to a great extent”- these prefixes are for emphasis and are optionally used.|
1In the Dazhódyy language, the present tense/present participle is the dictionary form of a word, so this affix needs to be used in order to create the infinitive.
Grammatical particle markers
Some markers are not affixes, but words of their own (grammatical particles). These include the possesive marker vón (derived from the German von), cad and fezh (which are added to the left and right of a verb respectively to show that the said verb is/was/will be a repeated action, or added to the right and left of a verb respectively to show that the said verb is/was/will be a progressive action/an action that is not/was not/will not be a repeated action but a single one), tem and æd (which are added to the left and right of a verb respectively to show that the said verb is indicative, or added to the right and left of a verb respectively to show that the said verb is subjunctive), and ǰan (an affirmative, two added to both sides of a verb [like in the French language] to show that it actually happened/happens/will happen. A lack of this particle means the verb is negative).
The adpositions of the Dazhódyy language are all prepositions.
Articles are used in the Dazhódyy tounge, but they only appear when premodifiers do not. As you can see in the graph below, there are always two articles per gender-&-type of article. It is completely optional which article out of the two the speaker/writer chooses to use (the speaker/writer would normally make his/her decision based on which article is the most verbally/visually aesthetic in the context). Some Dazhódyy articles come from the th-alveolarisation of the English words the, there, this and that, (zyy, zeyŕ, zys and zæt respectively), and this tradition of articles beginning with "z" has spread to form zw. The definite article las is a loanword from the Castilian language. The partitive articles of the Dazhódyy language are derived from the French partitive articles du, des and de la. In fact, the Dazhódyy usage of partitive articles is derived from the French language.
|Definite||zyy, ón||zeyŕ, schaun||las, yyn|
|Partitive||dewŕ, ewŕd||deyluh, yydel||dez, dyyzeh|
|Negative||zys, zw||zæt, deyŕ||ken, ehv|
The Dazhódyy language has forty-one personal pronouns. Apart from formal Dazhódyy personal pronouns, which are derived from French personal pronouns, the Dazhódyy personal pronouns are derived from Germanic personal pronouns.
Apart from third person Dazhódyy singular personal pronouns, which are derived from third person Icelandic singular personal pronouns, Dazhódyy singular personal pronouns are derived from German singular personal pronouns.
Apart from third person Dazhódyy trial personal pronouns and the first person Dazhódyy trial personal pronoun vyd, which are derived from Icelandic plural personal pronouns, Dazhódyy trial personal pronouns are derived from first & second person Old English dual personal pronouns. These trial personal pronouns are the only occurrences in the entire Dazhódyy tongue where the trial grammatical number appears- there is not even a trial affix in the said tongue.
|First person||wngkeyŕ (inclusive)
Plural in the Dazhódyy language includes dual and - if the speaker/writer somehow does not know if the stuff he is referring to is trial or not - trial, as well. Apart from second person Dazhódyy plural personal pronouns, which are derived from second person Old English plural personal pronouns such as ēowiċ (the origin of yyƿytz), and first person exclusive Dazhódyy plural personal pronouns, which are derived from first person Modern English personal pronouns, Dazhódyy plural personal pronouns are derived from German plural personal pronouns.
|First person||wnezewŕ (inclusive)
These are a special set of formal/polite personal pronouns normally used to address/refer to elders and/or superiors. They may be either singular, trial or plural, depending on the usage. Although these pronouns are influenced by the German language, the pronouns themselves are derived from personal pronouns of the French language.
While it has forty-one personal pronouns, the Dazhódyy language has but a single impersonal pronoun- nrek.
As you can see in the table below, the Dazhódyy language doesn't distinguish between place and time in its correlatives. This makes Dazhódyy speakers helpful if you are asking where a show is, for instance, for they will be forced to reply with not only where the show is, but when it is, too. The Dazhódyy language also doesn't distinguish between person and thing. This is due to the large support for animal rights in the Dazhódyy community- it is to make sure that people do not class animals as mere objects in everyday speech, thus instilling the idea of the emancipation of non-human critters into the brains of all Dazhódyy people. Unlike in English, where the interrogative pronouns (marked below as "Query") and the relative pronouns are one and the same and the relative pronouns may be left out of sentences if desired, in the Dazhódyy language the relative pronouns may not be left out and are one and the same with the pronouns labelled "This" below (demonstrative pronouns). All these pronouns are named after important male humans. The six pronouns labelled "Person/thing" are named after Kennedy, William the Fourth, Monty, Tolkien and Charles Lutwidge Dodgson respectively, while the six "Place/time" pronouns are named after Charles Philip Arthur George, Francis Drake, Hardy, Laurel and Jonathan. The six "Way" pronouns are named after Richard the Third, Nelson, Rowling, William Blake and Charles the First respectively. The four "Reason" pronouns are named after Canute, Barry Horne, Clive of India and Brian May.
It is always considered more polite/more formal if one makes indirect orders/requests in the Dazhódyy language. This is akin to how English language-speakers make indirect orders/requests for politeness via asking questions. However, the Dazhódyy language does not avoid the imperative entirely like English-speakers do - this is considered rude in the Dazhódyy tongue; avoiding the imperative is seen as trying to avoid conversation. So, Dazhódyy-speakers still use the imperative while making polite/formal requests, but they use it indirectly. Thus, the polite/formal version of Dez'Wnung'ǰan'cad'æd'Makósón'tem'fezh'ǰan'Ælefedeh ("Drink some of this tea, Alfred") would be J̌an'fezh'æd'Makeydzuy'tem'cad'ǰan'ǰan'cad'æd'Makósón'tem'fezh'ǰan'dez'Wnung'Ælefedeh ("Enjoy drinking some of this tea, Alfred"). Other things that make general speech more formal/polite is the use of larger and more complex words (it may make oneself seem more intelligent), the use of the extra formal/polite personal pronouns, and the avoidance of directly complementing oneself (modesty is deemed honourable in Dazhódyy society).